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Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 15

August 13, 2014

Volume 10, Issue 15

Pages 2965–3193

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      Optics: Large-Field-of-View Wide-Spectrum Artificial Reflecting Superposition Compound Eyes (Small 15/2014) (page 2965)

      Chi-Chieh Huang, Xiudong Wu, Hewei Liu, Bader Aldalali, John A. Rogers and Hongrui Jiang

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470086

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes (RSCEs), inspired by the unique designs of their natural counterparts, possess superior optical features such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view, high acuity to motion and enhanced sensitivity to light unmatched by state of-the-art refraction-based lenses. On page 3050, H. Jiang and team realize a new type of lens that focuses based on reflection on an array of mirror boxes rather than refraction (i.e., through glass in conventional lenses).

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      Foams: Configurable Three-Dimensional Boron Nitride–Carbon Architecture and Its Tunable Electronic Behavior with Stable Thermal Performances (Small 15/2014) (page 2966)

      Manuela Loeblein, Roland Yingjie Tay, Siu Hon Tsang, Wei Beng Ng and Edwin Hang Tong Teo

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470087

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      2D materials (e.g., graphene, h-boron nitride) can be scaled up into freestanding ultralight 3D-foam-like structures for enhancing surface area and mechanical properties. In order to broaden their application field, on page 2992, E. H. T. Teo and colleagues demonstrate the first synthesis of a novel 3D boron-nitride-carbon foam with high and stable thermal conductivity while offering highly tunable electrical and controllable EMI shielding properties. With this, new customizable applications such as electronic packaging and top based thermal interface materials are now possible.

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      Nanoclusters: Virus-Templated Plasmonic Nanoclusters with Icosahedral Symmetry via Directed Self-Assembly (Small 15/2014) (page 3196)

      Jake Fontana, Walter J. Dressick, Jamie Phelps, John E. Johnson, Ronald W. Rendell, Travian Sampson, Banahalli R. Ratna and Carissa M. Soto

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470092

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      C. M. Soto and co-workers report a self-assembly strategy binding gold nanospheres to genetically engineered plant viruses, creating 3D plasmonic nanoclusters with icosahedral symmetry. The approach presented on page 3058 takes advantage of the straightforward production of the viruses and is capable of yielding gram quantities. This technique not only enables the control of the nanoscopic symmetry, tailoring the optical properties, but provides a pathway to develop macroscopic quantities for applications.

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      Masthead: (Small 15/2014)

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470091

  5. Contents

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      Contents: (Small 15/2014) (pages 2967–2974)

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470088

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    1. Controllable Synthesis of Doped Graphene and Its Applications (pages 2975–2991)

      Yunzhou Xue, Bin Wu, Qiaoliang Bao and Yunqi Liu

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400706

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      The modification of graphene electronic structure by doping is one of the most promising ways to tailor its electrical properties and realize various applications. This review provides a broad overview and a comprehensive description of the preparation and applications of doped graphene along with the recent advances. The challenges and future prospects of graphene doping are also discussed.

  7. Communications

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    1. Configurable Three-Dimensional Boron Nitride–Carbon Architecture and Its Tunable Electronic Behavior with Stable Thermal Performances (pages 2992–2999)

      Manuela Loeblein, Roland Yingjie Tay, Siu Hon Tsang, Wei Beng Ng and Edwin Hang Tong Teo

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400292

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      Recent developments of 3D-graphene and 3D-boron-nitride have become of great interest owing to their potential for ultra-light flexible electronics. Here we demonstrate the first synthesis of novel 3D-BNC hybrids. By specifically controlling the compositions of C and BN, new fascinating properties are observed, such as highly tunable electrical conductivity, controllable EMI shielding properties, and stable thermal conductivity. This ultra-light hybrid opens up many new applications such as for electronic packaging and thermal interface materials (TIMs).

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      Superhydrophobic Materials: Fly-Eye Inspired Superhydrophobic Anti-Fogging Inorganic Nanostructures (Small 15/2014) (page 3000)

      Ziqi Sun, Ting Liao, Kesong Liu, Lei Jiang, Jung Ho Kim and Shi Xue Dou

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470089

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      Inspired by the compound eyes of the green bottlefly, superhydrophobic and anti-fogging inorganic nanostructures are fabricated by K. Liu, J.-H. Kim, and colleagues on page 3001. The resultant surface structures can be regulated through the modulation of experimental parameters, demonstrating different wetting behaviors. This approach provides an avenue for the design of superhydrophobic-based anti-fogging materials.

  9. Communications

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    1. Fly-Eye Inspired Superhydrophobic Anti-Fogging Inorganic Nanostructures (pages 3001–3006)

      Ziqi Sun, Ting Liao, Kesong Liu, Lei Jiang, Jung Ho Kim and Shi Xue Dou

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400516

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      Fly-eye bio-inspired inorganic nanostructures are synthesized via a two-step self-assembly approach, which have low contact angle hysteresis and excellent anti-fogging properties, and are promising candidates for anti-freezing/fogging materials to be applied in extreme and hazardous environments.

    2. Virus Templated Gold Nanocube Chain for SERS Nanoprobe (pages 3007–3011)

      Hye-Eun Lee, Hwa Kyoung Lee, Hyejin Chang, Hyo-Yong Ahn, Norov Erdene, Ho-Young Lee, Yoon-Sik Lee, Dae Hong Jeong, Junho Chung and Ki Tae Nam

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400527

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      A M13 virus based SERS nanoprobe is presented. Gold nanocubes closely aligned into chains along the length of the virus intensify Raman signals of various reporter molecules serving as specific labels. An antibody is expressed at one end to detect the analyte. This new SERS nanoprobe holds promise for infinitesimal and multiplexed detection of any antigen.

    3. 3D Bioelectronic Interface: Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells onto Conducting Polymer-Based Micro/Nanorod Arrays with Chemical and Topographical Control (pages 3012–3017)

      Yu-Sheng Hsiao, Shyh-Chyang Luo, Shuang Hou, Bo Zhu, Jun Sekine, Chiung-Wen Kuo, Di-Yen Chueh, Hsiao-hua Yu, Hsian-Rong Tseng and Peilin Chen

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400429

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      The three-dimensional (3D) poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based bioelectronic interfaces (BEIs) with diverse dimensional micro/nanorod array structures, varied surface chemical pro­perties, high electrical conductivity, reversible chemical redox switching, and high optical transparency are used for capturing circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Such 3D PEDOT-based BEIs can function as an efficient clinical diagonstic and therapeutic platform.

    4. Nanoscale Probing the Kinetics of Oriented Bacterial Cell Growth Using Atomic Force Microscopy (pages 3018–3025)

      Peipei Chen, Luping Xu, Jing Liu, Felix J. H. Hol, Juan E. Keymer, François Taddei, Dong Han and Ariel B. Lindner

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303724

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      Probing oriented bacterial cell growth on the nanoscale: A novel open-top micro-channel is developed to facilitate the AFM imaging of physically trapped but freely growing bacteria. The growth curves of individual Escherichia coli cells with nanometer resolution and their kinetic nano-mechanical properties are quantitatively measured.

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      Spatially Selecting a Single Cell for Lysis Using Light-Induced Electric Fields (pages 3026–3031)

      Christian Witte, Clemens Kremer, Mayuree Chanasakulniyom, Julien Reboud, Rab Wilson, Jonathan M. Cooper and Steven L. Neale

      Version of Record online: 9 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400247

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      An optoelectronic tweezing (OET) device, within an integrated microfluidic channel, is used to precisely select single cells for lysis among dense populations. Cells to be lysed are exposed to higher electrical fields than their neighbours by illuminating a photoconductive film underneath them. Using beam spot sizes as low as 2.5 μm, 100% lysis efficiency is reached in <1 min allowing the targeted lysis of cells.

    6. Nanoflakes-Assembled Three-Dimensional Hollow-Porous V2O5 as Lithium Storage Cathodes with High-Rate Capacity (pages 3032–3037)

      Liqiang Mai, Qinyou An, Qiulong Wei, Jiayang Fei, Pengfei Zhang, Xu Xu, Yunlong Zhao, Mengyu Yan, Wen Wen and Lin Xu

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302991

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      Three-dimensional (3D) hollow-porous vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) quasi-microspheres are synthesized by a facile solvothermal method followed by annealing at 450 °C in air. The interconnected hollow-porous networks facilitate the kinetics of lithium-ion diffusion and improve the performance of V2O5 to achieve a high capacity and remarkable rate capability as a cathode material for lithium batteries.

    7. Controllable Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Property of Multilayer Tantalum Nitride Hollow Sphere-Nanofilms (pages 3038–3044)

      Rui Gao, Linfeng Hu, Min Chen and Limin Wu

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303873

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      Multilayer Ta3N5 hollow sphere-nanofilms with precisely tunable numbers of layers are successfully fabricated by the combination of oil-water interfacial self-assembly strategy and the controllable sol-gel reaction of precursors. The photoelectrochemical water splitting properties of the as-obtained Ta3N5 hollow sphere-nanofilms are significantly enhanced and found to be highly dependent on the layer numbers of the nanofilms.

    8. Tunable Organic Hetero-Patterns via Molecule Diffusion Control (pages 3045–3049)

      Hong Wang, Wenchong Wang, Liqiang Li, Michael Hirtz, C. G. Wang, Yue Wang, Zhaoxiong Xie, Harald Fuchs and Lifeng Chi

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303400

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      A simple, scalable method is reported to fabricate ordered hetero-structures of organic materials using template-directed growth. The 3D extension of the structures is firstly determined by pre-pattern size and deposition amount, and can further be in situ tuned by annealing at appropriate temperature.

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    1. Large-Field-of-View Wide-Spectrum Artificial Reflecting Superposition Compound Eyes (pages 3050–3057)

      Chi-Chieh Huang, Xiudong Wu, Hewei Liu, Bader Aldalali, John A. Rogers and Hongrui Jiang

      Version of Record online: 25 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400037

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Artificial reflecting superposition compound eyes (RSCEs), inspired by the unique designs of their natural counterparts, possess superior optical features such as minimum chromatic aberration, wide-angle field of view (FOV), high acuity to motion and enhanced sensitivity to light unmatched by state-of-the-art refraction-based lenses. Our life-sized, wide-angle-FOV artificial RSCE can form high-quality images without any post-imaging processing in the wide visible light spectrum.

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      Virus-Templated Plasmonic Nanoclusters with Icosahedral Symmetry via Directed Self-Assembly (pages 3058–3063)

      Jake Fontana, Walter J. Dressick, Jamie Phelps, John E. Johnson, Ronald W. Rendell, Travian Sampson, Banahalli R. Ratna and Carissa M. Soto

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400470

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      Plasmonic nanoclusters are fabricated by a self-assembly technique. Gold nanoparticles bind to an icosahedral genetically engineered plant virus. Purified samples result in a purple aqueous solution, which spectral characteristics agrees well with 3D finite-element simulations. Transmission electron micrographs confirms the assembly of nanoclusters with well-defined interparticle spacing and icoshahedral symmetry. This mehod has the potential for high-throughput providing a strategy to realize macroscopic quantities for metamaterial applications.

  11. Frontispiece

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      SERS: Pen-on-Paper Approach Toward the Design of Universal Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates (Small 15/2014) (page 3064)

      Lakshminarayana Polavarapu, Andrea La Porta, Sergey M. Novikov, Marc Coronado-Puchau and Luis M. Liz-Marzán

      Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470090

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      A simple, portable and costeffective method for the fabrication of ultrasensitive SERS substrates through “pen-on-paper” approach is presented by Luis M. Liz-Marzán and co-workers on page 3065. Arrays of SERS substrates are created on paper using a fountain pen filled with plasmonic ink made of gold nanospheres, silver nanospheres, or gold nanorods, which can be used at any excitation wavelength. This work is expected to bring SERS closer to the real world.

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    1. Pen-on-Paper Approach Toward the Design of Universal Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates (pages 3065–3071)

      Lakshminarayana Polavarapu, Andrea La Porta, Sergey M. Novikov, Marc Coronado-Puchau and Luis M. Liz-Marzán

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400438

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      A pen-on-paper approach is presented for the fabrication of ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates using a fountain pen filled with plasmonic nanoparticle inks. This method offers a very simple, cost-efficient and portable way of preparation, and it is expected to bring the SERS based sensing a step closer to real world applications.

    2. Nanoparticle-Enabled, Image-Guided Treatment Planning of Target Specific RNAi Therapeutics in an Orthotopic Prostate Cancer Model (pages 3072–3082)

      Qiaoya Lin, Cheng S. Jin, Huang Huang, Lili Ding, Zhihong Zhang, Juan Chen and Gang Zheng

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303842

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      Image-guided treatment planning of target specific RNAi therapeutics by HPPS(NIR)-chol-siRNA. A multimodal theranostic HDL-like nanoparticle is developed for in vivo non-invasive assessment of siRNA accumulation in an orthotopic prostate tumor by tracing the NIR fluorescent surrogate using image co-registration of computed tomography and fluorescence molecular tomography, which provides a useful mean for real-time tracking siRNA delivery, rational dosimetry, and treatment planning for efficacious RNAi therapy.

    3. Stretchable, Wireless Sensors and Functional Substrates for Epidermal Characterization of Sweat (pages 3083–3090)

      Xian Huang, Yuhao Liu, Kaile Chen, Woo-Jung Shin, Ching-Jui Lu, Gil-Woo Kong, Dwipayan Patnaik, Sang-Heon Lee, Jonathan Fajardo Cortes and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400483

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      This paper introduces materials and architectures for ultrathin, stretchable wireless sensors that mount on functional elastomeric substrates for epidermal analysis of biofluids. Experimental results demonstrate volumetric measurement of sweat with high accuracy as well as good stability and low drift. Colorimetric responses to pH and concentrations of various ions demonstrate capabilities relevant to chemical analysis of sweat.

    4. π-Conjugated Polymer–Fullerene Covalent Hybrids via Ambient Conditions Diels–Alder Ligation (pages 3091–3098)

      Basit Yameen, Tanja Puerckhauer, Jens Ludwig, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Ozcan Altintas, Ljiljana Fruk, Alexander Colsmann and Christopher Barner-Kowollik

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303772

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      Fullerene–polythiophene covalent-hybrids are achieved by exploiting the natural ability of pristine carbon nanomaterials to undergo ambient condition Diels–Alder reactions with cyclopentadienyl (Cp) groups. A novel polythiophene with pendant Cp-groups prepared via GRIM polymerization is employed to fabricate these covalent-hybrids that exhibit a higher extent of fluorescence quenching and smoother films with fine lamellar texture compared to physical hybrids.

    5. Designable Luminescence with Quantum Dot–Silver Plasmon Coupler (pages 3099–3109)

      Lian Hu, Huizhen Wu, Bingpo Zhang, Lingxiao Du, Tianning Xu, Yongyue Chen and Yong Zhang

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400094

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      A strongly interacting QDs-Ag plasmon coupler is explored where Ag plays three roles, namely that of support for localized plasmons, the role of mirror, and that of electrode. White-light sources are realized by tuning the surface states of the QDs both during and after the synthesis stage.

    6. Bright Quantum-Dot-Sized Single-Chain Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Application for Specific Extracellular Labeling and Imaging (pages 3110–3118)

      Jie Liu, Guangxue Feng, Rongrong Liu, Nikodem Tomczak, Lin Ma, Gagik G. Gurzadyan and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303505

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      Quantum-dot-sized single-chain conjugated polyelectrolyte nanoparticles are synthesized to show bright orange-red fluorescence with a high quantum yield of ≈26% in water. The obtained nanoparticles are further conjugated with streptavidin to yield PFBD-SA conjugates, which serve as a specific extracellular labeling and imaging probe for EpCAM with high specificity and good photostability.

    7. Sonication-Induced Formation of Size-Controlled Self-Assemblies of Amphiphilic Janus-Type Polymers as Optical Tumor-Imaging Agents (pages 3119–3130)

      Koji Miki, Hiroki Hashimoto, Tatsuhiro Inoue, Hideki Matsuoka, Hiroshi Harada, Masahiro Hiraoka and Kouichi Ohe

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400358

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      Size-controlled self-assemblies of amphiphilic Janus-type polymers, which are synthesized via ROMP and mPEG-grafting, are obtained by ultrasound irradiation. From in vivo optical tumor imaging, it is found that large-size multimicellar aggregates with long blood circulation could slowly accumulate in tumor tissues. In contrast, the tumor site is clearly and rapidly visualized by small-size micelles.

    8. Designing Non-Native Iron-Binding Site on a Protein Cage for Biological Synthesis of Nanoparticles (pages 3131–3138)

      Tao Peng, David Paramelle, Barindra Sana, Chiu Fan Lee and Sierin Lim

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303516

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      An E2 protein cage is functionalized with non-native iron-mineralization capability by incorporating two types of iron-binding peptides. The non-native peptides introduced at the interior surface do not affect the self-assembly of E2 protein subunits. In contrast to the wild-type, the engineered E2 protein cages can serve as size- and shape-constrained reactors for the biosynthesis of iron nanoparticles.

    9. Sub-10-nm Pd Nanosheets with Renal Clearance for Efficient Near-Infrared Photothermal Cancer Therapy (pages 3139–3144)

      Shaoheng Tang, Mei Chen and Nanfeng Zheng

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303631

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      Efficient renal clearance is an important property of nanoparticles for their in vivo biomedical applications. In this work, ultra-small Pd nanosheets (4.4 nm) with renal clearance are synthesized. With surface modification by reduced glutathione, the Pd nanosheets serve as effective photothermal agents with prolonged circulation time in blood and thus high accumulation in tumors. Upon irradiation by a near infrared laser (808 nm), the tumors can be completely ablated. The developed photothermal nanomaterials are small enough to effectively pass through the kidney into urine.

    10. Highly Active Metastable Ruthenium Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Production through the Catalytic Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane (pages 3145–3152)

      Enass K. Abo-Hamed, Timothy Pennycook, Yana Vaynzof, Chris Toprakcioglu, Alexandros Koutsioubas and Oren A. Scherman

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303507

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      Metal nanoparticles are becoming incre­asingly important in a variety of practical applications on account of their unique properties, especially for catalysis. Herein, we report the straightforward preparation of metastable ligand-free ruthenium nanoparticles (RuNPs) in aqueous solution that exhibit an fcc structure and which were found to be particularly active in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane (AB) at room temperature.

    11. Dendritic TiO2/ln2S3/AgInS2 Trilaminar Core–Shell Branched Nanoarrays and the Enhanced Activity for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting (pages 3153–3161)

      Zhifeng Liu, Keying Guo, Jianhua Han, Yajun Li, Ting Cui, Bo Wang, Jing Ya and Cailou Zhou

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400622

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      TiO2/ln2S3/AgInS2 trilaminar core–shell branched nanorod arrays are prepared via SILAR and a hydrothermal method for efficient photoelectrochemical water splitting. The trilaminar architecture is able to suppress carrier recombination and increase electron collection efficiency via increasing the photon absorption through the larger specific surface area and a sensitizer layer (AgInS2), a buffer layer (ln2S3), and better energy level alignment.

    12. Cost-effective Atomic Layer Deposition Synthesis of Pt Nanotube Arrays: Application for High Performance Supercapacitor (pages 3162–3168)

      Liaoyong Wen, Yan Mi, Chengliang Wang, Yaoguo Fang, Fabian Grote, Huaping Zhao, Min Zhou and Yong Lei

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400436

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      A straightforward but highly cost-effective atomic layer deposition process is demonstrated to synthesize pre-defined Pt nanotube arrays. The Pt nanotube arrays are utilized as a superior current collector of core/shell Pt/MnO2 supercapacitors. The cost-effectiveness of the fabrication method together with a high specific capacitance and rate capability make the Pt nanotubes very attractive for the next-generation of supercapacitors.

    13. Nanostructured Titanate with Different Metal Ions on the Surface of Metallic Titanium: A Facile Approach for Regulation of rBMSCs Fate on Titanium Implants (pages 3169–3180)

      Na Ren, Jianhua Li, Jichuan Qiu, Yuanhua Sang, Huaidong Jiang, Robert I. Boughton, Ling Huang, Wei Huang and Hong Liu

      Version of Record online: 6 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303391

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      A titanate nanostructure incorporating Na+, Mg2+, or Ca2+ can be synthesized by a facile method based on a hydrothermal technique and followed by an ion-substitution process. Both Mg2+ and Ca2+ in the titanate nanostructure can enhance the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, compared to titanate nanostructures incorporating Na+.

    14. Hierarchical α-MnO2 Nanowires@Ni1-xMnxOy Nanoflakes Core–Shell Nanostructures for Supercapacitors (pages 3181–3186)

      Hsin-Yi Wang, Fang-Xing Xiao, Le Yu, Bin Liu and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 7 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303836

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      A facile two-step solution-phase method is developed for the prepara­tion of hierarchical α-MnO2 nano­wires@Ni1-xMnxOy nanoflakes core–shell nanostructures. The ultralong one-dimensional (1D) α-MnO2 nanowires in hierarchical core–shell nanostructures offer a stable and efficient backbone for charge transport; while the two-dimensional (2D) Ni1-xMnxOy nanoflakes on α-MnO2 nanowires provide high accessible surface to ions in the electrolyte. These beneficial features enable the electrode with high capacitance and reliable stability.

    15. Thread-like Supercapacitors Based on One-Step Spun Nanocomposite Yarns (pages 3187–3193)

      Qinghai Meng, Kai Wang, Wei Guo, Jin Fang, Zhixiang Wei and Xilin She

      Version of Record online: 14 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303419

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      Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and polyaniline nanowires (PAniNWs) are spun into flexible yarn from a dispersion by a one-step process. Thread-like supercapacitors assembled from this yarn electrode can provide promising energy storage devices for wearable electronics.

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