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Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 5

March 12, 2014

Volume 10, Issue 5

Pages 825–1023

  1. Cover Picture

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    6. Reviews
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      Cell-Handling Materials: Parylene Mobile Microplates Integrated with an Enzymatic Release for Handling of Single Adherent Cells (Small 5/2014) (page 825)

      Tetsuhiko Teshima, Hiroaki Onoe, Kaori Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Hiroka Aonuma, Koki Kamiya, Hirotaka Ishihara, Hirotaka Kanuka and Shoji Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470028

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      A microplate array for culturing, releasing, and manipulating single adherent cells is presented by S. Takeuchi and co-workers on page 912. Single-cell-laden microplates are enzymatically releasable in a batch process without cytotoxicity, enabling the collection and manipulation of targeted cells from a suspension of heterogeneous cells. Importantly, cells remain adherent to the growth substrate throughout the releasing, handling, and collection process. This method can significantly enhance the handling and viability of single adherent cells.

  2. Back Cover

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      Biocatalysis: Biocatalytically Triggered Co-Assembly of Two-Component Core/Shell Nanofibers (Small 5/2014) (page 1028)

      Yousef M. Abul-Haija, Sangita Roy, Pim W. J. M. Frederix, Nadeem Javid, Vineetha Jayawarna and Rein V. Ulijn

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470032

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      A facile supramolecular approach is demonstrated for the formation of functionalized nanofibers by combining the advantages of biocatalytic self-assembly and surfactant/gelator co-assembly. As reported on page 973 by Y. M. Abul-Haija, R. V. Ulijn, and co-workers, this is achieved by enzymatically triggered reconfiguration of free flowing micellar aggregates of pre-gelators and functional surfactants to form nanofibers that incorporate and display the surfactants' functionality at the surface.

  3. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Small 5/2014)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470031

  4. Contents

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      Contents: (Small 5/2014) (pages 827–834)

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470029

  5. Reviews

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    1. Reaction Engineering Strategies for the Production of Inorganic Nanomaterials (pages 835–853)

      Victor Sebastian, Manuel Arruebo and Jesus Santamaria

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301641

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      Sophisticated engineered nanomaterials are nowadays synthesized following non-scalable laboratory batch protocols which represent one of the main limitations for nanotechnology development. These limitations represent a serious challenge to present day synthesis methods when nanomaterials must be produced in large amounts. Some of the possible solutions from the reaction engineering perspective are discussed in this work for both gas and liquid phase production processes.

  6. Frontispiece

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      DNA Nanotubes: Self-Assembly of DNA Nanotubes with Defined Diameters and Lengths (Small 5/2014) (page 854)

      Hang Qian, Cheng Tian, Jinwen Yu, Fei Guo, Ming-Sen Zheng, Wen Jiang, Quan-Feng Dong and Chengde Mao

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470030

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      DNA can be programmed to assemble into various nanostructures. However, it is challenging to assemble DNA nanostructures with well-defined sizes out of a minimal set of DNA strands. One potential approach is to apply structural symmetry to reduce the number of component DNA strands and allow multiple copies of the same components to assemble into nanostructures. As a demonstration, Q.-F. Dong, C. Mao, and co-workers (page 855) use this strategy to assemble a series of DNA nanotubes with different diameters and lengths.

  7. Communications

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    1. Self-Assembly of DNA Nanotubes with Defined Diameters and Lengths (pages 855–858)

      Hang Qian, Cheng Tian, Jinwen Yu, Fei Guo, Ming-Sen Zheng, Wen Jiang, Quan-Feng Dong and Chengde Mao

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301891

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      Nanotubes with different sizes can be readily assembled from simple DNA nanomotifs, which consist of just a few unique DNA sequences. Such structurally well-defi ned DNA-nanotubes will have great potential in many technological applications ranging from drug delivery, to determination of biomacromolecular 3D structures, to nanoplasmonic devices.

    2. pH-Responsive On-Off Motion of a Superhydrophobic Boat: Towards the Design of a Minirobot (pages 859–865)

      Meng Xiao, Xianpeng Guo, Mengjiao Cheng, Guannan Ju, Yajun Zhang and Feng Shi

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302132

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      Combining chemical reactions and stimuli-responsive surfaces as clutch system, a functional cooperating minirobot with on-off locomotion that is responsive to pH changes is fabricated. Its locomotion can be switched on by changing pH value of the solution from 1 to 13, turned off by adjusting the pH back to acidic, and restarted by transforming the solution to basic.

    3. Mass Production of Graphene Quantum Dots by One-Pot Synthesis Directly from Graphite in High Yield (pages 866–870)

      Yonghun Shin, Junghyun Lee, Junghee Yang, Jintaek Park, Keunsik Lee, Sungjin Kim, Younghun Park and Hyoyoung Lee

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302286

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      One of the most efficient and straightforward methods for production of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) could be their direct preparation from graphite powder by one-pot synthesis using high-powered microwave irradiation. It is believed that in this way, graphite can be multiply broken by repeated redox reactions, which leads to a high yield and mass production.

    4. Intracellular Microenvironment Responsive Polymers: A Multiple-stage Transport Platform for High-Performance Gene Delivery (pages 871–877)

      Bingyang Shi, Hu Zhang, Sheng Dai, Xin Du, Jingxiu Bi and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Article first published online: 2 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302430

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      A new strategy for promoting endoplasmic gene delivery and nucleus uptake is proposed by developing intracellular microenvironment responsive biocompatible polymers. This delivery system can efficiently load and self-assemble nucleic acids into nano-structured polyplexes at a neutral pH, release smaller imidazole-gene complexes from the polymer backbones at intracellular endosomal pH, transport nucleic acids into nucleus through intracellular environment responsive multiple-stage gene delivery, thus leading to a high cell transfection efficiency.

    5. Microelectrode Electrochemistry with Semiconducting Microelectrode Chips (pages 878–883)

      Tao Li, Huanli Dong, Xiaolong Fu, Meng He, Yongfang Li and Wenping Hu

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300656

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      Well-defined semiconducting microelectrodes on silicon chips are prepared for new insights into microelectrode electrochemistry. Unique voltammetric features are observed due to a combined effect of enhanced mass transport from microelectrodes and rectifying nature of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The “diffusional independence” of single elements in certain arrays is also carefully studied.

    6. Probing Physical Properties of a DNA-Protein Complex Using Nanofluidic Channels (pages 884–887)

      Karolin Frykholm, Mohammadreza Alizadehheidari, Joachim Fritzsche, Jens Wigenius, Mauro Modesti, Fredrik Persson and Fredrik Westerlund

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302028

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      A method to investigate physical properties of a DNA-protein complex in solution is demonstrated. By using tapered nanochannels and lipid passivation the persistence length of a RecA filament formed on double-stranded DNA is determined to 1.15 μm, in agreement with the literature, without attaching protein or DNA to any handles or surfaces.

    7. Entropically Driven Formation of Ultralong Helical Mesostructured Organosilica Nanofibers (pages 888–894)

      Sheng-Liang Zhong, Lin-Fei Zhang and An-Wu Xu

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300518

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      Ultralong helical organosilica nanofibers (length up to millimeter) with ordered helical mesoporous channels are synthesized using achiral cationic surfactant as single-structure-directing agent and anionic citrate as counterions. The surfactant molecules form micelles for silica condensation and the counterions reduce the polarity of the surfactant-silicate micelles via electrostatic balance, leading to the self-assembly and growth of the final product. The detailed mechanistic shape-shifting studies reveal that an entropy increase is the main driving force behind the plastic deformation of the solids.

    8. Three-Dimensional Molybdenum Sulfide Sponges for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting (pages 895–900)

      Yung-Huang Chang, Feng-Yu Wu, Tzu-Yin Chen, Chang-Lung Hsu, Chang-Hsiao Chen, Ferry Wiryo, Kung-Hwa Wei, Chia-Ying Chiang and Lain-Jong Li

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302407

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      Electroactive MoSx catalysts on porous 3D sponges synthezied by a simple and scalable thermolysis process are proposed. Although no conducting materials are used to host the MoSx catalysts, they still serve as efficient electrodes for hydrogen evolution. The high current density of the MoSx-coated sponges are attributed to the large electrochemical surface area and their S-rich chemical structure.

    9. Targeted Theranostic Nanoparticles: Receptor-Mediated Entry into Cells, pH-Induced Signal Generation and Cytosolic Delivery (pages 901–906)

      Ji Yeon Lee, Doo-Yeol Choi, Mi Young Cho, Kyoung Eun Park, Seon-Ho Lee, Seong Hun Cho, Kwan Soo Hong and Yong Taik Lim

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302136

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      Virus-like theranostic nanoparticles: virus-like poly(amino acid) nanoparticles are synthesized that can be internalized via receptor-mediated endocytosis, resulting in encapsulated pH-activatable fluorescence probes that can be turned on in acidic environments but otherwise remain undetectable. The encapsulated anticancer drugs are also released into cytosol by endosome disruption.

    10. Chemically Induced Magnetism in Atomically Precise Gold Clusters (pages 907–911)

      Katla Sai Krishna, Pilarisetty Tarakeshwar, Vladimiro Mujica and Challa S. S. R. Kumar

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302393

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      Comparative theoretical and experimental investigations are reported into chemically induced magnetism in atomically-precise, ligand-stabilized gold clusters Au25, Au38 and Au55. The results indicate that [Au25(PPh3)10(SC12H25)5Cl2]2+ and Au38(SC12H25)24 are diamagnetic, Au25(SC2H4Ph)18 is paramagnetic, and Au55(PPh3)12Cl6, is ferromagnetic at room temperature. Understanding the magnetic properties resulting from quantum size effects in such atomically precise gold clusters could lead to new fundamental discoveries and applications.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Back Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Reviews
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    1. Parylene Mobile Microplates Integrated with an Enzymatic Release for Handling of Single Adherent Cells (pages 912–921)

      Tetsuhiko Teshima, Hiroaki Onoe, Kaori Kuribayashi-Shigetomi, Hiroka Aonuma, Koki Kamiya, Hirotaka Ishihara, Hirotaka Kanuka and Shoji Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301993

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      A microplate array for culturing, releasing, and manipulating single adherent cells is described. Single-cell-laden microplates are enzymatically releasable in a batch process without cytotoxicity, enabling the collection and manipulation of targeted cells. Cells remain adherent to the growth substrate throughout the manipulation process. This method can significantly enhance the handling and viability of single adherent cells.

    2. High- versus Low-Quality Graphene: A Mechanistic Investigation of Electrografted Diazonium-Based Films for Growth of Polymer Brushes (pages 922–934)

      Mie Lillethorup, Mikkel Kongsfelt, Marcel Ceccato, Bjarke B. E. Jensen, Bjarke Jørgensen, Steen U. Pedersen and Kim Daasbjerg

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301915

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      Electrochemical reduction of an aryldiazonium salt is combined with atom transfer radical polymerization to develop a controllable and versatile method for attaching polymer brushes to graphene. The number of defect sites at graphene is shown to exert little impact on the final result.

    3. In Situ Synthesis of CuO and Cu Nanostructures with Promising Electrochemical and Wettability Properties (pages 935–943)

      Qiaobao Zhang, Daguo Xu, , Xiang Zhou, Xianwen Wu and Kaili Zhang

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302368

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      A strategy is developed for in situ synthesis of CuO nanorods and 3D nanostructures, Cu nanowires and nanoparticles by thermal heating of copper foam. A compressive stress based and subsequent structural rearrangements mechanism is proposed to explain the formation of the nanostructures. When used as anode for LIBs, the CuO nanostructure electrodes deliver a high reversible capacity up to 516 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 100 mA g−1.

    4. “Quasi-freestanding” Graphene-on-Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Electrode for Applications in Organic Light-emitting Diode (pages 944–949)

      Yanpeng Liu, Eun Jung, Yu Wang, Yi Zheng, Eun Ji Park, Sung Min Cho and Kian Ping Loh

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301829

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      A high efficiency organic light emitting diode (OLED) is fabricated on a flexible and transparent electrode made from “quasi-freestanding” graphene supported on laterally aligned single walled carbon nanotubes, and doped with 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. The all-carbon electrode exhibits highly stable sheet resistance of 76 Ω/square.

    5. Ultrathin Shell Double Emulsion Templated Giant Unilamellar Lipid Vesicles with Controlled Microdomain Formation (pages 950–956)

      Laura R. Arriaga, Sujit S. Datta, Shin-Hyun Kim, Esther Amstad, Thomas E. Kodger, Francisco Monroy and David A. Weitz

      Article first published online: 22 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301904

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      Giant unilamellar lipid vesicles are produced using double emulsion drops with ultrathin shells as templates. This microfluidic approach enables precise control over the vesicle size, lipid composition and the formation of microdomains within the vesicle membrane.

    6. Conjugated Polymer Shells on Colloidal Templates by Seeded Suzuki–Miyaura Dispersion Polymerization (pages 957–963)

      Jan Bart ten Hove, Jeroen Appel, Johanna M. van den Broek, Alexander J. C. Kuehne and Joris Sprakel

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302039

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      Conjugated polymer shells on colloidal templates by seeded Suzuki–Miyaura dispersion polymerization. A new versatile method allows the preparation of highly monodisperse light-emitting polymer shells on both spherical and anisometric organic and inorganic core–shell particles, with tunable photoluminescence characteristics.

    7. A Targeted and FRET-Based Ratiometric Fluorescent Nanoprobe for Imaging Mitochondrial Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Cells (pages 964–972)

      Fangkai Du, Yunhao Min, Fang Zeng, Changming Yu and Shuizhu Wu

      Article first published online: 23 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302036

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      Targeted and ratiometric nanoprobe for sensing mitochondrial H2O2 in living cells: A FRET-based ratiometric and mitochondria-targeted nanoprobe for H2O2 is fabricated with carbon-dot as carrier, which features excellent cell permeability and little cytotoxicity. The nanoprobe can selectively target mitochondria and ratiometrically image the exogenous H2O2 and endogenously produced mitochondrial H2O2.

    8. Biocatalytically Triggered Co-Assembly of Two-Component Core/Shell Nanofibers (pages 973–979)

      Yousef M. Abul-Haija, Sangita Roy, Pim W. J. M. Frederix, Nadeem Javid, Vineetha Jayawarna and Rein V. Ulijn

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301668

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      A facile supramolecular approach is demonstrated for the formation of functionalized nanofibers by combining the advantages of biocatalytic self-assembly and surfactant/gelator co-assembly. This is achieved by enzymatically triggered reconfiguration of free flowing micellar aggregates of pre-gelators and functional surfactants to form nanofibers that incorporate and display the surfactants’ functionality at the surface.

    9. Multi-Responsive and Logic Controlled Release of DNA-Gated Mesoporous Silica Vehicles Functionalized with Intercalators for Multiple Delivery (pages 980–988)

      Shengwang Zhou, Xuezhong Du, Fangbo Cui and Xianfeng Zhang

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302312

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      A single smart nanodevice: Native DNA-gated mesoporous silica delivery vehicles functionalized with disulfide-linked acridinamine intercalators integrate multiple responses and “AND” logic gate operations not only for codelivery of encapsulated drugs and DNA/genes but also for cascade release of encapsulated and intercalative drugs and has promising biological applications to meet diverse requirements of controlled release.

    10. One-Step Formation of a Single Atomic-Layer Transistor by the Selective Fluorination of a Graphene Film (pages 989–997)

      Kuan-I Ho, Jia-Hong Liao, Chi-Hsien Huang, Chang-Lung Hsu, Wenjing Zhang, Ang-Yu Lu, Lain-Jong Li, Chao-Sung Lai and Ching-Yuan Su

      Article first published online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201301366

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      The large-scale fabrication of atomic-layer transistors, each of which consist of a single graphene sheet with regions of metallic, semiconductor, and insulator character, are manufactured by a one-step fluorination process.

    11. Interface Chemistry Engineering of Protein-Directed SnO2 Nanocrystal-Based Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries with Improved Performance (pages 998–1007)

      Lei Wang, Dong Wang, Zhihui Dong, Fengxing Zhang and Jian Jin

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300843

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      Under the guidance of systems materials engineering, the interface between individual components in the entire anode system of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is studied. A system-level strategy of fabricating polydopamine (PD)-coated, protein-directed SnO2–carbon composites as anode active materials for LIBs is reported through designing two interfaces between the active materials and a buffer layer and between the buffer layer and a binder. The designed anode demonstrates good cyclic performance.

    12. Chiral 38-Gold-Atom Nanoclusters: Synthesis and Chiroptical Properties (pages 1008–1014)

      Qian Xu, Santosh Kumar, Shenshen Jin, Huifeng Qian, Manzhou Zhu and Rongchao Jin

      Article first published online: 24 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302279

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      Enantioselective synthesis of intrinsically chiral Au38 nanoclusters is achieved with chiral 2-phenylpropane-1-thiol (organic soluble), captopril and glutathgione (water soluble) as the ligand. Their circular dichroism (CD) signals are compared for the different chiral ligands. and the origin of the chiroptical activity is discussed.

    13. Design of a Microchannel-Nanochannel-Microchannel Array Based Nanoelectroporation System for Precise Gene Transfection (pages 1015–1023)

      Keliang Gao, Lei Li, Lingna He, Kevin Hinkle, Yun Wu, Junyu Ma, Lingqian Chang, Xi Zhao, Daniel Gallego Perez, Sigrid Eckardt, John Mclaughlin, Boyu Liu, Dave F. Farson and L. James Lee

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300116

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      A microchannel-nanochannel-microchannel array based nanoelectroporation (NEP) system is designed, fabricated, and applied for precise gene transfection. The fabrication consists of dip combing, Au coating, molecular imprinting, femtosecond laser ablation, packaging and sealing, incorporating with microfluidic loading reservoirs, and spinning for cell loading. Compared with the conventional method, NEP provides relatively high and uniform dosage control for gene transfection.

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