Small

Cover image for Small

January, 2005

Volume 1, Issue 1

Pages 1–151

    1. Cover Picture: Top-Down Meets Bottom-Up: Dip-Pen Nanolithography and DNA-Directed Assembly of Nanoscale Electrical Circuits (Small 1/2005) (page 1)

      Sung-Wook Chung, David S. Ginger, Mark W. Morales, Zhengfan Zhang, Venkat Chandrasekhar, Mark A. Ratner and Chad A. Mirkin

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200590001

      The cover picture shows a schematic representation of a nanoscale tunnel junction circuit formed when a DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticle is directed between two metallic electrodes (a field-emission SEM image is shown in the inset). The background displays an electron microscopy image of a device containing such junctions for potential use as a biosensor. Such a combination of biology, chemistry, engineering, and materials science serves as a model for the interdisciplinary character that Small exemplifies. For more information, please refer to the Communication by C. A. Mirkin and co-workers on page 64 ff. The authors thank Yeechi Chen for the cover design.

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      Think Small! (pages 3–4)

      Peter Gölitz, Esther Levy and Graeme A. Horley

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400088

    3. Graphical Abstract: Small 1/2005 (pages 5–11)

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200590003

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      The Beginning of a Small Revolution (pages 14–16)

      Chad A. Mirkin

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400092

    5. Optical Switching of Hierarchical Self-Assembly: Towards “Enlightened” Materials (pages 26–29)

      Stefan Hecht

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400059

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      Utilizing the unique features of photochromic compounds to control aggregation enables the generation of photoresponsive gels. Self-assembly mediated by hydrogen bonding in open and closed dithienylcyclopentene photoswitches carrying chiral amide moieties can be used to reversibly transcribe molecular into supramolecular chirality (see picture). Such molecular systems may lead to the design of future “smart” materials.

    6. Tailor-Made Nanoparticles via Gas-Phase Synthesis (pages 30–46)

      Andreas Gutsch, Heike Mühlenweg and Michael Krämer

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400021

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      The synthesis of oxide and other nanoparticles can be optimized by the use of gas-phase techniques. However, such techniques are themselves open to high levels of optimization through studying the various parameters that govern such growth processes. This Review looks at methods of modeling these processes and the products that can then be obtained (the TEM image shows highly specific ZrO2 nanoparticles with a surface area of 74 m2g−1).

    7. On the Development of Colloidal Nanoparticles towards Multifunctional Structures and their Possible Use for Biological Applications (pages 48–63)

      Teresa Pellegrino, Stefan Kudera, Tim Liedl, Almudena Muñoz Javier, Liberato Manna and Wolfgang J. Parak

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400071

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      The nanomaterials of the future will be designed with the aim of performimg specific functions, as dictated by their synthetic manufacture. This Review examines one particular type of material, colloidal nanoparticles, whose potential in a number of medical and biological applications is already beginning to be realized (the image shows MDA-MB-43s and MCF-7 cells labeled with green and red fluorescent silica-coated CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals, respectively).

    8. Top-Down Meets Bottom-Up: Dip-Pen Nanolithography and DNA-Directed Assembly of Nanoscale Electrical Circuits (pages 64–69)

      Sung-Wook Chung, David S. Ginger, Mark W. Morales, Zhengfan Zhang, Venkat Chandrasekhar, Mark A. Ratner and Chad A. Mirkin

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400005

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      Nanoscale electrode junctions have been selectively functionalized with specific oligonucleotide sequences using dip-pen nanolithography (see picture). These sequences direct the assembly of electrical circuits containing 20- and 30-nm-diameter DNA-modified nanoparticles so that junctions bridged by single nanoparticles can be realized. Different nanoparticle types can be directed to specific junctions on a single chip through solution-phase bottom-up assembly.

    9. Nanowell-Array Surfaces (pages 69–72)

      Myungchan Kang, Shufang Yu, Naichao Li and Charles R. Martin

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400009

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      Well-designed surfaces: A method of chemical information storage was realized with an ordered array of nanowells that were plasma-etched into a glass surface. Modification of the surface through the application of a Au/Pd coating and the chemisorption of 1-octadecanethiol allows spherical polystyrene nanoparticles of appropriate charge to be stored within the nanowells but not on the surrounding surfaces (see AFM image).

    10. The Behavior of Au55 Nanoclusters on and in Thiol-Terminated Dendrimer Monolayers (pages 73–75)

      Günter Schmid, Eva Emmrich, Jean-Pierre Majoral and Anne-Marie Caminade

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400018

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      Golden prospects: Monolayers of the fourth-generation dendrimer G4-SH, which is decorated with 96 terminal thiol groups (see picture), bind Au55(PPh3)12Cl6 clusters as monolayers under inert conditions. In an atmosphere of CH2Cl2 the clusters begin to move and lose their ligand shell, which leads to the formation of nanosized crystals consisting of bare Au55 building blocks.

    11. Beyond the Herringbone Reconstruction: Magic Gold Fingers (pages 76–79)

      Quanmin Guo, Feng Yin and Richard E Palmer

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400020

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      Nanoscale stripes of one atomic layer in height are formed on the (111) surface of gold via nanomanipulation with a scanning tunneling microscope. The stripes are exclusively oriented along the 〈110〉 directions, such that they are bounded by close-packed, low-energy atomic steps (see STM image).

    12. Layered Organosilicate Nanoparticles with Liquidlike Behavior (pages 80–82)

      Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Subhendu Ray Chowdhury, David D. Jiang, Yeong-U. An, Qiang Zhang, Lynden A. Archer and Emmanuel P. Giannelis

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400027

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      A clear alternative: Hydrolytic polymerization and assembly of octadecyltrichlorosilane in toluene leads to meltable, structurally stable layered hybrids that are dispersible in common organic solvents (see picture). Such hybrid nanoparticle materials offer great potential as plasticizers and lubricating media.

    13. Use of Electrospinning to Directly Fabricate Hollow Nanofibers with Functionalized Inner and Outer Surfaces (pages 83–86)

      Dan Li, Jesse T. McCann and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400056

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      Within or without: With the use of a coaxial, dual-capillary spinneret, electrospinning has been demonstrated as a versatile tool to fabricate hollow nanofibers with either their outer or inner surfaces being functionalized by molecular species or nanoparticles (the pictures show schematic cross sections of the functionalized hollow nanofibers).

    14. Powering a Supramolecular Machine with a Photoactive Molecular Triad (pages 87–90)

      Sourav Saha, L. Erik Johansson, Amar H. Flood, Hsian-Rong Tseng, Jeffrey I. Zink and J. Fraser Stoddart

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400055

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      Machines require power supplies: To address this need at the nanoscale, a photoactive molecular triad (T) has been prepared that converts light into electrical energy (see picture). In initial tests, such a triad has been used to power the dethreading of a supramolecular machine in the form of a pseudorotaxane composed of a thread (red) and a cyclophane (blue).

    15. InN Nanocrystals, Nanowires, and Nanotubes (pages 91–94)

      Kripasindhu Sardar, F. L. Deepak, A. Govindaraj, M. M. Seikh and C. N. R. Rao

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400011

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      Various chemical methods have been utilized to prepare InN nanocrystals, nanowires and nanotubes, which have been characterized by several techniques (see TEM images). The nanostructures exhibit an absorption band in the near-IR region at around 0.7 eV, which rather than being caused by defects, is shown to be an intrinsic and characteristic feature of InN.

    16. Sn-Catalyzed Thermal Evaporation Synthesis of Tetrapod-Branched ZnSe Nanorod Architectures (pages 95–99)

      Junqing Hu, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400013

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      The special branch: Tetrapod-branched ZnSe nanorod architectures have been synthesized via a simple Sn-catalyzed thermal evaporation process. Each branch within these architectures has a hexagon-like cross section and well- defined crystallographic facets, thus forming a regular hexagonal prismatic structure. The lengths and diameters of the branches are ≈180–250 and ≈80–120 nm, respectively.

    17. Formation of Dendrimer Nanotubes by Layer-by-Layer Deposition (pages 99–102)

      Dong Ha Kim, Prabhu Karan, Petra Göring, Julien Leclaire, Anne-Marie Caminade, Jean-Pierre Majoral, Ulrich Gösele, Martin Steinhart and Wolfgang Knoll

      Version of Record online: 30 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400024

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      Porous alumina templates have been used to prepare dendrimer nanotubes with uniform size and orientation as well as high aspect ratios by a layer-by-layer deposition technique (see SEM image). The tubes may be released from or located in the template pores. Diffusion limitations arising from the pore geometry lead to tube segments with higher mechanical stability when located adjacent to pore openings compared to those located at the base of the pores.

    18. DNA-Driven Assembly of Mesoporous Silica/Gold Satellite Nanostructures (pages 103–106)

      Sajanikumari Sadasivan, Erik Dujardin, Mei Li, Christopher J. Johnson and Stephen Mann

      Version of Record online: 24 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400039

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      Satellite nanostructures are produced through DNA-induced programmed assembly of conjugate gold nanoparticles onto the surface of particles of the periodically organized mesoporous silica, MCM-41 (see picture). The technique provides discrete particles, rather than leading to extended networks.

    19. Wet-Chemical Assembly of Carbon Tube-in-Tube Nanostructures (pages 107–110)

      Zhenping Zhu, Dangsheng Su, Gisela Weinberg, Rolf E. Jentoft and Robert Schlögl

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400041

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      Wet-chemical reorganization of carbonaceous impurities around and inside carbon nanotubes yields tube-in-tube nanostructures. The graphitic impurity particles were fragmented, their surfaces modified with carboxy and hydroxy groups, and then reintegrated around or inside pristine nanotubes via acid-catalyzed esterification linkages. Well-organized dual and triple structures were obtained (see SEM image).

    20. Synthesis of Yttria-Based Crystalline and Lamellar Nanostructures and their Formation Mechanism (pages 112–121)

      Nicola Pinna, Georg Garnweitner, Pablo Beato, Markus Niederberger and Markus Antonietti

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400014

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      Highly ordered lamellar nanocomposites consisting of crystalline yttria layers with intercalated benzoate molecules were obtained by a nonaqueous synthesis process involving the reaction between yttrium alkoxides and benzyl alcohol. Doping with europium leads to strong red luminescence. The formation mechanism is based on a C[BOND]C bond formation between benzyl alcohol and isopropanolate moieties and hydride-transfer reactions.

    21. Optical Properties of Nanoparticle-Based Metallodielectric Inverse Opals (pages 122–130)

      Dayang Wang, Jensen Li, C. T. Chan, Verónica Salgueiriño-Maceira, Luis M. Liz-Marzán, Sergei Romanov and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400022

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      The optical properties of metallodielectric inverse opals (see picture) prepared by co-crystallizing silica-coated gold nanoparticles (inset) and polymer spheres, followed by removal of the crystal template, can be engineered by varying the nanoparticle core size or shell thickness, and/or the nanoparticle volume-filling ratio of the composite. Such nanoparticles offer a route to photonic materials with unique bandgap properties.

    22. 2D Self-Assembly of Oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) Derivatives: From Dimers to Chiral Rosettes (pages 131–137)

      Atsushi Miura, Pascal Jonkheijm, Steven De Feyter, Albertus P. H. J. Schenning, E. W. Meijer and Frans C. De Schryver

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400008

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      Alkylated diaminotriazine derivatives, all of which possess a rigid backbone, have been shown by scanning tunneling microscopy to self-assemble at the solution–graphite interface. These derivatives show length-dependent supramolecular pattern formation and expression of chirality (see STM image).

    23. Suspended Carbon Nanotube Quantum Wires with Two Gates (pages 138–141)

      Jien Cao, Qian Wang, Dunwei Wang and Hongjie Dai

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400015

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      Devices comprised of suspended as-grown single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), high-quality metal electrical contacts, and two electrostatic gates have been prepared (see picture). The SWNT is suspended between two metal contacts and is free of any nanotube–substrate interactions. Such devices are “ultraclean” quantum systems that provide a unique opportunity to investigate the intrinsic properties of SWNTs, such as transport behavior at high bias.

    24. Nanowires for Integrated Multicolor Nanophotonics (pages 142–147)

      Yu Huang, Xiangfeng Duan and Charles M. Lieber

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200400030

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      Nanoscale light-emitting diodes and arrays with colors spanning the ultraviolet to near-infrared region were prepared by assembling emissive electron-doped semiconductor nanowires (NWs) with nonemissive hole-doped silicon NWs in a crossed architecture (see picture). Electronic and photonic devices were combined to give integrated structures, and generalized to produce hybrid devices in which NW emitters were assembled on lithographically patterned planar silicon.

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      Preview: Small 1/2005 (page 151)

      Version of Record online: 3 NOV 2004 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200590002

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