Small

Cover image for Vol. 2 Issue 8‐9

August 2006

Volume 2, Issue 8-9

Pages 927–1105

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
    1. Cover Picture: Parallel Manipulation of Bifunctional DNA Molecules on Structured Surfaces Using Kinesin-Driven Microtubules (Small 8-9/2006) (page 927)

      Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Jörg Opitz, Wolfgang Pompe, Jonathon Howard, Michael Mertig and Stefan Diez

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200690032

      The cover picture describes the use of cellular machinery, in a cell-free environment, for the generation of complex DNA structures. Individual DNA molecules (green) were bound to microtubules (red), which were allowed to glide over a kinesin-coated surface. As the other ends of the DNA were specifically attached to micropatterned gold substrates, the motor forces induced DNA stretching (see inset) and network formation. The results serve as a proof-of-principle that biological machineries can be used in vitro to accomplish the parallel formation of highly structured DNA templates, which may have application in biophysics and nanoelectronics. For more information please read “Parallel Manipulation of Bifunctional DNA Molecules on Structured Surfaces using Kinesin-Driven Microtubules” by M. Mertig, S. Diez, and co-workers on page 1090 ff. (Franziska Friedrich is kindly acknowledged for her assistance with the cover picture).

  2. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
    1. Graphical Abstract: Small 8-9/2006 (pages 929–936)

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200690033

  3. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
    1. From our sister journals: Small 8-9/2006 (pages 940–941)

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200690034

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
    1. Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures (pages 944–961)

      Aleksandra B. Djurišić and Yu Hang Leung

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600134

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Take a look: Zinc oxide has become one of the most widely studied nanomaterials. There has been extensive research into the synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanostructures (such as the displayed tetrapod), however, their optical characteristics are less well understood. This Review looks at the issues that surround the luminescence and lasing properties of ZnO nanostructures, and discusses a number of the ideas that have been put forward to explain these phenomena.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
    1. Controlled Ligand Display on a Symmetrical Protein-Cage Architecture Through Mixed Assembly (pages 962–966)

      Eric Gillitzer, Peter Suci, Mark Young and Trevor Douglas

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200500433

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Do you feel caged in? The surface of protein-cage structures can effectively be covered with a controlled density of different ligands (see picture). In vitro reassembly of independently modified cage subunits mixed at varying molar ratios generates particles with a defined mean number of a functional ligand attached to the surface of the protein cage.

    2. Submicrometer Pore-Based Characterization and Quantification of Antibody–Virus Interactions (pages 967–972)

      Jeffrey D. Uram, Kevin Ke, Alan J. Hunt and Michael Mayer

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A resistive-pulse sensor (see scheme) employs a submicrometer pore for the detection, characterization, and quantification of the binding of polyclonal antibodies to intact Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) particles. The assay is rapid, label-free, requires no immobilization or modification of the antibody or virus, detects the formation of viral aggregates, and can be performed using antibodies in complex media such as serum. The maximum number of antibodies able to bind to the virus was estimated to be 4200±450.

    3. Reversible and Controllable Switching of a Single-Molecule Junction (pages 973–977)

      Emanuel Lörtscher, Jacob W. Ciszek, James Tour and Heike Riel

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600101

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Charge-carrier transport through an individually contacted bipyridyl-dinitro oligophenylene-ethynylene dithiol molecule (BPDN-DT, see picture) and through a BP-DT molecule was studied using the mechanically controllable break-junction technique. BPDN-DT exhibits a voltage-induced switching between two distinct conductive states, in contrast to BP-DT.

    4. Wafer-Scale Ni Imprint Stamps for Porous Alumina Membranes Based on Interference Lithography (pages 978–982)

      Woo Lee, Ran Ji, Caroline A. Ross, Ulrich Gösele and Kornelius Nielsch

      Article first published online: 28 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stamp collection: Laser interference lithography can be used for the fabrication of master patterns with precise periodic nanostructures. Multiple copies of Ni imprint stamps can be replicated from a single master by an electrodeposition technique. The replicated stamps have been used for the fabrication of long-range-ordered anodic aluminum oxide membranes with a square or hexagonal pore arrangement (see schematic).

    5. A Macrophage-Targeted Theranostic Nanoparticle for Biomedical Applications (pages 983–987)

      Jason R. McCarthy, Farouc A. Jaffer and Ralph Weissleder

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600139

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Diagnosis and therapy in one: Many prevalent diseases, such as atherosclerosis, could be efficiently treated by localized, macrophage-targeted therapies. A biocompatible nanoparticle with high macrophage avidity is presented; the nanoparticle has magnetic and fluorescence, as well as therapeutic, imaging functionalities. Multimodal detection and exquisite phototoxicity to macrophages under appropriate illumination is shown (see image).

    6. Carbon Nanotube Macrobundles for Light Sensing (pages 988–993)

      Jinquan Wei, Jia-Lin Sun, Jia-Lin Zhu, Kunlin Wang, Zhicheng Wang, Jianbin Luo, Dehai Wu and Anyuan Cao

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600191

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Thanks a bundle! A strong photoresponse for macroscopic bundles containing thousands of aligned carbon nanotubes (suspended between two electrodes, see figure) upon illumination is observed at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the far-infrared. At a relatively small applied bias, the current flow in the nanotube bundles changes linearly with incident light over a wide range of laser power, although the current response in the different types of nanotubes (multi-walled, single-walled, and double-walled) varies in magnitude and direction.

    7. Hierarchically Structured Ceramics by High-Precision Nanoparticle Casting of Wood (pages 994–998)

      Atul S. Deshpande, Ingo Burgert and Oskar Paris

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600203

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High-precision nanocasting using crystalline ceria/zirconia nanoparticle sols is employed for successful replication of hierarchical wood tissue. Full retention of the spiraling cellulose microfibril orientation after template removal is unambiguously proved for the first time using small angle X-ray scattering (see figure). Electron microscopy reveals that the morphological details of the wood template are well preserved over four levels of hierarchy.

    8. Use of Ester-Terminated Polyamidoamine Dendrimers for Stabilizing Quantum Dots in Aqueous Solutions (pages 999–1002)

      Jun'an Liu, Haibing Li, Wei Wang, Huibi Xu, Xiangliang Yang, Jiangong Liang and Zhike He

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200500421

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Probing QD stablility: A convenient solvent-evaporation approach to prepare water-soluble, biocompatible CdSe/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots (QDs, see figure) is reported. The QDs are modified with a surfactant and polyamidoamine molecules that possess an ester terminal group. This method avoids complicated multistep ligand-exchange procedures and makes versatile QD-based probes a possibility for investigating intracellular transport and other cellular-signaling pathways.

    9. Ultrathin Fullerene Films as High-Resolution Molecular Resists for Low-Voltage Electron-Beam Lithography (pages 1003–1006)

      Francis P. Gibbons, Alex P. G. Robinson, Richard E. Palmer, Mayanditheuar Manickam and Jon A. Preece

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200500443

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hard to resist: Films of methanofullerenes (see scheme) can be used as resists for lithography at low electron-beam energies (0.2 to 5 keV). Improvements in the sensitivity and maintained etch durability are seen as the electron energies are reduced from 20 to 1 keV. High-resolution patterning is also demonstrated at low energies. The small molecular size of the fullerene derivatives alleviates problems associated with line-edge roughness.

    10. Fabrication of Electrically Bistable Nanofibers (pages 1007–1009)

      Tiecun Shang, Fan Yang, Wei Zheng and Ce Wang

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200500533

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Spinning a web: An electron acceptor (Ag nanoparticles) and electron donor (tetracyanoquinodimethane) can be incorporated in inert polymer nanofibers by electrospinning (see TEM image). The nanoparticles are synthesized in situ by the photochemical reduction of silver ions. The electrically bistable composite nanofibers, which are in a high-impedance state, display an abrupt transition to a low-impedance state under an external bias of 29 V.

    11. Gold-Conjugated Protein Nanoarrays through Block-Copolymer Lithography: From Fabrication to Biosensor Design (pages 1010–1015)

      Jin-Mi Jung, Ki Young Kwon, Tai-Hwan Ha, Bong Hyun Chung and Hee-Tae Jung

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600005

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A hole lot of protein: A method to immobilize proteins at defined positions at the single-molecule level has been developed by using templates structured by block-copolymer lithography to generate ultrahigh-density protein nanoarrays (see image). Carbohydrate–lectin (RCA or WGA) interactions on the nanoarray surface have remarkably high selectivity and reproducibility and indicate that this approach is applicable for biosensors.

    12. Membrane Stiffness of Animal Cells Challenged by Osmotic Stress (pages 1016–1020)

      Siegfried Steltenkamp, Christina Rommel, Joachim Wegener and Andreas Janshoff

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An atomic force microscope equipped with either a spherical indenter (see SEM image) or a conical tip has been utilized to analyze the nanomechanical behavior of living kidney cells under osmotic stress. The Young's modulus of the cells increases with osmolarity of the medium due to immense compaction of the cell. The change of stiffness is highly reversible and depends strongly on the location on the cell surface.

    13. Inkjet Printing of Electrically Conductive Patterns of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1021–1025)

      Krisztián Kordás, Tero Mustonen, Géza Tóth, Heli Jantunen, Marja Lajunen, Caterina Soldano, Saikat Talapatra, Swastik Kar, Robert Vajtai and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600061

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Jet stream: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition were carboxylated in a two-step oxidation process. An aqueous dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes was dispensed using an inkjet printer to obtain electrically conductive patterns on paper and plastic surfaces (see picture). Sheet resistivities for the deposited patterns of about 40 kΩ/□ could be achieved by multiple prints.

    14. In-Plane Large Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films: In Situ Synthesis and Field-Emission Properties (pages 1026–1030)

      Yan-Hui Li, Yi Min Zhao, Martin Roe, David Furniss, Yan Qiu Zhu, S. Ravi. P. Silva, Jin Quan Wei, De Hai Wu and C. H. Patrick Poa

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600080

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Look through these films: The direct production of large-area SWCNT films with controlled thickness and, thus, transparency (see figure) is achieved via a simple chemical vapor deposition process. The resulting free-standing films show excellent turn-on fields for use in field-emission devices, they can be easily handled, and have a very high purity.

    15. Nanotube Coalescence-Inducing Mode: A Novel Vibrational Mode in Carbon Systems (pages 1031–1036)

      Morinobu Endo, Yoong Ahm Kim, Takuya Hayashi, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Mauricio Terrones, Riichiro Saito, Federico Villalpando-Paez, Shin Grace Chou and Mildred S. Dresselhaus

      Article first published online: 29 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600087

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A resonant Raman mode located at 1855 cm−1 is related to vibrations of linear carbon chains and observed as a precursor to the merging of highly purified double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs, see figure). This mode, termed the “coalescence-inducing mode” (CIM), which initiates the coalescence process, is induced by thermal annealing and its effect is enhanced by boron doping. The CIM mode arises from the generation of short 1D carbon chains (e.g., 3–7 atoms long) established covalently between adjacent tubes.

    16. Pt Nanoparticles Functionalized with Nucleic Acid Act as Catalytic Labels for the Chemiluminescent Detection of DNA and Proteins (pages 1037–1041)

      Ron Gill, Ronen Polsky and Itamar Willner

      Article first published online: 13 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600133

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Look at the label: Nucleic acid functionalized Pt nanoparticles act as catalysts for the generation of chemiluminescence in the presence of H2O2 and luminol. The functionalized Pt nanoparticles can then be utilized as catalytic labels to detect either DNA or the aptamer–thrombin complex. The efficacy of these labels is favorable when compared with other similar systems.

    17. Metallic Nanoparticles Hosted in Mesoporous Oxide Thin Films for Catalytic Applications (pages 1042–1045)

      Guillaume Cortial, Magali Siutkowski, Frédéric Goettmann, Audrey Moores, Cédric Boissière, David Grosso, Pascal Le Floch and Clément Sanchez

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600154

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hybrid materials in catalysis: Mesoporous oxide thin layers hosting metallic nanoparticles were used as catalytic materials for both glycol oxidation and allylic amination (see picture). Despite the low amount of metal used in each run, high conversion rates could be observed within a few days of operation, revealing the high activity of the hosted nanoparticles.

    18. Shape-Controlled Growth of Micrometer-Sized Gold Crystals by a Slow Reduction Method (pages 1046–1050)

      Xiaogang Liu, Nianqiang Wu, Benjamin H. Wunsch, Robert J. Barsotti Jr. and Francesco Stellacci

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600219

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Shaping up nicely… Micrometer-sized gold crystals have been synthesized through a binary mixture of amine ligand molecules in the presence of a gold precursor under slow growth conditions (see picture). A wide range of morphologies in the form of triangles, octahedra, pentagonal decahedra, platelets, and nanowires with well-defined morphologies can be derived by varying the composition and ratio of the ligand mixture.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
    1. Carbon Microfibers Sheathed with Aligned Carbon Nanotubes: Towards Multidimensional, Multicomponent, and Multifunctional Nanomaterials (pages 1052–1059)

      Liangti Qu, Ye Zhao and Liming Dai

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600097

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A diet rich in fiber: Hybrid structures based on microsized carbon fibers sheathed with aligned carbon nanotubes (see image) and their derivatives are an effective means for connecting nanoscale entities to the outside world and possess interesting electrochemical properties attractive for a wide range of potential applications (e.g., fuel cells and biological/chemical sensors).

    2. Phantom Nanoparticles as Probes of Biomolecular Interactions (pages 1060–1067)

      Davide Prosperi, Carlo Morasso, Francesco Mantegazza, Marco Buscaglia, Loren Hough and Tommaso Bellini

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600106

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Making light work: Light scattering from dispersed phantom nanoparticles with tuned properties enables the detection of molecular recognition processes at their surface (see picture). Hydrophobic, transparent, electrically stabilized nanospheres (20–100 nm) with a refractive index lower than water were used to study the interaction of a glycopeptide antibiotic with its bacterial wall receptor.

    3. Soft Lithographic Printing of Patterns of Stretched DNA and DNA/Electronic Polymer Wires by Surface-Energy Modification and Transfer (pages 1068–1074)

      Per Björk, Sven Holmström and Olle Inganäs

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600126

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      DNA positioning: Soft lithography methods can be used to position bare DNA and DNA complexed with conjugated polyelectrolytes (see image and polyelectrolyte structure) on surfaces. Surface-energy modification and transfer-printing techniques are utilized. The localization of DNA complexed with conjugated polyelectrolytes is a step towards the assembly of functional nanodevice structures.

    4. Electrochemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes and their Application to Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (pages 1075–1082)

      Mihaela Baibarac, Mónica Lira-Cantú, Judith Oró-Solé, Nieves Casañ-Pastor and Pedro Gomez-Romero

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600148

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hybrid nanocomposites based on carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers such as the one shown here integrate good structural and functional properties and enhance the applications of the individual components. Both single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes were electrochemically functionalized with poly(N-vinyl carbazole) to yield materials that were used as novel positive electrodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.

    5. A Single-Molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Analysis of Fluorescent DNA–Protein Conjugates for Nanobiotechnology (pages 1083–1089)

      Florian Kukolka, Barbara K. Müller, Stefan Paternoster, Andreas Arndt, Christof M. Niemeyer, Christoph Bräuchle and Don C. Lamb

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600202

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Linking proteins and synthetic dyes: A supramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer system was created by using fluorescent proteins and synthetic dyes attached to DNA (an example is shown schematically in the figure). The functionality of DNA as a scaffold for aligning hybrids of proteins and synthetic fluorophores with nanometer accuracy was verified by using single-pair Förster resonance energy transfer measurements.

    6. Parallel Manipulation of Bifunctional DNA Molecules on Structured Surfaces Using Kinesin-Driven Microtubules (pages 1090–1098)

      Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Jörg Opitz, Wolfgang Pompe, Jonathon Howard, Michael Mertig and Stefan Diez

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600112

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Stretching the imagination… Molecular motors and the cytoskeleton actively form intricate cellular structures. This study shows that it is possible to use this cellular machinery, specifically the motor protein kinesin and its track, the microtubule, to create complex artificial structures in a cell-free environment. In so doing, a technique to manipulate and stretch bifunctional DNA molecules has been devised (see picture).

  7. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
  8. Preview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Book Review
    9. Preview
    1. You have free access to this content
      Preview: Small 8-9/2006 (page 1105)

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2006 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200690031

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION