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Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 5

May 4, 2007

Volume 3, Issue 5

Pages 705–903

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
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    1. Cover Picture: Highly Ordered Nanostructured Surfaces Obtained with Silica-Filled Diblock-Copolymer Micelles as Templates (Small 5/2007) (page 705)

      Andreas Frömsdorf, Andreas Kornowski, Sabine Pütter, Holger Stillrich and Li-Ting Lee

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200790012

      The cover picture shows the size-controlled preparation of silica-filled copolymer micelle cores and their self-assembly as a function of block length, coating technique, and substrate. The micelles self-assemble into two-dimensional hexagonal arrays. These structures are used as templates to create highly ordered inorganic nanostructures, for example, as etching masks for ion sputtering to produce magnetic antidot arrays. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Highly Ordered Nanostructured Surfaces Obtained with Silica-Filled Diblock-Copolymer Micelles as Templates” by A. Frömsdorf and co-workers beginning on page 880.

  2. Graphical Abstract

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    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Preview
  3. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Preview
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  4. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Preview
  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
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    1. The Synthesis and Fabrication of One-Dimensional Nanoscale Heterojunctions (pages 722–756)

      Aneta J. Mieszawska, Romaneh Jalilian, Gamini U. Sumanasekera and Francis P. Zamborini

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600727

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Up the junction: Nanoscale heterojunctions represent one of the most exciting areas of research into nanoscale materials; the various methods of their preparation and their utililty for a multitude of applications render this subject to be of immense current interest, and hence the subject of this Review. The Au nanorod (NR)/GaAs nanowire (NW) heterojunction shown in the figure represents work in our laboratory accomplished by combining vapor-phase and solution-phase methods.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
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    1. Direct Electronic Detection of Prostate-Specific Antigen in Serum (pages 758–762)

      Mikhail Briman, Erika Artukovic, Li Zhang, David Chia, Lee Goodglick and George Gruner

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700079

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      Carbon-nanotube network capacitors detect the presence of proteins directly from untreated serum. The devices are fabricated by a simple room-temperature technique and the detection scheme follows the protocol for protein assays currently used in clinical research. Prostate specific antigen, a marker for prostate cancer, is detected at concentrations of 1–100 ng mL−1 (see graph) as proof of principle for the detection capability of these novel biosensors.

    2. Low-Temperature Synthesis of γ-Alumina Nanocrystals from Aluminum Acetylacetonate in Nonaqueous Media (pages 763–767)

      Shuxue Zhou, Markus Antonietti and Markus Niederberger

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700027

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      Cooler without water: γ-Alumina has been synthesized at 200 °C in benzylamine and at 160 °C in dimethyl sulfoxide using aluminum acetylacetonate as the precursor, the lowest temperature that such materials have been prepared. In contrast to aqueous sol–gel process with aluminum oxide precursors, where aluminum (oxy)hydroxides are first formed and subsequent calcination is required, the use of anhydrous organic solvents directly yields γ-alumina nanocrystals without further calcination (see TEM image).

    3. Photoinduced Nanoscale Cooperative Motion in a Well-Defined Triblock Copolymer (pages 768–771)

      Haifeng Yu, Sadayuki Asaoka, Atsushi Shishido, Tomokazu Iyoda and Tomiki Ikeda

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600724

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      Going through the motions: The molecular cooperative motion between azobenzene moieties and photoinert cyanobiphenyl groups can be confined to nanoscale mesogenic domains by microphase separation of a triblock copolymer with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix (see picture). Films of the copolymer have a large anisotropy, stable birefringence, and improved transparency due to elimination of the scattering of visible light.

    4. Desktop Growth of Carbon-Nanotube Monoliths with In Situ Optical Imaging (pages 772–777)

      Anastasios John Hart, Lucas van Laake and Alexander H. Slocum

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600716

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      Fruits of the forest: A desktop reactor rapidly grows forests of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to heights of many millimeters by atmospheric-pressure chemical vapor deposition (see picture). This low-cost apparatus achieves the reaction temperature by resistive heating of a suspended silicon platform, and achieves a 20-fold increase in CNT growth rate by thermal pretreatment of the reactant mixture. The film thickness is monitored in situ.

    5. Capillary Kinetics of Water in Homogeneous, Hydrophilic Polymeric Micro- to Nanochannels (pages 778–782)

      Hoon Eui Jeong, Pilnam Kim, Moon Kyoo Kwak, Chang Ho Seo and Kahp Y. Suh

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600666

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      Going with the flow: Homogenous, hydrophilic micro- to nanochannels of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were fabricated by direct molding and UV-assisted bonding. By using these channels, the capillary kinetics of water was measured for potential pumpless, high-speed analytical tools. It was found that the capillary-filling speed inside a PEG channel (see fluorescence image) was two or three orders of magnitude higher than that inside a hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane channel supported on a glass substrate.

    6. Surface-Aided Supramolecular Polymerization: A Route to Controlled Nanoscale Assemblies (pages 783–787)

      Aryavarta M. S. Kumar, Sona Sivakova, Roger E. Marchant and Stuart J. Rowan

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600607

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      Molecules to order: Ditopic nucleobase end-capped monomers can self-assemble into nanopatterns at scales of <5 nm by surface-aided polymerization (see figure). By tuning the molecular design and utilizing hydrogen-bonding interactions and hydrophobic effects, the size of the patterns can be tailored at the (sub)nanometer scale. The surface is also used to promote supramolecular polymerization of the monomers, which utilize weakly interacting hydrogen-bonding motifs.

    7. Oxidation and Thermal Stability of Linear Carbon Chains Contained in Thermally Treated Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 788–792)

      Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Yoong Ahm Kim, Takuya Hayashi, Morinobu Endo, Mauricio Terrones and Mildred S. Dresselhaus

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600570

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      Linear carbon chains appear at interstitial positions between adjacent double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs; see image) during thermal treatment of DWNT bundles in argon. The characteristic Raman line, known as the coalescence-inducing mode (CIM) and associated with short chains that appear during the nanotube coalescence process, disappears when the DWNTs are heated in air to 600 °C, but increases in intensity upon chemical doping.

    8. Solubilization of Quantum Dots with a Recombinant Peptide from Escherichia coli (pages 793–798)

      Gopal Iyer, Fabien Pinaud, James Tsay and Shimon Weiss

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600516

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      On the dot: A genetic-engineering approach to synthesizing a rationally designed recombinant peptide (termed rFC3) in Escherichia coli can be used for the solubilization of quantum dots (QDs). The rFC3 sequence contains only natural amino acids. Exchange of this peptide with CdSe–ZnS QDs coated with hydrophobic solvent allows surface recognition of the peptide (see picture).

    9. Antibacterial Properties of Silver-Doped Titania (pages 799–803)

      J. Thiel, L. Pakstis, S. Buzby, M. Raffi, C. Ni, D. J. Pochan and S. Ismat Shah

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600481

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      Silver-doped titania nanoparticles (see image) in specific concentrations show a higher efficacy than pure silver nanoparticles towards the inhibition and annihilation of E. coli bacteria. The doped titania particles are synthesized via a sol–gel method. Antibacterial studies of the silver-doped titania particles in both a liquid-nutrient growth medium and on agar plates are shown; this approach may offer a simple low-cost method for fabricating antibacterial surfaces.

    10. Ultrasound-Triggered Release from Multilayered Capsules (pages 804–808)

      Bruno G. De Geest, Andre G. Skirtach, Arif A. Mamedov, Alexei A. Antipov, Nicholas A. Kotov, Stefaan C. De Smedt and Gleb B. Sukhorukov

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600441

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      Sound effects: Multilayered capsules, such as that shown in the SEM image, are promising vehicles for the delivery of macromolecular drugs. Ultrasonic irradiation can be used to trigger the release of encapsulated species from capsules fabricated using layer-by-layer technology. Ultrasound affects the integrity of the capsule membrane, which leads to destruction of the entire capsule and release of the contents.

    11. Nanomechanical Fingerprints of UV Damage To DNA (pages 809–813)

      Gwangrog Lee, Mahir Rabbi, Robert L. Clark and Piotr E. Marszalek

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600592

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      Doing damage to DNA: The effects of UV radiation on the mechanics of individual DNA duplexes (see picture) are revealed by AFM-based spectroscopy. It is found that the width of the characteristic B–S plateau in the force spectrogram of irradiated DNA shortens in a UV-dose-dependent manner. These mechanical effects likely represent the local unwinding of the double helix caused by a massive formation of pyrimidine dimers and 6–4 lesions.

    12. Phase Separation on Mixed-Monolayer-Protected Metal Nanoparticles: A Study by Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (pages 814–817)

      Andrea Centrone, Ying Hu, Alicia M. Jackson, Giuseppe Zerbi and Francesco Stellacci

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600736

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      On the surface: Mixed monolayers, which on flat surfaces phase-separate into randomly shaped domains, spontaneously form ordered rings of alternating composition when assembled around the core of a monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle (see figure). It is shown that it is possible to use infrared spectroscopy, a simple and common technique, to prove the existence of these phase-separated domains on nanoparticles.

    13. Nanoscale Pits as Templates for Building a Molecular Device (pages 818–821)

      Jeffrey M. Mativetsky, Sarah A. Burke, Shawn Fostner and Peter Grutter

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600699

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      Nanometer-scale rectangular pits in an insulating surface are used to template the growth of gold and PTCDA, a planar aromatic molecule (see image). The potential of this approach for constructing a molecular electronic device under the controlled conditions of ultrahigh vacuum is discussed.

    14. Nanocrystal-Based Luminescent Composites for Nanoimprinting Lithography (pages 822–828)

      Michela Tamborra, Marinella Striccoli, M. Lucia Curri, Juan A. Alducin, David Mecerreyes, Josè A. Pomposo, Nikolaos Kehagias, Vincent Reboud, Clivia M. Sotomayor Torres and Angela Agostiano

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600690

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      CdSe@ZnS nanocrystals are incorporated in acrylic acid or amine-functionalized PMMA copolymers (see image) to obtain fluorescent nanocomposites characterized by homogeneous NC dispersion and a significant increase in emission efficiency, without modifying the excellent processability of the thermoplastic polymer. Such properties permit the fabrication of highly luminescent nanostructures at the micro- and nanoscale, extending the patterning resolution limit by means of nanoimprinting lithography.

    15. Hierarchical Assembly of TiO2 Nanoparticles on WS2 Nanotubes Achieved Through Multifunctional Polymeric Ligands (pages 829–834)

      Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Nicole Zink, Marc Eberhardt, Helen A. Therese, Simon Faiss, Andreas Janshoff, Ute Kolb, Patrick Theato and Wolfgang Tremel

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600663

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      Particles on the tube: Here, novel surface functionalization of WS2 nanotubes with polymeric ligands, by complexation with a combination of Ni2+ through a scorpionate-type nitrilotriacetic acid, and immobilization of TiO2 nanoparticles onto the surface of nanotubes is demonstrated (see schematic representation). The synthesis of the functional polymeric ligands was achieved through a reactive polymer precursor route.

    16. Extremely High Stability of Glutathionate-Protected Au25 Clusters Against Core Etching (pages 835–839)

      Yukatsu Shichibu, Yuichi Negishi, Hironori Tsunoyama, Masayuki Kanehara, Toshiharu Teranishi and Tatsuya Tsukuda

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600611

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      Size matters: The core-etching reaction by free glutathione is studied for glutathionate (SG)-protected Aun(SG)m clusters with n=10–39 and m=10–24 (see picture). Only the Au25(SG)18 clusters remain unetched, whereas the Aun(SG)m clusters with n<25 and n>25 are transformed into a AuI:SG complex and stable Au25:SG, respectively. The selective synthesis of thiolate (SR)-protected Au25:SR on a large scale may be possible.

    17. Synergistic Strengthening Effect of Ultrafine-Grained Metals Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes (pages 840–844)

      Yong J. Jeong, Seung I. Cha, Kyung T. Kim, Kyong H. Lee, Chan B. Mo and Soon H. Hong

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600523

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      From strength to strength: Two strengthening mechanisms, grain-size refinement of a metal matrix and reinforcement with homogeneously dispersed CNTs, are combined to fabricate strong CNT/Co nanocomposites (see image). The CNT/Co nanocomposites with an ultrafine-grained Co matrix and homogeneously dispersed CNTs show synergetic strengthening effects with improved mechanical performance.

    18. Supramolecular Nanomimetics: Replication of Micelles, Viruses, and Other Naturally Occurring Nanoscale Objects (pages 845–849)

      Benjamin W. Maynor, Isaac LaRue, Zhaokang Hu, Jason P. Rolland, Ashish Pandya, Qiang Fu, Jie Liu, Richard J. Spontak, Sergei S. Sheiko, Richard J. Samulski, Edward T. Samulski and Joseph M. DeSimone

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600507

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      Replicas of naturally occurring structures, including viruses (see image, left), micelles (center), and carbon nanotubes (right) are made from fluoropolymer molds templated from naturally occurring objects. The successful integration of imprint fabrication with bottom-up self-assembly is demonstrated for integrated nanopatterning, which may have applications in many diverse areas such as sensors, implantable biomaterials, and medical therapies.

    19. Development of Water-Soluble Single-Crystalline TiO2 Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Cancer-Cell Treatment (pages 850–853)

      Jung-wook Seo, Heawon Chung, Mi-yun Kim, Jeonggi Lee, In-hong Choi and Jinwoo Cheon

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600488

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      The enhanced photocatalytic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles for biomedical applications are presented. The synthesis of water-soluble single-crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles (see image) through surface modifications and their enhanced photocatalytic effects for skin-cancer cell therapeutics compared to those of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles are also demonstrated.

    20. Cyanuric Acid and Melamine on Au(111): Structure and Energetics of Hydrogen-Bonded Networks (pages 854–858)

      Wei Xu, Mingdong Dong, Henkjan Gersen, Eva Rauls, Socorro Vázquez-Campos, Mercedes Crego-Calama, David N. Reinhoudt, Ivan Stensgaard, Erik Laegsgaard, Trolle R. Linderoth and Flemming Besenbacher

      Version of Record online: 29 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600407

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      Expect the unexpected: The interaction between cyanuric acid (CA) and melamine (M) molecules is a key structural motif in supramolecular chemistry. The adsorption and coadsorption of M and CA on a Au(111) surface under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) is investigated using STM with submolecular resolution (see image). In addition to the expected structure with a 1:1 CA/M ratio, a novel phase with a 1:3 CA/M forms upon sequential deposition.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Preview
    1. Controlled Growth and Characterization of Two-Dimensional Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotube Networks for Electrical Applications (pages 860–870)

      Jonathan P. Edgeworth, Neil R. Wilson and Julie V. Macpherson

      Version of Record online: 11 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700029

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multiply interconnected, random, 2D networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are formed by chemical vapor deposition. The networks conduct over macroscopic length scales despite the surface coverage being <1 %, they can be patterned on a surface (see image), and they behave like p-type semiconductors at low density or as semimetals at high density. Controlled growth of SWNT networks enables their application as macroscale conductors with controllable, predictable, and reproducible characteristics.

    2. Directional Alignment of MG63 Cells on Polymer Surfaces Containing Point Microstructures (pages 871–879)

      Christopher A. Mills, Javier G. Fernandez, Elena Martinez, Miriam Funes, Elisabeth Engel, Abdelhamid Errachid, Josep Planell and Josep Samitier

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600683

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      Point to point: Cellular alignment on pointlike microstructures (see image) is defined by geometrical considerations. Alignment preferences at 0, 30, and 45° are found for MG63 cells cultured on patterns of 1-μm-deep surface microstructures embossed in poly(methyl methacrylate).

    3. Highly Ordered Nanostructured Surfaces Obtained with Silica-Filled Diblock-Copolymer Micelles as Templates (pages 880–889)

      Andreas Frömsdorf, Andreas Kornowski, Sabine Pütter, Holger Stillrich and Li-Ting Lee

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600706

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      On the block: The size-controlled preparation of silica-filled copolymer micelle cores and their self-assembly as a function of block length, coating technique, and substrate have been studied. The micelles self-assemble into two-dimensional hexagonal arrays (see picture). These structures are used as templates to create highly ordered inorganic nanostructures, for example, as etching masks for ion sputtering to produce magnetic antidot arrays.

    4. Large-Scale, Hot-Filament-Assisted Synthesis of Tungsten Oxide and Related Transition Metal Oxide Nanowires (pages 890–896)

      Jyothish Thangala, Sreeram Vaddiraju, Rahel Bogale, Ryan Thurman, Trevor Powers, Biswapriya Deb and Mahendra K. Sunkara

      Version of Record online: 5 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600689

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A scalable process for the synthesis of metal oxide nanowires is demonstrated for a variety of metal oxide systems. Control over the nanowire density is demonstrated with the production of both nanowire arrays (see figure) and nanowire mats. The condensation of the suboxide phase cluster, followed by the selective condensation of metal oxide on the suboxide phase at the tip, is suggested as the nucleation and growth process of metal oxide nanowires.

  8. Preview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. Corrigendum
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Preview
    1. Preview: Small 6/2007 (page 903)

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200790016

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