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Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 8

August 3, 2007

Volume 3, Issue 8

Pages 1281–1455

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
    1. Cover Picture: Nanostructuring with a Crosslinkable Discotic Material (Small 8/2007) (page 1281)

      Marcel Kastler, Wojciech Pisula, Richard J. Davies, Tatiana Gorelik, Ute Kolb and Klaus Müllen

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200790027

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows carbon nanotubes fabricated on a substrate; a discotic, columnar hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene derivative carrying acrylate units can be nanostructured on surfaces by a templated polymerization process. Controlled crosslinking allows the organization of the liquid-crystalline material to be fixed in either the crystalline state using photon energy or the mesophase using thermal energy. For further information, please read the Full Paper by K. Müllen and co-workers, beginning on page 1438.

  2. Graphical Abstract

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
  3. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
    1. Metal Nitride Cluster Fullerenes: Their Current State and Future Prospects (pages 1298–1320)

      Lothar Dunsch and Shangfeng Yang

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700036

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      What's in a cage? Endohedral fullerenes have been shown to exhibit some very interesting properties differing from regular, empty-caged fullerenes such as C60. One particular subgroup of the endohedral fullerenes, those with a metal nitride cluster at their core (see image), possess many exciting features, and offer potential for a number of applications, including in magnetic resonance imaging. This Review looks at all aspects of this fascinating range of molecules.

  5. Highlight

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
    1. Towards Electrically Driven Nanowire Single-Photon Sources (pages 1322–1323)

      Jia Zhu and Yi Cui

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700237

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      Dotting the wires: Nanowires have been engineered to have a quantum dot of a narrower bandgap sandwiched between p- and n-type segments of a wider bandgap. Electrons and holes can be selectively injected into the quantum dot to emit light. Due to the small size, this quantum-dot nanowire structure can potentially function as a single-photon source.

  6. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
    1. Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotube Spectroscopic and Electronic Field-Effect Transistor Measurements: A Combined Approach (pages 1324–1329)

      Douglas R. Kauffman and Alexander Star

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700152

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      Spectroscopic and electronic measurements reveal complimentary information about molecular interactions with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Interacting molecules (red spheres) can undergo electron transfer with the SWNT by donating or withdrawing electrons. Techniques using electric fields (E) in nanotube field-effect transistors (NTFETs) or spectroscopic techniques can reveal changes in the electronic structure of the SWNTs resulting from molecular interactions.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
    1. Photoinduced Charge Injection and Bandgap-Engineering of High-Specific-Surface-Area BN Nanotubes using a Zinc Phthalocyanine Monolayer (pages 1330–1335)

      Qing Huang, Yoshio Bando, Atula Sandanayaka, Chengchun Tang, Jinbin Wang, Takashi Sekiguchi, Chunyi Zhi, Dmitri Golberg, Yasuyuki Araki, Osamu Ito, Fangfang Xu and Lian Gao

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700145

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      Electron-injected BN nanotubes with high specific surface area (HS-BNNTs) were prepared through bonding with a monolayer of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) molecules (see TEM image). Strong interactions between ZnPc and the HS-BNNTs not only modify their ground-state electronic structures, but also lead to striking intramolecular photoinduced charge transfer. The functionalized HS-BNNTs may be of high value in photochemical and photoelectrical devices.

    2. Lateral Manipulation for the Positioning of Molecular Guests within the Confinements of a Highly Stable Self-Assembled Organic Surface Network (pages 1336–1340)

      Meike Stöhr, Markus Wahl, Hannes Spillmann, Lutz H. Gade and Thomas A. Jung

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700099

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Buckyball bearings: C60 complexes with zinc octaethylporphyrin (ZnOEP) were deposited in the hexagonal pores of the highly stable honeycomb network generated by thermal dehydrogenation of 4,9-diaminoperylene-quinone-3,10-diimine on a Cu(111) surface (see picture). The piece-by-piece assembly of the weakly aggregated ZnOEP–C60 complex, which may be viewed as a “supramolecular bearing”, was achieved with the aid of an STM tip.

    3. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles as a Delivery System for Hydrophobic Anticancer Drugs (pages 1341–1346)

      Jie Lu, Monty Liong, Jeffrey I. Zink and Fuyuhiko Tamanoi

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700005

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      Special delivery: The hydrophobic anticancer drug camptothecin was incorporated into fluorescent mesoporous silica nanoparticles (see image) and delivered to various cancer cells to induce cell death. These results suggest a method to overcome the insolubility problem of many anticancer drugs, which is considered to be one of the major challenges in cancer therapy.

    4. Nanoscale Gold Hollow Spheres Through a Microemulsion Approach (pages 1347–1349)

      Christian Zimmermann, Claus Feldmann, Matthias Wanner and Dagmar Gerthsen

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600658

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      No need for a solid template: Hollow gold spheres (see TEM image) have been realized through a microemulsion approach. The spheres have a wall thickness of 2–6 nm and an inner diameter of 20–40 nm.

    5. In Situ Detection of Chromogranin A Released from Living Neurons with a Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor (pages 1350–1355)

      Chen-Wei Wang, Chien-Yuan Pan, Hsing-Chen Wu, Po-Yuan Shih, Chia-Chang Tsai, Kuo-Tang Liao, Li-Long Lu, Wen-Hsing Hsieh, Chii-Dong Chen and Yit-Tsong Chen

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600723

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transistors tune in: The chromogranin A (CgA) released from the synaptic terminal of cortical neurons can be detected in situ by immobilization of an antibody against CgA on a single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistor (see picture), to give a device with high selectivity, sensitivity, and real-time detection capability. This biosensory technique can be used to study the activity of individual living neurons.

    6. p-Type α-Fe2O3 Nanowires and their n-Type Transition in a Reductive Ambient (pages 1356–1361)

      Yu-Chen Lee, Yu-Lun Chueh, Chin-Hua Hsieh, Mu-Tung Chang, Li-Jen Chou, Zhong Lin Wang, Yann-Wen Lan, Chii-Dong Chen, Hiroki Kurata and Seiji Isoda

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Switching the wires: p-Type α-Fe2O3 nanowires with ordered oxygen vacancies were synthesized without additional annealing. After a process of annealing in a reductive ambient, a p-type to n-type transition was achieved in a nanowire device (see graph and image). The observation of a p–n transition suggests potential applications for these nanowires in future nanodevice technologies.

    7. Production of Apoferritin-Based Bioinorganic Hybrid Nanoparticles by Bacterial Fermentation Followed by Self-Assembly (pages 1362–1367)

      Anu Jääskeläinen, Reija-Riitta Harinen, Urpo Lamminmäki, Teemu Korpimäki, Lauri J. Pelliniemi, Tero Soukka and Marko Virta

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Simply made hybrids: Biological, bifunctional nanoparticles (such as that pictured) can be produced by just cultivating Escherichia coli bacteria. No chromatography is required, as isolation and purification are carried out by centrifugation followed by self-assembly of polypeptides to nanoparticles by changing the pH. The particles can be used as a label in bioaffinity assays for biotinylated molecules.

    8. Low-Ion-Dose FIB Modification of Monomicellar Layers for the Creation of Highly Ordered Metal Nanodot Arrays (pages 1368–1373)

      Petra Mela, Blazej Gorzolnik, Matthias Bückins, Ahmed Mourran, Joachim Mayer and Martin Möller

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600338

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Creative writing: A low-dose focused ion beam (FIB) is used to inscribe a pattern onto a monolayer of self-assembled block-copolymer/transition-metal hybrid micelles to create arrays of gold nanodots. FIB lithography combines two different functional elements: hexagonally ordered nanodots created from the resist (see picture, right) and an underlying grating, which makes the nanodot arrays visible by optical microscopy (left).

    9. Double-Stranded RNA Polyinosinic–Polycytidylic Acid Immobilized onto γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles by Using a Multifunctional Polymeric Linker (pages 1374–1378)

      Mohammed Ibrahim Shukoor, Filipe Natalio, Vadim Ksenofontov, Muhammad Nawaz Tahir, Marc Eberhardt, Patrick Theato, Heinz C. Schröder, Werner E. G. Müller and Wolfgang Tremel

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600664

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetic medicines: The immobilization of the abnormal nucleic acid polyinosinic–polycytidylic acid (poly(IC)) on γ-Fe2O3 maghemite nanoparticles through the phosphoramidate route by using a multifunctional polymer is reported. This approach may open new possibilities for magnetic drug delivery applications. The image shows γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles after polymer functionalization.

    10. Ultrathin Anatase TiO2 Films with Stable Vesicle Morphology Templated by PMMA-b-PEO (pages 1379–1382)

      Ya-Jun Cheng, Peter Müller-Buschbaum and Jochen S. Gutmann

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600712

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The good, the bad, and the poly: Amphiphilic poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) can be used as a template to give anatase TiO2 films with stable nanovesicle morphology (see image). The process couples a good/poor solvent-pair-induced phase-separation process and sol–gel chemistry. The multilayer titania–block-copolymer composite film has an ordered structure over a large length scale parallel to the substrate, both before and after calcination (as revealed by the grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering image shown in the inset).

    11. Three-Dimensional Sequential Self-Assembly of Microscale Objects (pages 1383–1389)

      Hiroaki Onoe, Kiyoshi Matsumoto and Isao Shimoyama

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600721

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Assembly line: Hydrophobic, repulsive double-layer, and van der Waals interactions have been employed in the sequential self-assembly of microfabricated silicon parts in aqueous solution. Control of the assembly sequence is realized by simply changing the pH of the solution. The fabrication of column- and barrel-shaped microstructures and closed-link microchain structures is demonstrated through a two-step self-assembly process (see picture).

    12. Accurate Immobilization of Antibody-Functionalized Peptide Nanotubes on Protein-Patterned Arrays by Optimizing their Ligand–Receptor Interactions (pages 1390–1393)

      Zheyuan Zhao and Hiroshi Matsui

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Target practice: Antibody-coated nanotubes can selectively attach to antigen-containing trenches (see image) that are written by an AFM tip on a surface. The attachment depends on the concentration of the antigen in the trenches and can be tuned by using spacer molecules. It is shown that maximum filling is achieved (nearly 100 %) when the concentration of antigen is diluted to 7 % with inert spacer molecules.

    13. A SERRS-Active Bead/Microelectromagnet System for Small-Scale Sensitive Molecular Identification and Quantitation (pages 1394–1397)

      Edward J. Quinn, Aaron Hernandez-Santana, David M. Hutson, Colin M. Pegrum, Duncan Graham and W. Ewen Smith

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      How do you catch and identify a molecule in a very dilute solution? The question is important for the detection of trace amounts of such molecules as explosives, drugs, and biomolecules. Here we use a specifically designed microelectromagnet and surface-enhanced resonance Raman microspectroscopy (see figure) to provide an answer to this question, advancing a technique that has advantages over other current technologies.

    14. Shear Stress Measurements on InAs Nanowires by AFM Manipulation (pages 1398–1401)

      Michael Bordag, Aline Ribayrol, Gabriela Conache, Linus E. Fröberg, Struan Gray, Lars Samuelson, Lars Montelius and Hakan Pettersson

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700052

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      On an upward curve? The curvature of an elastically deformed nanowire pinned to a flat surface contains information about the maximum static friction force, and hence the shear stress, between the nanowire and the surface. Here, InAs nanowires are bent in a controlled manner using the tip of an atomic force microscope (see image). The shear stress can be obtained from a simple analysis according to the standard theory of elasticity.

    15. Preferential Orientation of a Chiral Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube on the Locally Depassivated Si(100)-2×1:H Surface Identified by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (pages 1402–1406)

      Peter M. Albrecht, Salvador Barraza-Lopez and Joseph W. Lyding

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700070

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Patterns can promote the locally enhanced binding of a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) in a preferential alignment on the Si(100) platform. The figure shows a three-dimensional rendering of a 30 nm×30 nm image of a SWNT traversing a 4-nm-wide stripe of atomically clean silicon lithographically patterned on the Si(100)-2×1:H surface using an ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunneling microscope.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
    1. Detection of Unlabeled Oligonucleotide Targets Using Whispering Gallery Modes in Single, Fluorescent Microspheres (pages 1408–1414)

      Edin Nuhiji and Paul Mulvaney

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200600676

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluorescent microspheres (≈7.5-μm diameter: see image) that exhibit whispering gallery modes (WGM) were developed to detect unlabeled complementary DNA (cDNA) targets. To identify spectral shifts caused by cDNA hybridization an optical fluorescence microscope coupled to a CCD camera enables routine spectroscopic experiments to be carried out on the same microsphere pre/post cDNA exposure.

    2. Substrate Wetting and Topographically Induced Ordering of Amorphous PI-b-PFS Block-Copolymer Domains (pages 1415–1423)

      Monique Roerdink, Mark A. Hempenius, Ullrich Gunst, Heinrich F. Arlinghaus and G. Julius Vancso

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-dimensional block-copolymer alignment in hexagonal grooves is achieved on the micrometer scale with amorphous PI-b-PFS. A depth-profiling study on thin films of these block copolymers indicates the presence of both phases at the substrate, which is of importance in elucidating the driving force in graphoepitaxial alignment of block-copolymer domains (see image).

    3. A Method for Reproducibly Preparing Synthetic Nanopores for Resistive-Pulse Biosensors (pages 1424–1430)

      John E. Wharton, Pu Jin, Lindsay T. Sexton, Lloyd P. Horne, Stefanie A. Sherrill, Warren K. Mino and Charles R. Martin

      Version of Record online: 6 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700106

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Artificial nanopores can be etched with reproducible pore-tip diameters via the two-step etching method described in this paper. The obtained nanopores have effectively been used as resistive-pulse sensors (see schematic) for bovine serum albumin and a theoretical model that predicts the tip diameter from the defined parameters is revealed.

    4. Electronic Coupling Between Azurin and Gold at Different Protein/Substrate Orientations (pages 1431–1437)

      Anurag Setty Venkat, Stefano Corni and Rosa Di Felice

      Version of Record online: 25 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700001

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Exploring the inclinations of azurin: Azurin is an electron-transfer protein that can be covalently anchored to gold surfaces. The speed of electron exchange between the metal and the redox site of the bound protein is greatly enhanced by inclining the protein to lie as flat as possible on the surface (see figure), an orientation that is likely imposed by a scanning probe apparatus during current measurements.

    5. Nanostructuring with a Crosslinkable Discotic Material (pages 1438–1444)

      Marcel Kastler, Wojciech Pisula, Richard J. Davies, Tatiana Gorelik, Ute Kolb and Klaus Müllen

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700109

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Compact discs: A discotic, columnar hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene derivative carrying acrylate units can be nanostructured on surfaces by a templated polymerization process (see picture). Controlled crosslinking allows the organization of the liquid-crystalline material to be fixed in either the crystalline state or the mesophase. Defined nano-objects, such as nanotubes, can be fabricated on substrates.

    6. Structural Color in Porous, Superhydrophilic, and Self-Cleaning SiO2/TiO2 Bragg Stacks (pages 1445–1451)

      Zhizhong Wu, Daeyeon Lee, Michael F. Rubner and Robert E. Cohen

      Version of Record online: 22 JUN 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200700084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-cleaning coated films are obtained by a simple aqueous layer-by-layer assembly. The Bragg stacks obtained by this deposition are thoroughly examined and the structural-color characteristics could be precisely tuned in the visible region by varying the number of stacks or the thickness of the respective layers (see figure).

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Structural Color in Porous, Superhydrophilic, and Self-Cleaning SiO2/TiO2 Bragg Stacks

      Vol. 3, Issue 9, 1467, Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2007

  9. Preview

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Graphical Abstract
    4. News
    5. Review
    6. Highlight
    7. Concept
    8. Communications
    9. Full Papers
    10. Preview
    1. Preview: Small 9/2007 (page 1455)

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2007 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200790030

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