Small

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 10

May 18, 2009

Volume 5, Issue 10

Pages 1087–1223

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Cancer therapy: Small 10/2009

      Jennifer E. Podesta, Khuloud T. Al-Jamal, M. Antonia Herrero, Bowen Tian, Hanene Ali-Boucetta, Vikas Hegde, Alberto Bianco, Maurizio Prato and Kostas Kostarelos

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990047

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image illustrates the complex formation between amino-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNT) and cytotoxic siRNA sequences shown to lead to prolonged survival of animals bearing human-lung carcinomas after intratumoral administration. The therapeutic efficacy of f-MWNT:siRNA complexes is compared in vivo against liposome:siRNA complexes. The direct comparison between carbon nanotubes and liposomes demonstrates the potential advantages offered by carbon nanotubes for the intracellular delivery of therapeutic agents in vivo. The present work may act as the impetus for further studies to explore the therapeutic capacity of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes to deliver siRNA directly into the cytoplasm of target cells and achieve effective therapeutic silencing in various disease indications where local delivery is feasible or desirable. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Antitumor Activity and Prolonged Survival by Carbon-Nanotube-Mediated Therapeutic siRNA Silencing in a Human-Lung Xenograft Model” by K. Kostarelos et al. beginning on page 1176.

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Polymersomes: Small 10/2009

      Madhavan Nallani, Rob Woestenenk, Hans-Peter M. de Hoog, Stijn F. M. van Dongen, Jan Boezeman, Jeroen J. L. M. Cornelissen, Roeland J. M. Nolte and Jan C. M. van Hest

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990048

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture illustrates how the activity of enzymes encapsulated in polymersome nanoreactors (≈300–500 nm) can be probed using flow cytometry, a powerful technique that is routinely used for high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Carboxyfluorescein diacetate, which is converted to the fluorescent carboxyfluorescein by the enzyme/Candida antarctica/lipase B, is used to assess the activity of CalB inside porous PS-PIAT polymersomes. To prevent diffusion out of the polymersomes of the fluorescent product, a trapping agent is co-encapsulated with CalB. This polycation traps the negatively charged carboxyfluorescein product molecules and thus co-localizes their fluorescent signal with active catalysts only. These highly fluorescent nanoreactors can then be separated from others using flow cytometry, resulting in completely active populations of bioreactors. The same principle is also demonstrated for encapsulated fluorescent markers such as GFP and DsRed. For more information, please read the Communication “Sorting Catalytically Active Polymersome Nanoreactors by Flow Cytometry” by J. J. L. M. Cornelissen, J. C. M. van Hest, et al. beginning on page 1138.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Polymersomes: Small 10/2009 (pages 1087–1093)

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990049

  4. News

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Hydrogen storage

      Nanoporous Polymers for Hydrogen Storage (pages 1098–1111)

      Jonathan Germain, Jean M. J. Fréchet and Frantisek Svec

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801762

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      The use of hydrogen as an energy carrier to replace gasoline to fuel cars is widely discussed (see image). To achieve this goal, safe and high-capacity hydrogen-storage materials are needed. This Review article summarizes progress towards development of nanoporous materials based on organic polymers such as hypercrosslinked polymers, polymers of intrinsic microporosity, and covalent organic frameworks suitable to store hydrogen.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Nanowires

      Facile Synthesis and Size Control of II–VI Nanowires Using Bismuth Salts (pages 1112–1116)

      James Puthussery, Thomas H. Kosel and Masaru Kuno

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801838

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      High-aspect-ratio II–VI semiconductor nanowires (NWs; see image) are prepared using solution–liquid–solid growth employing simple Bi salts. NW size control is achieved by varying the Bi content of the preparation, leading to wire diameters between 5 and 11 nm. Corresponding size-dependent trends are seen in the linear absorption/band-edge emission of the wires, suggesting carrier confinement.

    2. Additive soft lithography

      Towards All-Organic Field-Effect Transistors by Additive Soft Lithography (pages 1117–1122)

      Dana Alina Serban, Pierpaolo Greco, Sorin Melinte, Alexandru Vlad, Constantin Augustin Dutu, Stefano Zacchini, Maria Carmela Iapalucci, Fabio Biscarini and Massimiliano Cavallini

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801732

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      Soft-processed organic transistors that exceed in performance compared to their counterparts made via standard microfabrication are demonstrated. The image shows the detail of an optical picture of the P3HT–Pt interface of an additively soft-patterned transistor, with Pt electrodes defined by MIMIC and P3HT stripes obtained by LCW.

    3. Mesoporous materials

      Cubic and Hexagonal Mesostructured Hexarhenium Selenocyanides: Supramolecular Assemblies of Octahedral Nanoclusters (pages 1123–1127)

      Seong Huh, Min-Jung Suh, Vo Vien, Youngmee Kim, Seong-Ju Hwang and Sung-Jin Kim

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801677

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The octahedral [Re6Se8(CN)6]4− ions with various bridging metal ions form well-defined cubic and hexagonal mesostructures (see image) in the presence of liquid-crystal template in formamide. The interaction between the positively charged micellar head groups of the template and the [Re6Se8(CN)6]4− ions is a pure noncovalent electrostatic interaction. These materials are coordination polymers with exceptionally large 1D or 3D potential pores because of the dimension of mesoscale liquid-crystal template.

    4. Cellular uptake

      Uptake, Translocation, and Transmission of Carbon Nanomaterials in Rice Plants (pages 1128–1132)

      Sijie Lin, Jason Reppert, Qian Hu, JoAn S. Hudson, Michelle L. Reid, Tatsiana A. Ratnikova, Apparao M. Rao, Hong Luo and Pu Chun Ke

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801556

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image shows the significant uptake of C70 particles by a plant leaf cell. The C70 particles appear as numerous small aggregates in the vacuole and the cell walls of the leaf cell are shown as dark layered structures in the image. Scale of image: 5 × 6 µm.

    5. Surface patterning

      Large-Area, Nanoimprint-Assisted Microcontact Stripping for the Fabrication of Microarrays of Fouling/Nonfouling Nanostructures (pages 1133–1137)

      Ana Ruiz, Christopher A Mills, Andrea Valsesia, Elena Martinez, Giacomo Ceccone, Josep Samitier, Pascal Colpo and François Rossi

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801454

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      Large-area micropatterns of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) nanodomains favorable for biological cell attachment are produced in a nonfouling poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix (see image). Nanoimprint-assisted microcontact stripping techniques are used to micropattern polystyrene nanobeads deposited on PAA. Subsequent etching of the nanobeads, followed by deposition of PEO by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, produces the fouling/non-fouling surface.

    6. Polymersomes

      Sorting Catalytically Active Polymersome Nanoreactors by Flow Cytometry (pages 1138–1143)

      Madhavan Nallani, Rob Woestenenk, Hans-Peter M. de Hoog, Stijn F. M. van Dongen, Jan Boezeman, Jeroen J. L. M. Cornelissen, Roeland J. M. Nolte and Jan C. M. van Hest

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801204

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Enzyme-filled stable polymeric capsules (polymersomes) that are permeable to low-molecular-weight (pro-fluorescent) substrates can be sorted based on the activity of encapsulated enzymes using flow cytometry (see image). Enzymatic activity is screened by the build-up of fluorescent product that is prevented from leaking out by co-encapsulation of a trapping agent.

    7. Metal nanostructures

      3D Metallic Nanostructure Fabrication by Surfactant-Assisted Multiphoton-Induced Reduction (pages 1144–1148)

      Yao-Yu Cao, Nobuyuki Takeyasu, Takuo Tanaka, Xuan-Ming Duan and Satoshi Kawata

      Article first published online: 16 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801179

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A laser fabrication technique for metal nanostructures is developed. Owing to the control of the growth of metal particles by surfactants, the spatial resolution of the technique breaks the classical limitation of the light. Three-dimensional silver nanostructures are experimentally demonstrated (see image).

    8. Microdroplets

      Efficient On-Demand Compound Droplet Formation: From Microfluidics to Microdroplets as Miniaturized Laboratories (pages 1149–1152)

      Wei Wang, Chun Yang and Chang Ming Li

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801598

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microdroplets are naturally well-defined reactors for performing reactions on the microscale. An innovative technique is presented to achieve one-step compound droplet formation in a microfluidic-channel structure. The image shows a droplet in the formation process and a droplet flowing downstream of the channel with mixing/reaction occurring inside it. Red and green colors denote different regents.

    9. Nanospheres

      Self-Assembled FeCo/Gelatin Nanospheres with Rapid Magnetic Response and High Biomolecule-Loading Capacity (pages 1153–1157)

      Lijie Dong, Shuhua Liu, Haitao Gao, Ning Ding, Wolfgang Tremel, Chuanxi Xiong, Qingming Zhu and Wolfgang Knoll

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801591

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Uniform 100-nm megranate-like FeCo/gelatin nanospheres are self-assembled through the efficient chelation of small primary FeCo NCs with gelatin polypeptide chains in a one-pot reaction (see image). The unique nanospheres efficiently combine rapid magnetic response, huge active surface, and high capacity of controlled loading and releasing of DNA molecules.

    10. Chemiresistors

      Chemically Sensitive Resistors Based on Monolayer-Capped Cubic Nanoparticles: Towards Configurable Nanoporous Sensors (pages 1158–1161)

      Ekaterina Dovgolevsky, Ulrike Tisch and Hossam Haick

      Article first published online: 9 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801831

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cube roots: Chemiresistors based on cubic monolayer-capped nanoparticles (MCNPs) produce a higher electrical response upon exposure to volatile organic compounds than those based on spherical MCNPs. These observations are explained in terms of the higher swellability of cubic MCNPs compared to spherical MCNPs (see picture).

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Graphitic carbon

      Fabrication and Characterization of Graphitic Carbon Nanostructures with Controllable Size, Shape, and Position (pages 1162–1168)

      Rongbing Du, Solomon Ssenyange, Mirwais Aktary and Mark T. McDermott

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801357

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The fabrication of graphitic carbon nanostructures using electron beam lithography followed by high- temperature pyrolysis is demonstrated. The procedure produces conductive structures of a variety of shapes and sizes (see image). It is shown that carbon nanowires with a predefined conductance can be fabricated. The application of these structures as nanoband electrodes is also demonstrated.

    2. Nanodevices

      Single-Molecule Investigations of a Photoswitchable Nanodevice (pages 1169–1175)

      Gregor Heiss, Vidmantes Lapiene, Florian Kukolka, Christof M. Niemeyer, Christoph Bräuchle and Don C. Lamb

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801549

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photocontrollable DNA Nanodevices: Using structurally addressable DNA as a scaffold, an optically addressable nanodevice with the photoconvertible protein Dronpa and Atto647N is fabricated (see image). The device is characterized using single-molecule spectroscopy. As nanodevices are well suited for the investigation of cellular processes, the ability to optically detect and address this nanodevice in the context of a living cell is shown.

    3. Cancer therapy

      Antitumor Activity and Prolonged Survival by Carbon-Nanotube-Mediated Therapeutic siRNA Silencing in a Human Lung Xenograft Model (pages 1176–1185)

      Jennifer E. Podesta, Khuloud T. Al-Jamal, M. Antonia Herrero, Bowen Tian, Hanene Ali-Boucetta, Vikas Hegde, Alberto Bianco, Maurizio Prato and Kostas Kostarelos

      Article first published online: 22 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801572

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The treatment of a human lung carcinoma model in vivo using siRNA sequences leading to cytotoxicity and cell death is carried out. Carbon-nanotube-mediated delivery of siRNA by intratumoral administration leads to successful suppression of tumor volume, and prolonged survival of human lung tumor-bearing animals (see image).

    4. Microchannels

      Cell Docking in Double Grooves in a Microfluidic Channel (pages 1186–1194)

      Masoud Khabiry, Bong Geun Chung, Matthew J. Hancock, Harish Chandra Soundararajan, Yanan Du, Donald Cropek, Won Gu Lee and Ali Khademhosseini

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801644

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A microfluidic device containing a double-grooved substrate for cell docking and positioning is presented. Numerical simulations of microcirculations within double grooves (see image) elucidate the dependence of the flow pattern on groove geometry. Cell docking and retention are measured experimentally for double grooves of two aspect ratios and three depth ratios, and correlate directly to the microcirculation pattern.

    5. Nanofibers

      Surface Modification of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Meshes by Plasma Treatment to Enhance Biological Performance (pages 1195–1206)

      Albino Martins, Elisabete D. Pinho, Susana Faria, Iva Pashkuleva, Alexandra P. Marques, Rui L. Reis and Nuno M. Neves

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801648

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Although electrospun nanofiber meshes (see image) have morphological similarities with natural extracellular matrixes, surface roughness and chemistry are still key parameters for enhanced cellular performance. This work shows that three different cell types (osteoblasts, fibroblasts, and chondrocytes) prefer specific plasma surface modifications, suggesting that the surface chemistry also has a key role in the biological performance of nanostructured surfaces.

    6. Derby imaging

      In vitro Derby Imaging of Cancer Biomarkers Using Quantum Dots (pages 1207–1212)

      Mee Hyang Ko, Soonhag Kim, Won Jun Kang, Jung Hwan Lee, Hyungu Kang, Sung Hwan Moon, Do Won Hwang, Hae Young Ko and Dong Soo Lee

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801580

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In vitro derby imaging of RGD peptide targeting integrin αvβ3 protein (green in image) and AS1411 aptamer targeting nucleolin protein (red) using two different quantum dots (605 and 655 nm) is successfully visualized in HeLa cells, simultaneously. Fluorescent imaging signatures of the overlay (yellow) from the integrin αvβ3 and nucleolin show the co-localization in the cellular membrane.

    7. Toxicity

      In vitro Toxicity Testing of Nanoparticles in 3D Cell Culture (pages 1213–1221)

      Jungwoo Lee, G. Daniel Lilly, R. Christopher Doty, Paul Podsiadlo and Nicholas A. Kotov

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801788

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      3D-cell-culture-based nanoparticle toxicity testing shows significantly reduced toxic effects compared to the conventional cytotoxicity testing in 2D cell culture (see image). Tissue-like morphology and phenotypic change are the major factors in diminishing toxicity by limiting cellular interaction and diffusion of nanoparticle-induced toxicants.

  8. Keywords

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Keywords Index Small 10/2009 (page 1222)

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990050

  9. Authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. News
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Authors Index Small 10/2009 (page 1223)

      Article first published online: 8 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990051

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