Small

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 18

September 18, 2009

Volume 5, Issue 18

Pages 2023–2119

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Multiple emulsions: Small 18/2009

      A. R. Abate and D. A. Weitz

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows an optical microscopy image of monodisperse W/O/W/O/W/O quintuple emulsions formed using a glass-coated poly(dimethylsiloxane) device. The device consists of five sequential drop makers functionalized to have alternating hydrophilic/hydrophobic wettability. The outermost drop diameter is about 120 micrometers. For more information, please read the Communication “High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microfluidics” by A. R. Abate and D. A. Weitz, beginning on page 2030.

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Protein nanotubes: Small 18/2009

      Frederico F. Miranda, Kenji Iwasaki, Satoko Akashi, Koji Sumitomo, Mime Kobayashi, Ichiro Yamashita, Jeremy R. H. Tame and Jonathan G. Heddle

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990091

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows a surface representation of a self-assembled nanotube made from a modified form of the ring-shaped bacterial protein, TRAP. The crystal structure of TRAP is shown as a backbone trace with each ring a different color to its neighbors. The tube-forming TRAP rings contain a small number of point mutations, which drive the self-assembly process. The resulting tubes are ≈8 nm in diameter and up to 1 µm or more in length, with a central cavity ≈2 nm in diameter. Since it is trivial to add further mutations to the protein surface, it is hoped that this tube may become a useful nanocomponent with a wide range of applications. For more information, please read the Full Paper “A Self-Assembled Protein Nanotube with High Aspect Ratio” by J. R. H. Tame, J. G. Heddle, et al., beginning on page 2077.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Contents: Small 18/2009 (pages 2023–2028)

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990092

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Multiple emulsions

      High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microfluidics (pages 2030–2032)

      A. R. Abate and D. A. Weitz

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900569

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multiple emulsions are formed using poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices. The single emulsions (see image, left) are formed using a single drop maker with uniform wettability. The double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple emulsions (right) are formed using linear sequences of drop makers with alternating wettability.

    2. Biomimetic nanoparticle synthesis

      Nanoparticle Formation in Giant Vesicles: Synthesis in Biomimetic Compartments (pages 2033–2037)

      Peng Yang, Reinhard Lipowsky and Rumiana Dimova

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900560

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoparticles of CdS with radii of 4 or 50 nm are formed in a controlled fashion inside lipid giant vesicles. For this purpose, two protocols are developed: electrofusion of differently loaded vesicles and slow vesicle content exchange via lipid nanotubes (see image). The process of particle formation can be directly monitored with fluorescence microscopy. The approach can be used to form any kind of nanoparticle.

    3. Protein filaments

      Biotemplated Metal Nanowires Using Hyperthermophilic Protein Filaments (pages 2038–2042)

      Joseph M. Slocik, Sang Nyon Kim, Timothy A. Whitehead, Douglas S. Clark and Rajesh R. Naik

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900499

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-assembled hyperthermophilic γ-prefoldin protein filaments are used to template different metal nanoparticle wires. Filaments are uniformly decorated with small nanoparticles along the length of the protein and exhibit good conductivity behavior when aligned across an electrode gap.

    4. Holey nanowires

      Holey Gold Nanowires Formed by Photoconversion of Dissipative Nanostructures Emerged at the Aqueous–Organic Interface (pages 2043–2047)

      Tetsuro Soejima, Masa-aki Morikawa and Nobuo Kimizuka

      Article first published online: 21 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900348

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold nanowires are obtained by photoreduction of linear self-assemblies formed from Au(OH)4 and tetra-alkyl ammonium ions at the water–chloroform interface. They are dissipative nanostructures formed only under non-equilibrium conditions, which require continuous vectorial transport of ammonium ions across the interface. Nanocavities are observed in nanowires at almost regular intervals, which is a salient feature of dissipative structures.

    5. Photonic crystals

      Nanoparticle One-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal Dye Laser (pages 2048–2052)

      Francesco Scotognella, Daniel P. Puzzo, Angelo Monguzzi, Diederik S. Wiersma, Dominik Maschke, Riccardo Tubino and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 27 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900331

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoparticle one-dimensional photonic crystals (see image) possess high reflectivity arising from Bragg diffraction of light incident on a photonic lattice comprising nanoparticle layers of alternating refractive index. The nanoparticle layers provide mesoporosity, allowing for the introduction of a variety of functional molecules and materials into the intrananoparticle voids, creating myriad opportunities for the development of new kinds of optical and optoelectronic devices.

    6. Combinatorial libraries

      Synthesis and Application of FRET Nanoparticles in the Profiling of a Protease (pages 2053–2056)

      Lionel Marcon, Corentin Spriet, Timothy D. Meehan, Bronwyn J. Battersby, Gwendolyn A. Lawrie, Laurent Héliot and Matt Trau

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801887

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluorescent silica nanoparticles incorporating unique ratios of energy-transfer dyes are synthesized and applied as colloidal barcodes to encode a microsphere-bound combinatorial peptide library. The affinity of the West Nile virus protease is profiled using this library with cleavage of the peptide detected by flow cytometry. The cleaved peptide substrates are sorted and then identified through decoding by confocal microscopy combined with spectral unmixing (see image).

    7. Hollow nanospheres

      Solid-to-Hollow Single-Particle Manipulation of a Self-Assembled Luminescent NaYF4:Yb,Er Nanocrystal Monolayer by Electron-Beam Lithography (pages 2057–2060)

      Wei Feng, Ling-Dong Sun, Ya-Wen Zhang and Chun-Hua Yan

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900404

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A hollow victory: Hollow-sphere nanocrystals are fabricated by electron-beam lithography in a self-assembled luminescent NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer (see picture). The formation mechanism is a heat-induced inner acid-etching process. Pattern formation can be achieved with single-nanoparticle resolution. The 20-nm β-NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystal monolayer acts as a data-storage medium.

    8. Nanotube arrays

      Facile “Needle-Scratching” Method for Fast Catalyst Patterns Used for Large-Scale Growth of Densely Aligned Single-Walled Carbon-Nanotube Arrays (pages 2061–2065)

      Bing Li, Xiehong Cao, Xiao Huang, Gang Lu, Yizhong Huang, Chin Foo Goh, Freddy Y. C. Boey and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900654

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Scratching the surface: A simple needle-scratching method (NSM) generates large-area catalyst patterns on solid substrates for the growth of densely aligned single-walled carbon-nanotube (SWCNT) arrays by chemical vapor deposition (CVD, see picture). A high density of well-aligned, ultralong SWCNTs is obtained on single-crystal quartz. This NSM could allow the fast, cheap, and large-area fabrication of CNT-based nanodevices.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Cytotoxicity: Small 18/2009

      Yu Pan, Annika Leifert, David Ruau, Sabine Neuss, Jörg Bornemann, Günter Schmid, Wolfgang Brandau, Ulrich Simon and Willi Jahnen-Dechent

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990093

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece shows gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the cytotoxicity of which critically depends on particle size, and 1.4-nm-diameter AuNPs capped with triphenylphosphine monosulfonate are much more cytotoxic than 15-nm nanoparticles. The effects of these 1.4-nm AuNPs are examined in detail on living cells. These toxic particles generate oxidative stress in cells, visible by leaky mitochondria (green monomeric JC-1 stain in the micrograph), and lead to necrosis. Furthermore, they up-regulate heat shock and stress-related genes, as can be seen in the hierarchical cluster analysis of a gene chip analysis (red bars in the heat-map representation). For more information, please read the Full Paper “Gold Nanoparticles of Diameter 1.4 nm Trigger Necrosis by Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage” by W. Jahnen-Dechent, U. Simon, et al., beginning on page 2067.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Cytotoxicity

      Gold Nanoparticles of Diameter 1.4 nm Trigger Necrosis by Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage (pages 2067–2076)

      Yu Pan, Annika Leifert, David Ruau, Sabine Neuss, Jörg Bornemann, Günter Schmid, Wolfgang Brandau, Ulrich Simon and Willi Jahnen-Dechent

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900466

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cells set alight: Ultrasmall triphenylphosphine-capped gold nanoparticles continuously generate reactive oxygen species, which trigger leakiness of mitochondria and cell necrosis. This is visualized by discharge into the cytoplasm of green monomeric JC-1 stain from mitochondria (see picture), where it exists as a red dimer in undamaged cells.

    2. Protein nanotubes

      A Self-Assembled Protein Nanotube with High Aspect Ratio (pages 2077–2084)

      Frederico F. Miranda, Kenji Iwasaki, Satoko Akashi, Koji Sumitomo, Mime Kobayashi, Ichiro Yamashita, Jeremy R. H. Tame and Jonathan G. Heddle

      Article first published online: 27 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900667

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using the X-ray crystal structure as a guide, the nanometric, ring-shaped protein TRAP can be modified so that, upon addition of reducing agent, it can spontaneously form long, regular, nanotubes with a 2.5-nm cavity (see image), which may have a wide variety of nanotechnological applications.

    3. Gene expression

      In situ Visualization of Gene Expression Using Polymer-Coated Quantum–Dot–DNA Conjugates (pages 2085–2091)

      Youngseon Choi, Hwa Pyung Kim, Suk Min Hong, Ji Young Ryu, Sung Jun Han and Rita Song

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900116

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The selective binding of quantum-dot (QD)–DNA conjugates with their specific target sequence of various genes is demonstrated. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using QD-based probes shows the potential of detecting low-expressing genes often involved in various disease-related biological processes (see image). Quantitative image analysis of inducible genes shows good correlation with the quantification results obtained by real-time RT-PCR.

    4. Helical nanostructures

      Switchable Helical Structures Formed by the Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Laterally Tethered Nanorods (pages 2092–2098)

      Trung Dac Nguyen and Sharon C. Glotzer

      Article first published online: 28 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900168

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Flat bilayer sheets formed by the self-assembly of laterally tethered nanorod amphiphiles and their molecular analogs are predicted to fold into distinct helical structures depending on solvent conditions. Transformation between helical morphologies can be induced by switching solvent selectivity, as indicated by the color gradient in the arrows (see image).

    5. Laser patterning

      Direct Laser Patterning of Soft Matter: Photothermal Processing of Supported Phospholipid Multilayers with Nanoscale Precision (pages 2099–2104)

      Mareike Mathieu, Daniel Schunk, Steffen Franzka, Christian Mayer, Eckart Hasselbrink and Nils Hartmann

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801933

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photothermal laser processing is a facile, powerful tool for rapid large-area micro- and nanopatterning of supported phospholipid membranes (see image). Despite a laser-spot diameter of a few micrometers, voids with diameters of 300 nm and below are fabricated. This opens up an avenue towards optical engineering of biointerfaces with subwavelength resolution.

    6. Nanocrescent arrays

      Parallel Preparation of Densely Packed Arrays of 150-nm Gold-Nanocrescent Resonators in Three Dimensions (pages 2105–2110)

      Markus Retsch, Matthias Tamm, Noelia Bocchio, Natalie Horn, Renate Förch, Ulrich Jonas and Maximilian Kreiter

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900162

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fabrication of ordered three-dimensional arrangements of gold-nanocrescent resonators by repeated nanosphere lithography is demonstrated (see picture). The mutual orientation between the single layers can be adjusted to give chiral metamaterials.

    7. Nanocube clusters

      Plasmon Coupling in Clusters Composed of Two-Dimensionally Ordered Gold Nanocubes (pages 2111–2119)

      Huanjun Chen, Zhenhua Sun, Weihai Ni, Kat Choi Woo, Hai-Qing Lin, Lingdong Sun, Chunhua Yan and Jianfang Wang

      Article first published online: 18 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900256

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold nanocubes are assembled on substrates into clusters of varying numbers and ordering (see picture). Plasmon coupling among the gold nanocubes is investigated by dark-field scattering and electrostatic calculations. Gold-nanocube clusters exhibit various plasmon resonance modes, the energy and intensity of which depend on the number and ordering of nanocubes in the cluster.

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