Small

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 3

February 6, 2009

Volume 5, Issue 3

Pages 291–409

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Resonators: Small 3/2009

      Michael Christian Gwinner, Elisabeth Koroknay, Liwei Fu, Piotr Patoka, Witold Kandulski, Michael Giersig and Harald Giessen

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows a scanning electron microscopy image of periodically arranged metallic split-ring resonators, which are manufactured by tilted-angle-rotation thermal evaporation of gold onto Langmuir–Blodgett-type monolayers of close-packed polystyrene nanospheres. The split rings with dimensions smaller than the wavelength of light are deposited within the nanosphere gaps and form a metamaterial with pronounced, tunable optical resonances in the range of 100 THz. The presented technique allows control of the inner- and outer-ring diameters, gap angles, as well as thickness and periodicity. Being a flexible and reliable alternative to electron-beam lithography, this method should therefore pave the way towards cheap, large-area metamaterials for applications such as perfect lenses and optical cloaking devices. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Periodic Large-Area Metallic Split-Ring Resonator Metamaterial Fabrication Based on Shadow Nanosphere Lithography” by H. Giessen et al. beginning on page 400. (Cover artwork by S. Hein.).

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Carbon nanotubes: Small 3/2009

      Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Guangyu Zhu and Jonathan S. Dordick

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990012

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The inside cover picture shows an atomic force microscopy image of flowerlike geometries created by directed attachment of αβ tubulin dimer (cytoskelelal protein schematically shown in green and violet) onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs, schematically shown as graphite cylinders) to form tubulin-MWNT conjugates. The resulting conjugates undergo self-assembly and microtubule formation to yield functional nano- and mesoscale architectures, including biohybrids of microtubule-encapsulated nanotubes. These unique biohybrids can be manipulated in synthetic, non-physiological environments by surface-attached kinesin molecular motors. Such a strategy represents a new paradigm for the design of multifunctional assemblies with potential applications as sensors, biological templates for nanofabrication, and building blocks for hierarchical supramolecular assemblies. For more information, please read the Communication “Tubulin Encapsulation of Carbon Nanotubes into Functional Hybrid Assemblies” by J. S. Dordick et al. beginning on page 310.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Carbon nanotubes: Small 3/2009 (pages 291–297)

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990013

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Drug delivery

      Modeling the Loading and Unloading of Drugs into Nanotubes (pages 300–308)

      Tamsyn A. Hilder and James M. Hill

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800321

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      One of the most promising applications of nanotechnology is that of drug delivery, in particular targeted delivery of drugs using nanotubes. Research to date has largely been experiments investigating toxicity, biocompatibility, solubility, functionalization, and cellular uptake. This Review focuses on loading and unloading molecular cargo, and highlights recent theoretical investigations.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Carbon nanotubes

      Tubulin Encapsulation of Carbon Nanotubes into Functional Hybrid Assemblies (pages 310–315)

      Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Shyam Sundhar Bale, Guangyu Zhu and Jonathan S. Dordick

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801434

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Functional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are obtained by conjugation of MWNTs with tubulin. In vitro polymerization of tubulin–MWNT conjugates with excess free tubulin results in the microtubules encapsulating the MWNTs to yeild nanotube-based biohybrids. The functional biohybrids are manipulated on kinesin-coated surfaces. This strategy represents a new paradigm for the design of hierarchical supramolecular assemblies.

    2. Lithography

      Magnetolithography: From Bottom-Up Route to High Throughput (pages 316–319)

      Amos Bardea and Ron Naaman

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801058

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetic lithography is based on a magnetic mask installed on the back of a substrate and the magnet that is set under the mask, which induce a magnetic field toward the substrate through the pattern of the masks. Magnetic nanoparticles are immobilized on selective locations, where the mask induces a magnetic field, resulting in patterned substrates (see image).

    3. Biomaterials

      Controlled Assembly of Vesicle-Based Nanocontainers on Layer-by-Layer Particles via DNA Hybridization (pages 320–323)

      Martin Loew, Jing Kang, Lars Dähne, Ruth Hendus-Altenburger, Oliver Kaczmarek, Jürgen Liebscher, Daniel Huster, Kai Ludwig, Christoph Böttcher, Andreas Herrmann and Anna Arbuzova

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800989

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microscopic colloidal particles allow a precise regulation of chemical reactions in time and place. A controlled assembly of multiple layers of intact lipid vesicles on a solid support provided by layer-by-layer particles functionalized by a covalent attachment of DNA oligonucleotides is reported (see image). Lipophilic complementary oligonucleotides are incorporated into lipid vesicles. Fusion of liposomes and release can be triggered.

    4. Nanoporous materials

      Multifunctional Silica Nanocapsule with a Single Surface Hole (pages 324–328)

      Yong Taik Lim, Jin Kyeong Kim, Young-Woock Noh, Mi Young Cho and Bong Hyun Chung

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800935

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multifunctional silica nanocapsules containing magnetic nanoparticles and fluorescent quantum dots with a single surface hole fabricated by a single-step emulsion-mediated process are described. The silica nanocapsules (see images) are easily internalized by phagocytic dendritic cells and show a high potential as bimodal imaging contrast agents (for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging) in vivo as well as in vitro.

    5. Quantum dots

      Hybridization of Electron and Hole States in Semiconductor Quantum-Dot Molecules (pages 329–335)

      Qing Zhu, K. Fredrik Karlsson, Marcin Byszewski, Alok Rudra, Emanuele Pelucchi, Zhanbing He and Eli Kapon

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801214

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel QD-molecule system is realized using metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy growth. The dots are tunnel coupled via connected quantum wires (QWRs). The stronger tunnel coupling in this integrated QD-QWR system allows the hybridization of both electron and hole states, yielding direct-real-space excitonic molecules (see image). The structure holds promise for nanophotonic devices for quantum-information-processing applications.

    6. Inverse opals

      Tailoring the Pore Size and Architecture of CeO2/TiO2 Core/Shell Inverse Opals by Atomic Layer Deposition (pages 336–340)

      Ivano Alessandri, Marcello Zucca, Matteo Ferroni, Elza Bontempi and Laura E. Depero

      Article first published online: 2 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801249

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Core/shell inverse opals are obtained by a multistep preparation process (see picture) involving the synthesis of inverse-opal-structured CeO2 scaffolds and their conformal coating with TiO2 shell layers. The size and shape of the resulting pores can be tailored by modifying the number of atomic layer deposition cycles.

    7. Antimicrobial activity

      Reversible Antimicrobial Photoswitching in Nanosilver (pages 341–344)

      Cindy Gunawan, Wey Yang Teoh, Christopher P. Marquis, Juniahani Lifia and Rose Amal

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801202

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Reversible antimicrobial photoswitching of nanosilver on a semiconductor support using a facile and optically selective approach is demonstrated. The non-intrusive cyclical irradiation by UV-A (300–400 nm) and visible light (>450 nm) result in controlled oxidation state dynamics of the nanosilver, which in turn allows its antimicrobial activity to be switched off and on repeatedly (see image).

    8. Nanowires

      Tuning Electrical and Photoelectrical Properties of CdSe Nanowires via Indium Doping (pages 345–350)

      Zhubing He, Jiansheng Jie, Wenjun Zhang, Wenfeng Zhang, Linbao Luo, Xia Fan, Guodong Yuan, Igor Bello and Shuit-Tong Lee

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      n-Type doping of CdSe nanowires is achieved by either co-evaporating indium at different temperatures during growth, or post-growth doping via a thermal diffusion process. The conductivity of CdSe nanowires is tuned reproducibly by nearly five orders of magnitude in a controlled way, and carrier concentration as high as ∼1019 cm−3 is reached (see image). The doped CdSe nanowires show high sensitivity to light irradiation.

    9. Nanotubes

      Carbon-Nanotube-Activated Pt Quartz-Crystal Microbalance for the Immunoassay of Human IgG (pages 351–355)

      Yu Yang, Yingchun Zhu, Qiang Chen, Yanyan Liu, Yi Zeng and Fangfang Xu

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801043

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An effective immunosensor for the detection of Human immunoglobulin G is constructed by using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to activate Pt quartz-crystal microbalance electrodes (see image). The immunosensor shows a good linear relationship between the combined mass and the concentration of Human IgG.

    10. Amorphous nanoparticles

      Patterned Nanowires of Se and Corresponding Metal Chalcogenides from Patterned Amorphous Se Nanoparticles (pages 356–360)

      Renzhi Ma, Yang Wang and Thomas E. Mallouk

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801190

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An ordered assembly of amorphous Se nanoparticles is observed on photolithographically patterned substrates. In situ nucleation/growth of crystalline t-Se nanowires and topotactic transformation into Ag2Se and CdSe nanowires (see image) occur from the patterned a-Se islands.

    11. Core–shell materials

      An Assembly Route to Inorganic Catalytic Nanoreactors Containing Sub-10-nm Gold Nanoparticles with Anti-Aggregation Properties (pages 361–365)

      Xiaoqing Huang, Changyou Guo, Jinquan Zuo, Nanfeng Zheng and Galen D. Stucky

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800808

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Yolk–shell catalytic nanoreactors with sub-10-nm Au nanoparticles and a mesoporous ZrO2 or TiO2 shell are prepared from monodisperse hydrophobic Au nanoparticles through an assembly approach (see image). The nanoreactors demonstrate both a remarkable catalytic activity and anti-aggregation properties upon thermal treatment and recycling.

    12. Epitaxial nanowires

      Evolution of Epitaxial InAs Nanowires on GaAs (111)B (pages 366–369)

      Xin Zhang, Jin Zou, Mohanchand Paladugu, Yanan Guo, Yong Wang, Yong Kim, Hannah J. Joyce, Qiang Gao, H. Hoe Tan and Chennupati Jagadish

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800690

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The evolution of InAs nanowires on the GaAs (111)B substrate by metal–organic chemical vapor deposition shows that InAs traces are formed and elongated first, driven by the liquid Au catalysts preferentially retaining interfaces with the GaAs substrate due to the Au/GaAs interfacial energy being lower than that of Au/InAs. Vertical InAs nanowires initiate when elongated traces intersect (see image).

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Nanoparticle trafficking

      Cancer-Cell-Phenotype-Dependent Differential Intracellular Trafficking of Unconjugated Quantum Dots (pages 370–376)

      Sutapa Barua and Kaushal Rege

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800972

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Unconjugated anionic quantum dots (QDs) are taken up spontaneously by closely related prostate cancer cells (see image) and their intracellular fate is dramatically influenced by the cancer-cell phenotype. QDs demonstrate punctated intracellular localization throughout the cytoplasm in PC3 cells, but localize mainly at a single juxtanuclear location inside PC3-PSMA cells.

    2. Foams

      Electron-Tomography Determination of the Packing Structure of Macroporous Ordered Siliceous Foams Assembled From Vesicles (pages 377–382)

      Pei Yuan, Xufeng Zhou, Hongning Wang, Nian Liu, Yifan Hu, Graeme J. Auchterlonie, John Drennan, Xiangdong Yao, Gao Qing (Max) Lu, Jin Zou and Chengzhong Yu

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801020

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electron tomography is employed to determine the packing structures of ordered, layered siliceous foams assembled from vesicles at the nanoscale. The materials adopt an ordered 2D hexagonal arrangement in single-layered areas, regular honeycomb patterns for double-layered samples, and polyhedric cells similar to the Weaire–Phelan structure in multilayered areas (see image). All three packing modes follow the principle of minimizing surface area.

    3. Actuators

      Crosslinking Metal Nanoparticles into the Polymer Backbone of Hydrogels Enables Preparation of Soft, Magnetic Field-Driven Actuators with Muscle-Like Flexibility (pages 383–388)

      Roland Fuhrer, Evagelos Kimon Athanassiou, Norman Albert Luechinger and Wendelin Jan Stark

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801091

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hydrogels with up to 60 wt% cobalt metal nanoparticles were prepared from covalently crosslinking the polymer chains with functionalized nanomagnets. The exceptional strength and flexibility of the materials suggest application in flexible machinery and artificial implants (see image).

    4. Copper particle toxicity

      Surface Characteristics, Copper Release, and Toxicity of Nano- and Micrometer-Sized Copper and Copper(II) Oxide Particles: A Cross-Disciplinary Study (pages 389–399)

      Klara Midander, Pontus Cronholm, Hanna L. Karlsson, Karine Elihn, Lennart Möller, Christofer Leygraf and Inger Odnevall Wallinder

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801220

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Save your breath: A multianalytical approach is used to assess the toxicity to cultured lung cells of micro- and nanoparticles of oxidized Cu and CuO in relation to the particle characteristics (see picture). Larger amounts of copper per quantity of particles are released from nanoparticles than micrometer-sized particles. The cytotoxic effects of nanoparticles are caused by the particles rather than the released copper fraction.

    5. Metamaterials

      Periodic Large-Area Metallic Split-Ring Resonator Metamaterial Fabrication Based on Shadow Nanosphere Lithography (pages 400–406)

      Michael Christian Gwinner, Elisabeth Koroknay, Liwei Fu, Piotr Patoka, Witold Kandulski, Michael Giersig and Harald Giessen

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800923

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-coverage fabrication technique for periodic metallic split-ring resonator metamaterials is presented, which allows control of inner- and outer-ring diameters, gap angles, as well as thickness and periodicity. The method uses tilted-angle-rotation thermal evaporation onto Langmuir–Blodgett-type monolayers of close-packed polystyrene nanospheres. Pronounced, tunable optical metamaterial resonances in the range of 100 THz are consistent with simulations (see image).

  7. Keywords

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Keywords Index Small 3/2009 (page 408)

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990014

  8. Authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    8. Keywords
    9. Authors
    1. Authors Index Small 3/2009 (page 409)

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990015

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