Small

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 5

March 6, 2009

Volume 5, Issue 5

Pages 527–630

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Surface polymerization: Small 5/2009

      J. A. Lipton-Duffin, O. Ivasenko, D. F. Perepichka and F. Rosei

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990021

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows a rendering of conjugated poly(para-phenylene) epitaxially grown at the surface of Cu(110) by the Ullmann reaction. The diiodobenzene monomer is dosed onto a substrate held at 500 K. Upon arrival at the substrate, the C–I bonds are catalytically cleaved, and the produced copper-bound phenylene intermediates diffuse on the surface until meeting together and coupling through a C–C bond, subsequently producing straight polymer lines along the [1–10] direction. The formation of these straight lines is demonstrated, as well as the formation of zigzag lines and macrocycles produced by varying the structure of the monomer (1,4- or 1,3-diiodobenzene). For more information, please read the Full Paper “Synthesis of Polyphenylene Molecular Wires by Surface-Confined Polymerization” by F. Rosei et al., beginning on page 592.

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Switchable surfactants: Small 5/2009

      Brian G. Cousins, Apurba K. Das, Raman Sharma, Yanning Li, Jonathan P. McNamara, Ian H. Hillier, Ian A. Kinloch and Rein V. Ulijn

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Enzymatically activated carbon-nanotube (CNT) surfactants based on simple aromatic peptide derivatives that create homogeneous aqueous CNT dispersions on-demand and under constant and physiological conditions are investigated. These switchable, versatile, and low-cost CNT surfactants provide a step forward for applications where a dynamic interface between biological systems and carbon nanomaterials is required. The image shows amino acid derivatives interacting with a CNT surface by π-stacking while simultaneously providing a negatively charged surface to assist in the dispersion of CNTs. A protease enzyme is shown, which activates these surfactants on-demand from inactive precursors. For more information, please read the Communication “Enzyme-Activated Surfactants for Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes” by I. H. Hillier, I. A. Kinloch, R. V. Ulijn, et al., beginning on page 587.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Contents: Small 5/2009 (pages 527–532)

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990023

  4. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Carbon fibers

      Continuous Nanoscale Carbon Fibers with Superior Mechanical Strength (pages 536–542)

      Jie Liu, Zhongren Yue and Hao Fong

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801440

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Continuous nanoscale carbon fibers can be developed by stabilization and carbonization of highly aligned and extensively stretched electrospun polyacrylonitrile copolymer nanofibers under optimal tension. These carbon fibers have diameters of tens of nanometers and are expected to possess a superior mechanical strength unlikely to be achieved through conventional approaches.

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Medicinal chemistry

      Nanoparticles for Optical Molecular Imaging of Atherosclerosis (pages 544–557)

      Kim Douma, Lenneke Prinzen, Dick W. Slaaf, Chris P. M. Reutelingsperger, Erik A. L. Biessen, Tilman M. Hackeng, Mark J. Post and Marc A. M. J. van Zandvoort

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801079

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Molecular imaging contributes to personalized medicine dedicated the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Targeting of high-quality contrast-enhancing optical nanoparticles (see image) increases the sensitivity in assessing vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions with optical imaging modalities. Here, we provide an overview of optical nanoparticles and targeting ligands for optical molecular imaging of lesion development and discuss their potential clinical applicability.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Metal transfer printing

      Water-Mediated Al Metal Transfer Printing with Contact Inking for Fabrication of Thin-Film Transistors (pages 558–561)

      Kiwon Oh, Byoung H. Lee, Jae K. Hwang, Haiwon Lee, Seongil Im and Myung M. Sung

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801108

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Water-mediated metal transfer printing (mTP) with contact inking is a new patterning method for generating Al patterns with a range of feature sizes. An Al thin film is used as a solid “ink” in the mTP method, which can be used in automated printing machines to generate Al electrodes for electronic devices (see image).

    2. Lasers

      Laser Emission from Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers (pages 562–566)

      Andrea Camposeo, Francesca Di Benedetto, Ripalta Stabile, Antonio A. R. Neves, Roberto Cingolani and Dario Pisignano

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801165

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fully organic nanofiber lasers, made by a polymer matrix doped with gain molecules, are demonstrated. They exhibit emission in the visible and near infrared range (see image), supporting efficient waveguiding of the self-emitted light. Individual fibers can operate as optical cavities, emitting single-mode laser light at visible wavelengths with a threshold of tens of µJ cm−2.

    3. Core/shell nanoparticles

      Synthesis of AuAg Alloy Nanoparticles from Core/Shell-Structured Ag/Au (pages 567–570)

      Chao Wang, Sheng Peng, Ryan Chan and Shouheng Sun

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801169

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Monodisperse AuAg alloy nanoparticles (NPs) are made from core/shell Ag/Au NPs through Au and Ag diffusion in oleylamine. The composition of the alloy NPs is controlled by the Au shell thickness and the plasmonic absorptions can be tuned from 520 to 400 nm (see image). These alloy NPs have great potential as optical probes for biosensing and bioimaging, or as catalysts for CO oxidation.

    4. MRI contrast agents

      Fabrication of MnxFe1–xO Colloidal Solid Solution as a Dual Magnetic-Resonance-Contrast Agent (pages 571–573)

      Donghyeuk Choi, Anna Han, Joong Pill Park, Jai Keun Kim, Jei Hee Lee, Tae Hee Kim and Sang-Wook Kim

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2008 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801258

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Double agent: Homogeneous MnxFe1–xO colloidal solid-solution nanocrystals exhibit stability despite having a metastable structure. They show simultaneous T1 and T2 relaxation time contrast enhancement effects in magnetic resonance imaging (see images of rat liver).

    5. Biomimetics

      Mimicking Domino-Like Photonic Nanostructures on Butterfly Wings (pages 574–578)

      Tanu Suryadi Kustandi, Hong Yee Low, Jing Hua Teng, Isabel Rodriguez and Rui Yin

      Article first published online: 16 JAN 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801282

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Butterfly-mimetic photonic nanostructures are fabricated by shearing large arrays of nanometer-scale structures, prepatterned using nanoimprint lithography. The overlapping domino-like structures generate a tunable bright iridescent effect similar to that found in natural butterfly wings (see image).

    6. Nanogap electrodes

      Planar Nanogap Electrodes by Direct Nanotransfer Printing (pages 579–582)

      Sebastian Strobel, Stefan Harrer, Guillermo Penso Blanco, Giuseppe Scarpa, Gerhard Abstreiter, Paolo Lugli and Marc Tornow

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801400

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Planar nanogap electrodes of predetermined spacing are fabricated using direct high-resolution metal nanotransfer printing on a solid substrate (see image). A GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure featuring a nanoscale groove on a cleaved plane is the mold. Successful transfer experiments yield sectioned metal thin films with gap separation down to about 10 nm having excellent electrical properties.

    7. Patterning

      A Strategy for Patterning Conducting Polymers Using Nanoimprint Lithography and Isotropic Plasma Etching (pages 583–586)

      Chunyu Huang, Bin Dong, Nan Lu, Bingjie Yang, Liguo Gao, Lu Tian, Dianpeng Qi, Qiong Wu and Lifeng Chi

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801197

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method for decreasing the lateral size of conducting polymer patterns is demonstrated. Up to 15–70% shrinkage can be achieved based on nanoimprint lithography and isotropic plasma etching (see image). The conducting polymer patterns can direct the assembly of silver nanoparticles. This is a simple route for patterning high-resolution conducting polymers.

    8. Switchable surfactants

      Enzyme-Activated Surfactants for Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 587–590)

      Brian G. Cousins, Apurba K. Das, Raman Sharma, Yanning Li, Jonathan P. McNamara, Ian H. Hillier, Ian A. Kinloch and Rein V. Ulijn

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801184

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      N-Fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl-protected amino acids are used as surfactants for carbon nanotubes and their interactions are modeled using quantum mechanical computations. These surfactants are then converted into enzymatically activated CNT surfactants that create homogeneous aqueous nanotube dispersions on-demand under constant and physiological conditions (see image).

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Surface polymerization

      Synthesis of Polyphenylene Molecular Wires by Surface-Confined Polymerization (pages 592–597)

      J. A. Lipton-Duffin, O. Ivasenko, D. F. Perepichka and F. Rosei

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801943

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Epitaxially aligned conjugated polymer wires (polyphenylene) are formed by exposing a surface of Cu(110) to a vapor of isomeric diiodobenzene molecules and subsequent annealing at ≈200 °C (see image). The substitution pattern (symmetry) of the monomer defines the structure of the polymer: straight parallel lines are formed from 1,4-diiodobenzene, while zigzag lines and macrocycles are produced from 1,3-diiodobenzene.

    2. Biomimetics

      Layer-By-Layer Films as a Biomimetic Reservoir for rhBMP-2 Delivery: Controlled Differentiation of Myoblasts to Osteoblasts (pages 598–608)

      Thomas Crouzier, Kefeng Ren, Claire Nicolas, Christian Roy and Catherine Picart

      Article first published online: 13 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800804

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Kept in reserve: Controlled differentiation of myoblast cells in myotubes (see images, top) or osteoblasts (bottom) occurs via poly(L-lysine)/hyaluronan (PLL/HA) multilayer films loaded with increasing amounts of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). Myogenic (troponin T, green) and osteogenic (alkaline phosphatase, blue) markers are used.

    3. Capillary flow

      Nanointerstice-Driven Microflow (pages 609–613)

      Seok Chung, Hoyoung Yun and Roger D. Kamm

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800748

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microchannels made of poly(methyl methacrylate) lose their acquired hydrophilicity by oxygen plasma treatment in long-term storage and tend to generate slow capillary flow exhibiting large variability. To drive flow in the microchannel, nanointerstices (NI) are introduced at the side wall of the microchannel (see image), resulting in capillary flow that is less dependent on surface characteristics. NI flow generation can create long-term predictable flow in commercialized products with microchannels.

    4. Microstructuring

      Complex Microstructured 3D Surfaces Using Chitosan Biopolymer (pages 614–620)

      Javier G. Fernandez, Christopher A. Mills and Josep Samitier

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200800907

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A microstructured chitosan biopolymer is moulded to conform to macroscopic shapes (see image) with the intention of producing structured 3D cell scaffolds and moulds for poly(dimethyl siloxane) soft lithography. Such surfaces are used to guide cell alignment during the culture of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in a structured tubular scaffold.

    5. Magnetic materials

      Rational Synthesis of Magnetic Thermosensitive Microcontainers as Targeting Drug Carriers (pages 621–628)

      Li-Bo Chen, Feng Zhang and Chang-Chun Wang

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200801154

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetic thermosensitive microcontainers comprising Fe3O4 nanoparticles with PNIPAM walls are fabricated in a rational approach and utilized as potential drug carriers. The microcontainers have a well-defined structure and a narrow size distribution. They can form fried-egg-like structures when dried on silicon wafer surface (see image).

  8. Keywords

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Keywords Index Small 5/2009 (page 629)

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990024

  9. Authors

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Keywords
    10. Authors
    1. Authors Index Small 5/2009 (page 630)

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200990025

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