Small

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 24

December 20, 2010

Volume 6, Issue 24

Pages 2773–2914

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Fluorinated graphene: Fluorographene: A Two-Dimensional Counterpart of Teflon (Small 24/2010) (page 2773)

      Rahul R. Nair, Wencai Ren, Rashid Jalil, Ibtsam Riaz, Vasyl G. Kravets, Liam Britnell, Peter Blake, Fredrik Schedin, Alexander S. Mayorov, Shengjun Yuan, Mikhail I. Katsnelson, Hui-Ming Cheng, Wlodek Strupinski, Lyubov G. Bulusheva, Alexander V. Okotrub, Irina V. Grigorieva, Alexander N. Grigorenko, Kostya S. Novoselov and Andre K. Geim

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090086

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows the atomic structure, optical photograph, and electron diffraction pattern of the novel material, fluorographene. Fluorographene is a two-dimensional crystal and can be considered a stoichiometric chemical derivative of graphene, produced by attaching a fluorine atom to each of the carbon atoms. It is one of the thinnest possible, high-quality insulators with an energy gap of 3 eV. Fluorographene inherits the mechanical strength of graphene, exhibiting a Young's modulus of 100 N m−1 and sustaining strains of 15%. It is chemically inert and thermally stable up to 400 °C even under ambient conditions. These characteristics rival those of Teflon and allow for a wide range of applications. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Fluorographene: A Two-Dimensional Counterpart of Teflon’ by R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, and co-workers beginning on page 2877.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Carbon nanotubes: Chemically Induced, Thermally Controlled Peel-Off of the External Walls of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (Small 24/2010) (page 2774)

      Nikolaos Karousis, Keita Kobayashi, Hisanori Shinohara and Nikos Tagmatarchis

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090087

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows the thermally induced peel-off of the external wall of aryl-functionalized double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs). It is known that the covalent functionalization of DWNTs introduces moieties onto the surface of the outer tubes, while the electronic properties of the inner tubes remain intact. At the same time, the functionalization process creates defects at the external framework of the DWNTs, thus causing disruption of the continuous π-electronic network. Annealing of the functionalized DWNTs results, initially, in thermal decomposition of the grafted aryl units—leaving defect sites on the outer layer of the DWNTs—followed then, by exposure of the inner walls as individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) possessing larger diameters as compared to the corresponding inner tubes of the pristine DWNTs. The exposed SWNTs lack thermal stability and seem to be destroyed upon further thermal treatment. For more information, please read the Communication “Chemically Induced, Thermally Controlled Peel-Off of the External Walls of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes” by H. Shinohara, N. Tagmatarchis, and co-workers, beginning on page 2826.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
  4. Retraction

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Retraction: Immunoisolating Pancreatic Islets by Encapsulation with Selective Withdrawal (page 2780)

      Jason L. Wyman, Seda Kizilel, Ryan Skarbek, Xiangyang Zhao, Matthew Connors, William S. Dillmore, William L. Murphy, Milan Mrksich, Sidney R. Nagel and Marc R. Garfinkel

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090089

      This article corrects:

      Immunoisolating Pancreatic Islets by Encapsulation with Selective Withdrawal

      Vol. 3, Issue 4, 683–690, Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2007

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Small Upconverting Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications (pages 2781–2795)

      Dev K. Chatterjee, Muthu Kumara Gnanasammandhan and Yong Zhang

      Version of Record online: 9 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000418

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles emit detectable photons of higher energy in the near-infrared (NIR) or visible range upon irradiation with an NIR light in a process termed ‘upconversion.’ They overcome some of the disadvantages faced by conventional downconversion labels, thus making them an ideal fluorescent label for biological applications. The lead-in photograph depicts rare-earth upconversion nanoparticles and their use in cell imaging.

  6. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Optical and Electroluminescent Properties of Conjugated Polyrotaxanes (pages 2796–2820)

      Sergio Brovelli and Franco Cacialli

      Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001881

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Conjugated polyrotaxanes obtained via threading of conjugated polymers into cyclodextrin (CD) rings are prototypical examples of semiconductors that are engineered at a supramolecular level. Cyclodextrins act primarily as molecular spacers, and prevent close intermolecular interaction, thus affording substantial control on important aspects of conjugated polymers photophysics.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Data storage: A Graphene Nanoribbon Memory Cell (Small 24/2010) (page 2821)

      Eberhard Ulrich Stützel, Marko Burghard, Klaus Kern, Floriano Traversi, Fabrizio Nichele and Roman Sordan

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece image shows a graphene nanoribbon memory cell fabricated by patterning graphene into nanoribbons using V2O5 nanofibers as etching masks. A pronounced memory effect is observed under ambient conditions, which is attributed to charge traps in the vicinity of the nanoribbons. Reliable switching between two conductivity states is demonstrated for clock frequencies of up to 1 kHz and pulse durations as short as 500 ns (tested limits) for >107 cycles. The durable and stable memory cell can be rendered nonvolatile upon exclusion of oxygen and humidity. Graphene nanoribbons thus emerge as promising components of highly integrated memory arrays. For more information, please read the Communication “A Graphene Nanoribbon Memory Cell” by R. Sordan and co-workers, beginning on page 2821.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. A Graphene Nanoribbon Memory Cell (pages 2822–2825)

      Eberhard Ulrich Stützel, Marko Burghard, Klaus Kern, Floriano Traversi, Fabrizio Nichele and Roman Sordan

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000854

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A graphene nanoribbon memory cell is fabricated by patterning graphene into nanoribbons using V2O5 nanofibers as etching masks. A pronounced memory effect is observed under ambient conditions. Reliable switching between two conductivity states is demonstrated for clock frequencies of up to 1 kHz and pulse durations as short as 500 ns for > 107 cycles.

    2. Chemically Induced, Thermally Controlled Peel-Off of the External Walls of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2826–2831)

      Nikolaos Karousis, Keita Kobayashi, Hisanori Shinohara and Nikos Tagmatarchis

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001154

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Organic functionalization of the external walls of DWNTs, followed by controlled thermal treatment under an inert atmosphere, can disclose the inner tubes, which are ready for direct investigation via spectroscopy and microscopy. The latter-exposed tubes, showing larger diameter compared to the thin inner ones of the pristine DWNTs, are thermally unstable and decompose during annealing.

    3. Mapping Spatial Heterogeneity in Cu(In1−xGax)Se2 Nanocrystal-Based Photovoltaics with Scanning Photocurrent and Fluorescence Microscopy (pages 2832–2836)

      David P. Ostrowski, Micah S. Glaz, Brian W. Goodfellow, Vahid A. Akhavan, Matthew G. Panthani, Brian A. Korgel and David A. Vanden Bout

      Version of Record online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001274

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Scanning photocurrent and fluorescence microscopy, along with local voltage-dependent photocurrent measurements, are used to study spatial variations in electronic and optical properties across an as-fabricated, functional Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) nanocrystal-based photovoltaic device. Through correlation of local morphological features with spatial variations in device properties, a greater understanding of photovoltaic performance is obtained.

    4. Self-Limited Oxidation: A Route to Form Graphene Layers from Graphite by One-Step Heating (pages 2837–2841)

      Chunxiao Cong, Ting Yu, Haomin Wang, Kaihong Zheng, Pingqi Gao, Xiaodong Chen and Qing Zhang

      Version of Record online: 10 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001184

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A simple approachfor the fabrication of graphene layers by self-limited oxidation of graphite flakes through a one-step annealing process is reported. Parallel graphene ribbons are readily formed by converting prepatterned graphite belts. This method indicates the feasibility of the controllable formation of graphene layers through control of the corresponding features of graphite flakes.

    5. A Biomembrane Stencil for Crystal Growth and Soft Lithography of a Thermochromic Molecular Sensor (pages 2842–2846)

      Anil D. Naik, Linda Stappers, Johan Snauwaert, Jan Fransaer and Yann Garcia

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001527

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A versatile support and natural stencil—remunerative assets from nature: A composite biomembrane from Allium cepa is introduced as a natural template to seed nanosized crystals and to deposit a thin film of an iron(II)-based thermochromic molecular sensor. The illustration depicts growth of nanocrystals on the biomembrane and subsequent pattern transfer onto a Si wafer. The original coated membrane displays the functional properties of spin crossover.

    6. An Effective Lift-Off Method for Patterning High-Density Gold Interconnects on an Elastomeric Substrate (pages 2847–2852)

      Liang Guo and Stephen P. DeWeerth

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001456

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      High-resolution, high-density gold interconnects are effectively patterned on an elastomeric substrate. A 3 cm cable of ten gold wires with 10 μm width and 20 μm pitch is achieved, successfully demonstrating density increases of more than one order of magnitude from previously established work. Many applications in the fields of stretchable electronics and conformable neural interfaces will benefit from these fabrication developments.

    7. Microscoop for Manipulation of Micro-objects: Use of Fabricated Cantilever with Atomic Force Microscope (pages 2853–2857)

      Takahiro Watanabe-Nakayama, Shin-ichi Machida, Rehana Afrin and Atsushi Ikai

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001632

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fabricated cantilevers like pushpin removers used in an atomic force microscope allow the manipulation (picking up or putting down) of micro-objects. A customized cantilever with an appropriate spring constant also allows for the detection of the adhesion force between micro-objects and a surface, even if these objects are tightly bound.

    8. Mechanobiology: Correlation Between Mechanical Stability of Microcapsules Studied by AFM and Impact of Cell-Induced Stresses (pages 2858–2862)

      Mihaela Delcea, Stephan Schmidt, Raghavendra Palankar, Paulo A. L. Fernandes, Andreas Fery, Helmuth Möhwald and André G. Skirtach

      Version of Record online: 18 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001478

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In a novel approach to the study of cell mechanics, a colloidal probe AFM is combined with a fluorescence microscope to investigate the mechanical properties and release from polymeric microcapsules and to correlate these data with release upon intracellular incorporation and cell-induced stresses.

    9. Facile Preparation of a Hybrid Nanoprobe for Triple-Modality Optical/PET/MR Imaging (pages 2863–2868)

      Jeong Chan Park, Mi Kyung Yu, Gwang Il An, Se-Il Park, Jungmin Oh, Hong Joo Kim, Joo-Hyun Kim, Eun Kyung Wang, Il-Hwa Hong, Yeong Su Ha, Tae Hyun Choi, Kyu-Shik Jeong, Yongmin Chang, Michael J. Welch, Sangyong Jon and Jeongsoo Yoo

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001418

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A facile method of preparing triple-modality, optical–nuclear–magnetic imaging probes using radiolabeled superparamagnetic nanoparticles is developed. Cerenkov luminescence imaging based on radionuclides showed great potential as a new optical imaging modality. The complementary nature of the optical/PET/MR hybrid nanoprobes facilitated non-invasive differentiation between tumor-metastasized sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and tumor-free SLNs.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Energy transfer: Visualizing Resonance Energy Transfer in Supramolecular Surface Patterns of β-CD-Functionalized Quantum Dot Hosts and Organic Dye Guests by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (Small 24/2010) (page 2869)

      Denis Dorokhin, Shu-Han Hsu, Nikodem Tomczak, Christian Blum, Vinod Subramaniam, Jurriaan Huskens, David N. Reinhoudt, Aldrik H. Velders and G. Julius Vancso

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090091

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quantum dots (QDs) exhibit bright fluorescence emissions and long lifetimes. These properties make them interesting candidates as active optical components in (bio)labeling and (bio)sensing. The divalent adamantyl-functionalized lissamine rhodamine is employed in this study as the model analyte. Its detection via supramolecular host–guest binding and QD-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal transduction mechanism is demonstrated. The frontispiece shows surface patterns consisting of CdSe/ZnS QDs functionalized at their periphery with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), which are obtained by immobilization of the QDs from solution onto glass substrates patterned with adamantyl-terminated poly(propylene imine) dendrimeric “glue.” Subsequent formation of host–guest complexes between vacant β-CD on the QD surface and adamantyl of the model analyte resulting in FRET is confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, spectroscopy, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Visualizing Resonance Energy Transfer in Supramolecular Surface Patterns of β-CD-Functionalized Quantum Dot Hosts and Organic Dye Guests by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging” by A. H. Velders, G. J. Vancso, and co-workers, beginning on page 2869.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Retraction
    6. Review
    7. Review Article
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Visualizing Resonance Energy Transfer in Supramolecular Surface Patterns of β-CD-Functionalized Quantum Dot Hosts and Organic Dye Guests by Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (pages 2870–2876)

      Denis Dorokhin, Shu-Han Hsu, Nikodem Tomczak, Christian Blum, Vinod Subramaniam, Jurriaan Huskens, David N. Reinhoudt, Aldrik H. Velders and G. Julius Vancso

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000713

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface patterns consisting of quantum dots functionalized with β-cyclodextrin are obtained by immobilization of the quantum dots onto glass substrates patterned with a dendrimeric “glue.” Detection of an analyte via supramolecular host–guest binding and quantum dot-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signal transduction mechanism is demonstrated.

    2. Fluorographene: A Two-Dimensional Counterpart of Teflon (pages 2877–2884)

      Rahul R. Nair, Wencai Ren, Rashid Jalil, Ibtsam Riaz, Vasyl G. Kravets, Liam Britnell, Peter Blake, Fredrik Schedin, Alexander S. Mayorov, Shengjun Yuan, Mikhail I. Katsnelson, Hui-Ming Cheng, Wlodek Strupinski, Lyubov G. Bulusheva, Alexander V. Okotrub, Irina V. Grigorieva, Alexander N. Grigorenko, Kostya S. Novoselov and Andre K. Geim

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001555

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluorination of graphene yields a stoichiometric derivative of graphene with a fluorine atom attached to each carbon. Fluorographene is an optically transparent, high-quality insulator with a mechanical strength and elasticity, matching those of graphene. It is inert and thermally stable, similar to Teflon.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Graphene Fluoride: A Stable Stoichiometric Graphene Derivative and its Chemical Conversion to Graphene (pages 2885–2891)

      Radek Zbořil, František Karlický, Athanasios B. Bourlinos, Theodore A. Steriotis, Athanasios K. Stubos, Vasilios Georgakilas, Klára Šafářová, Dalibor Jančík, Christos Trapalis and Michal Otyepka

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001401

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite fluoride with sulpholane provides, in one step, stoichiometric graphene fluoride monolayers. The graphene fluoride is the most stable graphene halide and has a bandgap of 3.1 eV. The bandgaps of other graphene halides vary from 0.0 to 3.1 eV. The reaction of graphene fluoride with KI leads to graphene covered with a small amount of nanodiamonds.

    4. Molecular Modulation of Conductivity on H-Terminated Silicon-On-Insulator Substrates (pages 2892–2899)

      Girjesh Dubey, Federico Rosei and Gregory P. Lopinski

      Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001285

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Molecularly gated transport on silicon: When pyridine adsorbs on p-type H-terminated silicon-on-insulator (H-SOI) at room temperature, an inversion channel is activated. The conductivity increases and the Hall coefficient changes sign, indicating n-type surface conduction. This effect is reversible when the monolayer desorbs.

    5. Inhibition of Influenza Virus Infection by Multivalent Sialic-Acid-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles (pages 2900–2906)

      Ilona Papp, Christian Sieben, Kai Ludwig, Meike Roskamp, Christoph Böttcher, Sabine Schlecht, Andreas Herrmann and Rainer Haag

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001349

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Densely sugar-coated gold nanoparticles are prepared by covalently attaching sialic-acid-modified dendrons to the nanoparticle surface. Such multivalent constructs are designed to bind hemagglutinin envelope-protein arrays on the influenza surface, thus inhibiting viral invasion of host cells. Various chemical and biological assays, as well as electron microscopy, are presented to validate this approach and visualize for the first time the multiple binding of AuNP inhibitors to the virus surface.

    6. Fluorescent Polymeric Nanoparticles: Aggregation and Phase Behavior of Pyrene and Amphotericin B Molecules in Nanoparticle Cores (pages 2907–2914)

      Varun Kumar, Douglas H. Adamson and Robert K. Prud’homme

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001199

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The aggregationand phase behavior of compounds in nanoparticle cores are reflected in their fluorescence emission spectra. Relative peak intensities of monomer and aggregated pyrene, amphotericin B, and Hostasol Yellow provide a qualitative understanding of the spatial distribution of these compounds and the dynamics of their amorphous-to-crystalline transitions at the nano­meter length scale.

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