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Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 20

October 18, 2010

Volume 6, Issue 20

Pages 2195–2319

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Nanoporous materials: Porous Graphene as an Atmospheric Nanofilter (Small 20/2010)

      Stephan Blankenburg, Marco Bieri, Roman Fasel, Klaus Müllen, Carlo A. Pignedoli and Daniele Passerone

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090068

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows a nanofilter for atmospheric gas separation produced by porous graphene supported on a classical porous material such as Al2O3. The functionality of this membrane is analyzed with first-principle calculations showing that it is superior to traditional filters using polymers or silica. Due to the extremely high selectivity in favor of hydrogen and helium among other atmospheric gases, the present membrane has high potential for further technological applications such as gas sensors or fuel cells. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Porous Graphene as an Atmospheric Nanofilter” by S. Blankenburg and co-workers, beginning on page 2266.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Self-assembly: Hierarchically Ordered Structures Enabled by Controlled Evaporative Self-Assembly (Small 20/2010)

      Myunghwan Byun, Wei Han, Feng Qiu, Ned B. Bowden and Zhiqun Lin

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows hierarchically ordered structures, which are achieved by combining two self-assembly processes at different length scales, namely, top-down controlled evaporative self-assembly and bottom-up spontaneous self-assembly of nanomaterials, i.e., comb block copolymers (CBCPs). Highly ordered, microscopic concentric CBCP rectangles are formed in a gradient arrangement via evaporative selfassembly as a result of controlled pinning and depinning of a three-phase contact line of evaporating CBCP toluene solution confined in a wedge-on-fl at geometry. Subsequent solvent vapor annealing promotes spontaneous microphase separation of the CBCP, thereby leading to the formation of vertically aligned nanocylinders. For more information, please read the Communication “Hierarchically Ordered Structures Enabled by Controlled Evaporative Self-Assembly” by Z. Lin and co-workers, beginning on page 2250.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
  4. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Poly(Methacrylic Acid) Polymer Hydrogel Capsules: Drug Carriers, Sub-compartmentalized Microreactors, Artificial Organelles (pages 2201–2207)

      Alexander N. Zelikin, Andrew D. Price and Brigitte Städler

      Version of Record online: 18 AUG 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000765

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogel capsules are presented as vessels for delivery of therapeutic compounds, microencapsulated catalysis, and the creation of sub-compartmentalized cell mimics. The newly developed techniques for and material properties of these capsules are critically reviewed in the context of their successful performance in diverse biomedical applications.

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Controlling Cell Behavior Through the Design of Polymer Surfaces (pages 2208–2220)

      Natália M. Alves, Iva Pashkuleva, Rui L. Reis and João F. Mano

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different approaches for tailoring the morphology and chemistry of polymeric surfaces and their potential for better understanding cell–biomaterial interactions, including the recent use of biomimetic approaches and stimuli-responsive macromolecules, are discussed in this review.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Quantum dots: Dynamic Visualization of RGD-Quantum Dot Binding to Tumor Neovasculature and Extravasation in Multiple Living Mouse Models Using Intravital Microscopy (Small 20/2010)

      Bryan Ronain Smith, Zhen Cheng, Abhijit De, Jarrett Rosenberg and Sanjiv Sam Gambhir

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090071

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece image shows tumor (green) at the microscopic level in living mice. Within the tumor, blood vessels in red are easily visible. When targeted, nanoparticles (quantum dots, shown in white) bind as aggregates in a similar way to three different types of tumor (one example is shown at bottom left). However, when controls are used, very little binding takes place as shown in the other images. Data indicate that vascular targeting may be a robust and reliable method to promote nanoparticle accumulation in a tumor, as opposed to extravasation, which is shown to be highly heterogeneous. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Dynamic Visualization of RGD-Quantum Dot Binding to Tumor Neovasculature and Extravasation in Multiple Living Mouse Models Using Intravital Microscopy” by S. S. Gambhir and co-workers, beginning on page 2222.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Dynamic Visualization of RGD-Quantum Dot Binding to Tumor Neovasculature and Extravasation in Multiple Living Mouse Models Using Intravital Microscopy (pages 2222–2229)

      Bryan Ronain Smith, Zhen Cheng, Abhijit De, Jarrett Rosenberg and Sanjiv Sam Gambhir

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001022

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The behavior of targeted quantum dots (Qdots) across three different tumor models using intravital microscopy with submicrometer resolution is described. As in the figure, the differences in extravasation between tumor types are shown and the kinetics are quatnified. Further, by demonstrating similarity in Qdot binding to tumor blood vessels across different tumor types, this work suggests several advantages implicit in vascular targeting compared with tumor cell targeting.

    2. Nanofibrous Bio-inorganic Hybrid Structures Formed Through Self-Assembly and Oriented Mineralization of Genetically Engineered Phage Nanofibers (pages 2230–2235)

      Tao He, Gopal Abbineni, Binrui Cao and Chuanbin Mao

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001108

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Filamentous M13 phage is genetically engineered to become anionic by fusing a negatively charged peptide to its major coat protein (pVIII). The cationic precursors of hydroxylapatite (HAP) such as Ca2+ ions induce the self-assembly of the negatively charged phage into a nanofibrous structure in the presence of anionic precursors such as PO43− ions. The cationic and anionic precursors are accumulated within the nanofibrous structure, leading to the formation of oriented nanocrystalline HAP.

  8. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Polyhydroxy Fullerenes for Non-Invasive Cancer Imaging and Therapy (pages 2236–2241)

      Vijay Krishna, Amit Singh, Parvesh Sharma, Nobutaka Iwakuma, Qiang Wang, Qizhi Zhang, Jacquelyn Knapik, Huabei Jiang, Stephen R. Grobmyer, Ben Koopman and Brij Moudgil

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000847

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The novel optical properties of polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF)—which are water-soluble, biodegradable and antioxidant—are applied for imaging and therapy of cancer. Tumors injected with PHF are imaged with photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and photothermally treated with near-infrared (NIR) laser. Tumor size decreases up to 72% within two hours of treatment, with only a blister visible after 20 hours.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. A Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Stability-Limited Growth Mechanism of Peptide-Mediated Gold-Nanoparticle Synthesis (pages 2242–2245)

      Jing Yu, Matthew L. Becker and Gustavo A. Carri

      Version of Record online: 17 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000889

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The bindingof a 12-residue peptide to a Au {111} surface and nanoparticles with different sizes result in various equilibrium structures and stabilities due to the surface morphology. The equilibrium structures are represented by the distance of peptide atoms to Au surface and the stabilities of peptide residues are represented by the average change of dihedral angles.

    2. The Role of Surface Functionality on Acute Cytotoxicity, ROS Generation and DNA Damage by Cationic Gold Nanoparticles (pages 2246–2249)

      Apiwat Chompoosor, Krishnendu Saha, Partha S. Ghosh, Dylan J. Macarthy, Oscar R. Miranda, Zheng-Jiang Zhu, Kathleen F. Arcaro and Vincent M. Rotello

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000463

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A poisoned chalice? Surface functionalization of 2 nm gold nanoparticles is an important determinant of their acute toxicity and genotoxicity. These attributes need to be considered for their use as carriers, and provide new direction for the design of therapeutics.

    3. Hierarchically Ordered Structures Enabled by Controlled Evaporative Self-Assembly (pages 2250–2255)

      Myunghwan Byun, Wei Han, Feng Qiu, Ned B. Bowden and Zhiqun Lin

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000816

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hierarchically ordered comb block copolymer (CBCP) stripes are produced by combining top-down, controlled evaporative self-assembly of capillary-held CBCP solution. In the wedge-on-Si geometry, bottom-up, spontaneous self-assembly of CBCP nanodomains is promoted by subsequent solvent vapor annealing.

    4. Self-Assembled Hybrid Structures of DNA Block-Copolymers and Nanoparticles with Enhanced DNA Binding Properties (pages 2256–2260)

      Xi-Jun Chen, Brenda L. Sanchez-Gaytan, Sara E. N. Hayik, Michael Fryd, Bradford B. Wayland and So-Jung Park

      Version of Record online: 9 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001185

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The self-assembly of DNA block-copolymers and nanoparticles yields hybrid nanostructures with useful properties of incorporated nanoparticles and a high density DNA layer on the exterior. Remarkably, they exhibit drastically enhanced binding capability to complementary DNA even at very low salt concentrations where isolated DNA strands do not form duplex structure. This extraordinary binding capability along with the high selectivity allows for efficient duplex DNA detection.

    5. Surface Properties Dictate Uptake, Distribution, Excretion, and Toxicity of Nanoparticles in Fish (pages 2261–2265)

      Zheng-Jiang Zhu, Rachel Carboni, Michael J. Quercio Jr., Bo Yan, Oscar R. Miranda, Douglas L. Anderton, Kathleen F. Arcaro, Vincent M. Rotello and Richard W. Vachet

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000989

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to demonstrate how surface chemistry influences the uptake, distribution, and excretion of nanomaterials in Japanese medaka fish. Hydrophilic AuNPs were found primarily in the fish intestines, showing no obvious health effects on the fish. Hydrophobic cationic AuNPs has a broad distribution in fish organs and lead ultimately to fish mortality in < 24 h.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Communication
    10. Communications
    11. Full Papers
    1. Porous Graphene as an Atmospheric Nanofilter (pages 2266–2271)

      Stephan Blankenburg, Marco Bieri, Roman Fasel, Klaus Müllen, Carlo A. Pignedoli and Daniele Passerone

      Version of Record online: 2 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001126

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ananofilter concept for atmospheric gas separation produced by porous graphene supported on Al2O3 is demonstrated. This membrane is superior to traditional filters using polymers or silica and could have a high potential for further technological applications such as gas sensors or fuel cells.

    2. Understanding the Photothermal Conversion Efficiency of Gold Nanocrystals (pages 2272–2280)

      Huanjun Chen, Lei Shao, Tian Ming, Zhenhua Sun, Chunmei Zhao, Baocheng Yang and Jianfang Wang

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001109

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effects of the plasmon wavelength, particle volume, shell coating, and assembly states of Au nanocrystals are systematically investigated by directly measuring the temperature of Au nanocrystal solutions with a thermocouple and analyzed on the basis of energy balance.

    3. Hybrid Polymer-Grafted Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for In vitro Gene Delivery (pages 2281–2291)

      Antonio Nunes, Nadja Amsharov, Chang Guo, Jeroen Van den Bossche, Padmanabhan Santhosh, Theodoros K. Karachalios, Stephanos F. Nitodas, Marko Burghard, Kostas Kostarelos and Khuloud T. Al-Jamal

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000864

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hybrid polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes are prepared by conjugation of polyethyleneimine, polyallylamine, or a mixture of both polymers by peptide coupling chemistry. The characterized hybrid is able to complex pDNA. After incubation with A549 cells, the hybrid construct allows an efficient delivery of pDNA into cells and leads to better gene transfection efficiency compared to MWNT functionalized with individual polymers.

    4. Synthesis and Superior Optical-Limiting Properties of Fluorene-Thiophene-Benzothiadazole Polymer-Functionalized Graphene Sheets (pages 2292–2300)

      Anupam Midya, Venkatesh Mamidala, Jia-Xiang Yang, Priscilla Kai Lian Ang, Zhi-Kuan Chen, Wei Ji and Kian Ping Loh

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000981

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A fluorene, thiophene, and benzothiadazole-based copolymer is grafted on reduced graphene oxide using a combination of diazonium grafting and Suzuki coupling reactions. These graphene–polymer hybrids show more superior optical-limiting properties than carbon nanotubes, which are commonly used as benchmark optical limiters.

    5. Viral Coat Proteins as Flexible Nano-Building-Blocks for Nanoparticle Encapsulation (pages 2301–2308)

      Feng Li, Ke Li, Zong-Qiang Cui, Zhi-Ping Zhang, Hong-Ping Wei, Ding Gao, Jiao-Yu Deng and Xian-En Zhang

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001078

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The major capsid protein of simian virus 40 (SV40), VP1, can encapsulate quantum dots (QDs) with different surface coatings efficiently, regardless of QD surface charges . The resulting hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) show the ability to enter living cells similar to SV40. The observations demonstrate the flexibility of SV40 VP1 as nano building blocks and provide insights into the mechanism of NP packaging by viral shells of SV40 VP1.

    6. Synthesis of a Pillared Graphene Nanostructure: A Counterpart of Three-Dimensional Carbon Architectures (pages 2309–2313)

      Rajat Kanti Paul, Maziar Ghazinejad, Miroslav Penchev, Jian Lin, Mihrimah Ozkan and Cengiz Sinan Ozkan

      Version of Record online: 22 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000525

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel 3D architecture called a pillared graphene nanostructure (PGN) is a combination of two allotropes of carbon, including graphene and carbon nanotubes. The reported methodology provides a pathway for fabricating novel 3D carbon nanostructures with potential applications in energy storage, photovoltaics, and nanoelectronics.

    7. Ultrabright Fluorescent Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (pages 2314–2319)

      Eun-Bum Cho, Dmytro O. Volkov and Igor Sokolov

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001337

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ultrabright fluorescentmesoporous silica nanoparticles have a fluorescent dye physically entrapped inside nanochannels of a silica matrix created during templated sol–gel self-assembly. The 40-nm silica particles are about 30 times brighter than 30-nm coated water-soluble quantum dots. The particles are more photostable than the encapsulated organic dye itself.

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