Small

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 21

November 5, 2010

Volume 6, Issue 21

Pages 2327–2468

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Microdroplets: Fusion and Fission Control of Picoliter-Sized Microdroplets for Changing the Solution Concentration of Microreactors (Small 21/2010)

      Masahiro Takinoue, Hiroaki Onoe and Shoji Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image illustrates how the solution concentration of a picoliter-sized water-in-oil (w/o) microdroplet is changed by the electrofusion and hydrodynamic fission of w/o microdroplets in a microfl uidic system. This system enables the analyses of the conformational dynamics of biomacromolecules accompanied by buffer solution concentration changes in a picoliter-sized space. For more information, please read the Communication “Fusion and Fission Control of Picoliter-Sized Microdroplets for Changing the Solution Concentration of Microreactors” by S. Takeuchi and co-workers, beginning on page 2374.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Nanomedicine: Engineering Nanocomposite Materials for Cancer Therapy (Small 21/2010)

      Caterina Minelli, Stuart B. Lowe and Molly M. Stevens

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090073

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows how the novel and unique physical properties of inorganic nanoscale particles can be applied to cancer therapy. Surface functionalization with biocompatible polymers and natural or rationally designed biomolecules can improve current technologies and holds great promise for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. Engineered nanoparticles can be delivered into tumors taking advantage of the defective tumor vasculature or by means of magnetic fields. Tumor cells overexpress biomarkers, which can also be used as targets to direct nanoparticle delivery. Once in the tumor, nanoparticles can deliver drugs bound to their surface or act as heat sources causing tumor cell death when irradiated, for example, by infrared light. Some nanoparticles also act as contrast enhancers for common tumor imaging techniques. Additionally, nanoparticles can be engineered to recognize and respond to tumor biomarkers, providing highly sensitive sensing tools. As represented in the figure, cancer biomarkers can trigger the disassembly of gold nanoparticle aggregates causing a color change from blue to red in the nanoparticle solution. For more information, please read the Review “Engineering Nanocomposite Materials for Cancer Therapy” by M. M. Stevens and co-workers, beginning on page 2336.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 21/2010) (pages 2327–2332)

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090074

  4. Highlight

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Aligned Conjugated Polymers Standing Upright (pages 2333–2335)

      Xiaogang Liu

      Article first published online: 8 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001135

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The combination of a catalytic substrate and scanning tunneling microscopy offers a tool for fabricating surface-confined conjugated polythiophenes with controlled spatial orientation and precisely defined chain length.

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Engineering Nanocomposite Materials for Cancer Therapy (pages 2336–2357)

      Caterina Minelli, Stuart B. Lowe and Molly M. Stevens

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000523

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inorganic nanoscale particles possess novel and unique physical properties. Surface functionalization with biocompatible polymers and biomolecules can improve current technologies and holds great promise for cancer diagnosis, imaging, and therapy. This review highlights the state-of-the-art developments in inorganic nanocomposites for cancer-related applications.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Hydrogen-Induced Reversible Insulator–Metal Transition in a Palladium Nanosphere Sensor (pages 2358–2361)

      Jianli Zou, K. Swaminathan Iyer and Colin L. Raston

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A reversible insulator-metal transition occurs in a self organized three-dimensional palladium nanosphere without the use of an external hydrostatic pressure, involving the absorption of molecular hydrogen at ambient pressure, which is a new paradigm in hydrogen sensing.

    2. Cell Response to Carbon Nanotubes: Size-Dependent Intracellular Uptake Mechanism and Subcellular Fate (pages 2362–2366)

      Bin Kang, Shuquan Chang, Yaodong Dai, Decai Yu and Da Chen

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001260

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      The intracellular uptake and subcellular localization of carbon nanotubes strongly depend on the physical size of the materials. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs; 0.5–2 μm in length, 10–30 nm in diameter) are excluded from the interior of the cell; long single-walled carbon nanotubes (L-SWNTs) of length 100–200 nm (1–3 nm in diameter) are only internalized into cytoplasm, whereas short ones (S-SWNTs) of length 50–100 nm partly reside in the cell nucleus.

    3. A Multifunctional Ribonuclease-A-Conjugated CdTe Quantum Dot Cluster Nanosystem for Synchronous Cancer Imaging and Therapy (pages 2367–2373)

      Yifei Kong, Jun Chen, Feng Gao, Wenting Li, Xin Xu, Omar Pandoli, Hao Yang, Jiajia Ji and Daxiang Cui

      Article first published online: 6 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001050

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CdTe quantum dot (QD) clusters are synthesized in the presence of RNase A, which acts as a biomolecular templating agent under microwave irradiation. Red shifts of photoluminescence spectra of the denatured RNase A (dRNase A)-capping QD clusters (dRQDs) are detected during a fifty-day storage period at room temperature. Native RNase-A-associated dRQDs (R-dRQDs) are functionalized with cyclic RGD peptides for synchronous targeted cancer imaging and therapy.

    4. Fusion and Fission Control of Picoliter-Sized Microdroplets for Changing the Solution Concentration of Microreactors (pages 2374–2377)

      Masahiro Takinoue, Hiroaki Onoe and Shoji Takeuchi

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000945

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method for changing the solution concentration of microreactors employing picoliter-sized water-in-oil microdroplets based on electrofusion and hydrodynamic fission of microdroplets in a microfluidic channel is described. Carrier droplets change the concentration of reactor droplets without changing the reactor droplet volume. This system realizes chemical experiments requiring solution concentration change in microdroplets.

    5. Preparation of a Catalytic Membrane Reactor with Palladium Nanoparticles Supported by a Packed-Bed Silica Nanosupporter for Gas-Phase Methanol Oxidation (pages 2378–2382)

      Kyung Jin Lee, Sa Hoon Min and Jyongsik Jang

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000932

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      An anodic aluminum oxide membrane containing silica nanoparticles in a silica nanotube, which includes Pd nanoparticles, is used to prepare a packed-bed nanoreactor. This nanoreactor shows excellent efficiency in gas-phase methanol decomposition, and the methyl formate produced as the partial oxidation product is obtained with high selectivity.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Electrosprayed Synthesis of Red-Blood-Cell-Like Particles with Dual Modality for Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging

      Koichiro Hayashi, Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Makoto Sawada, Makoto Moriya, Wataru Sakamoto and Toshinobu Yogo

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090075

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece images shows red blood cells (RBCs), which are concave disks with diameter of ∼10 μm. Because of their unique shape, they are able to avoid filtration in the spleen to prolong their half-time in the body. Although their diameter is larger than that of capillary blood vessels, they can fl ow through capillaries by morphing into a parachute-like shape. The photograph shows RBC-like-particles consisting of a cellulose matrix dispersed with Fe3O4 nanoparticles and fl uorescence dye (Rhodamine 6G) synthesized via a sol-gel process and electrospraying. The particles, ranging from ∼1 to 6 μm, are superparamagnetic and fluorescent, so they can act as a dual-imaging probe combining magnetic resonance and fluorescent imaging. The artificially synthesized RBC-like particles could potentially advance the frontier of biomaterials. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Electrosprayed Synthesis of Red-Blood-Cell-Like Particles with Dual Modality for Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging” by T. Yogo and co-workers, beginning on page 2383.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Highlight
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Electrosprayed Synthesis of Red-Blood-Cell-Like Particles with Dual Modality for Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging (pages 2384–2391)

      Koichiro Hayashi, Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Makoto Sawada, Makoto Moriya, Wataru Sakamoto and Toshinobu Yogo

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000399

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Red-blood-cell-like-particles including Fe3O4 nanoparticles and fluorescence dye are successfully synthesized by application of sol-gel method and electrospraying. The particles were superparamagnetic and fluorescent, so they can act as a dual-imaging probe combining magnetic resonance and fluorescent imaging. Furthermore, they were able to pass through channels smaller than their size because of their shape and flexibility. They may circulate through the body for a prolonged time.

    2. Tunable Vancomycin Releasing Surfaces for Biomedical Applications (pages 2392–2404)

      Anita Shukla, Sareena N. Avadhany, Jean C. Fang and Paula T. Hammond

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001150

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Layer-by-layer assembly of polymer multilayer films is used to create controlled antibiotic release coatings for various medical devices. Spray and dip film architectures are engineered to optimize favorable film component interactions, increasing drug loading and achieving a variety of desirable drug release profiles. The vancomycin releasing films developed in this work are highly effective in inhibiting bacterial growth.

    3. Polyelectrolyte Multilayer-Mediated Gene Delivery for Semaphorin Signaling Pathway Control (pages 2405–2411)

      Doriane Richard, Isabelle Nguyen, Christine Affolter, Florent Meyer, Pierre Schaaf, Jean-Claude Voegel, Dominique Bagnard and Joelle Ogier

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000228

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Regulation of complex cellular events, such as inducing cell collapse by semaphorin signaling control, is achieved from a cell-material interface. Controlling signal transduction in the proper spatial and temporal frame is possible thanks to multiple gene-equipped polyelectrolyte multilayer films encoding semaphorin co-receptors, the expression of which induces cell collapse of transfected cells in presence of the signaling ligand.

    4. Retrieval of a Metabolite from Cells with Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules (pages 2412–2419)

      Deborah Studer, Raghavendra Palankar, Matthieu Bédard, Mathias Winterhalter and Sebastian Springer

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901997

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      Polyelectrolyte microcapsules (PEM) can be used to introduce hydrophilic substances into mammalian cells. They are taken up into lysosomes (top row), but they spontaneously escape into the cytosol (bottom row), enabling them to deliver their cargo or even to sequester cytosolic metabolites.

    5. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Systems Using Size-Reduced Electrospun Nanofibers for Biomolecular Analysis (pages 2420–2426)

      Seung-min Park, Yun Suk Huh, Kylan Szeto, Daniel J. Joe, Jun Kameoka, Geoffrey W. Coates, Joshua B. Edel, David Erickson and Harold G. Craighead

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000884

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      A scanned electrospinning technique for the generation of oriented sacrificial nanofibers is presented, and these nanofibers are exposed to harsh but isotropic heating (M1) and etching (M2) environments to reduce their cross-sectional dimension. With new nanofabrication methods, the creation of various nanofluidic systems as small as 20 nm is demonstrated, and practical biomolecular handling applications are provided.

    6. Perylene-Labeled Silica Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterization of Three Novel Silica Nanoparticle Species for Live-Cell Imaging (pages 2427–2435)

      Julia Blechinger, Rudolf Herrmann, Daniel Kiener, F. Javier García-García, Christina Scheu, Armin Reller and Christoph Bräuchle

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000762

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three types of perylene-labeled silica nanoparticles are synthesized that are designed for nanoparticle-toxicity studies by live-cell imaging. Differentiation is made between two monodisperse silica species and a silica-nanoparticle network. The nanoparticles are characterized by their structure and fluorescence properties. In addition, their uptake by HeLa cells is demonstrated.

    7. Synthesis of Superparamagnetic CaCO3 Mesocrystals for Multistage Delivery in Cancer Therapy (pages 2436–2442)

      Yang Zhao, Yang Lu, Yan Hu, Jian-Ping Li, Liang Dong, Li-Ning Lin and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000903

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      As a novelmultistage delivery system (MDS), superparamagnetic CaCO3 mesocrystals act as carriers to encapsulate Au–DNA stage 2 nanoparticles (S2NPs) and doxorubicin for targeted cancer therapy. The particle margination toward vascular walls and multistage strategy for targeted release enable the biodegradable system to exhibit an enhanced co-delivery of functional nanoparticles and drugs in tumor tissues for biomedical imaging and therapy.

    8. Surface-Structured Gold-Nanotube Mats: Fabrication, Characterization, and Application in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (pages 2443–2447)

      Shahitha Jahir Hussain Fathima, Jinu Paul and Suresh Valiyaveettil

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000342

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanodimple-structured fibrous gold mats with high specific surface areas and good mechanical integrities are fabricated. The diameter of the nanofibers is in the range of 300–6000 nm while size of the dimples is 200–350 nm. The wedge thickness varies from a few nanometers to a few tens of nanometers.

    9. Heterogeneous Graphene Nanostructures: ZnO Nanostructures Grown on Large-Area Graphene Layers (pages 2448–2452)

      Jian Lin, Miroslav Penchev, Guoping Wang, Rajat K. Paul, Jiebin Zhong, Xiaoye Jing, Mihri Ozkan and Cengiz S. Ozkan

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000250

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel 3D heterogeneous graphene nanostructure (HGN) comprising continuous large-area graphene layers and ZnO nanostructures is fabricated via chemical vapor deposition. A combination of electrical and optical properties of graphene and ZnO building blocks in ZnO-based HGN provides unique characteristics for opportunities in future optoelectronic devices.

    10. A Temperature-Responsive Nanoreactor (pages 2453–2459)

      Songjun Li, Yi Ge, Ashutosh Tiwari and Shunsheng Cao

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000956

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A unique nanoreactor capable of temperature-responsive reactivity is reported. The nanoreactor is made of Ag nanoparticles and a functional polymer composite. At relatively low temperatures, it displayed weak reactivity because of the interpolymer complexation between PAAm and PAMPS, which restricted the access of reactants to the encapsulated Ag nanoparticles. Above its thermosensitive region, the nanoreactor demonstrated significant catalysis resulting from the dissociation of the interpolymer complex.

    11. An Intein-Mediated Site-Specific Click Conjugation Strategy for Improved Tumor Targeting of Nanoparticle Systems (pages 2460–2468)

      Drew R. Elias, Zhiliang Cheng and Andrew Tsourkas

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001095

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Click chemistry and expressed protein ligation (EPL) are combined to produce a highly efficient, site-specific bioconjugation scheme. This new EPL–click conjugation strategy is applied to create superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) labeled with HER2/neu affibodies. These HER2-SPIO nanoparticles prove to be highly potent and receptor-specific in both in vitro cell studies and murine tumor models.

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