Small

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 5

March 8 2010

Volume 6, Issue 5

Pages 599–699

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Sensing nanoparticles: Small 5/2010

      Alessia Pallaoro, Gary B. Braun, Norbert. O. Reich and Martin Moskovits

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090012

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image depicts a novel encapsulated nanoparticle probe system consisting of a pH-sensitive molecule embedded within the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) plasmonics hot spot. Ag nanoparticle clusters are prepared by self-assembly using bifunctional molecular linkers to create small junction volumes that produce intense SERS. Ideal positioning of the Raman tag and stabilizers is achieved by stepwise linking, coating with polymer and protein, and then infusing with the small Raman tag, which adsorbs onto the nanoparticle aggregate and at its pre-formed nanometer-sized junctions. By simultaneously using a fluorescent protein coat, the nanocluster becomes a multimodal tag for combined imaging by fluorescence and Raman, allowing tracking and sensing with one probe. Modifying the outer coat for cell uptake using a transfection agent permits intracellular nanoparticle tracking at the single-particle level. For more information, please read the Communication “Mapping Local pH in Live Cells Using Encapsulated Fluorescent SERS Nanotags” by M. Moskovits et al., beginning on page 618.

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Quantum dots: Small 5/2010

      Minghong Wu, Liaoyong Wen, Yong Lei, Stefan Ostendorp, Kai Chen and Gerhard Wilde

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090013

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture illustrates regularly arrayed quantum-sized pores and surface nanostructures prepared using an innovative approach of surface patterning. This new approach is based on a well-controlled pore-opening process and a modulated anodization process of ultrathin alumina membranes (UTAMs). Using UTAMs with quantum-sized pores for surface-patterning processes, ordered arrays of quantum dots are synthesized on silicon substrates. This is the first time in realizing large-scale regularly arrayed surface structures in the quantum size range using the UTAM technique, which is an important breakthrough in the field of surface nanopatterning. The large-scale quantum-dot arrays are promising candidate structures for new types of optoelectronic and display devices on the basis of the quantum-confinement effect. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Ultrathin Alumina Membranes for Surface Nanopatterning in Fabricating Quantum-Sized Nanodots” by Y. Lei et al., beginning on page 695.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Contents: Small 5/2010 (pages 599–603)

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090014

  4. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. SERS biodetection

      SERS-Based Diagnosis and Biodetection (pages 604–610)

      Ramón A. Alvarez-Puebla and Luis M. Liz-Marzán

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901820

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) offers solutions for a diverse array of biomedical applications. Metal nanoparticles can be engineered to carry SERS barcodes, as well as selective biomolecular recognition elements, so that applications in vitro can be devised, such as labeling and diagnosis. Implementation requires nanoparticle stability in biological fluids, single-event recognition detection, label-free analysis, classification, and quantification.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Cell uptake: Small 5/2010

      Ran Chen, Tatsiana A. Ratnikova, Matthew B. Stone, Sijie Lin, Mercy Lard, George Huang, JoAn S. Hudson and Pu Chun Ke

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090015

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece illustrates two major types of carbon nanoparticle, namely, the fullerene derivative C60(OH)20 (simulated in blue–red–white) and C70 natural organic matter (NOM; simulated in blue–green–red–white), diffusing within close proximity of a plant cell wall (TEM image of layered structure, in green). C60(OH)20 particles readily permeate through the cell wall, while the supramolecular C70–NOM complexes are entrapped within the cell wall. Post translocation, the C60(OH)20 particles are largely excluded by the plasma cell membrane due to their hydrogen bonding with water. C70–NOM undergoes active interaction with the plasma cell membrane through partitioning in the lipid bilayer and a low-level steady-state endocytosis. As a result, C60(OH)20 and C70–NOM show distinctly different uptake by the plant cell. For more information, please read the Communication “Differential Uptake of Carbon Nanoparticles by Plant and Mammalian Cells” by P. C. Ke et al., beginning on page 612.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Cell uptake

      Differential Uptake of Carbon Nanoparticles by Plant and Mammalian Cells (pages 612–617)

      Ran Chen, Tatsiana A. Ratnikova, Matthew B. Stone, Sijie Lin, Mercy Lard, George Huang, JoAn S. Hudson and Pu Chun Ke

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901911

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Differential uptake of carbon nanoparticles by plant cells is illustrated. Specifically, the left panel shows accumulation of hydrophilic C60(OH)20 between a plant cell wall and a plasma membrane, while the right panel displays aggregation and retention of C70–NOM assembly in a plant cell wall.

    2. Sensing nanoparticles

      Mapping Local pH in Live Cells Using Encapsulated Fluorescent SERS Nanotags (pages 618–622)

      Alessia Pallaoro, Gary B. Braun, Norbert. O. Reich and Martin Moskovits

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901893

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Small Ag clusters incorporating both the pH-sensitive Raman probe molecule 4-mercaptobenzoic acid and a fluorescent dye are used to determine the local pH from the spatially mapped surface-enhanced Raman spectra correlated with the fluorescence, allowing simultaneous single-particle tracking and local pH sensing.

    3. Click chemistry

      Colorimetric Cu2+ Detection Using DNA-Modified Gold-Nanoparticle Aggregates as Probes and Click Chemistry (pages 623–626)

      Xiaoyang Xu, Weston L. Daniel, Wei Wei and Chad A. Mirkin

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901691

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The colorimetric detection of Cu2+ is demonstrated using DNA-modified gold nanoparticle (Au NP) aggregates as probes and a copper-catalyzed click reaction to initiate the cross-coupling of alkynes and azides that terminate the DNA on the particles. The ligation of two oligonucleotides via click chemistry and copper ions raises the melting temperature of that duplex, which can be monitored colorimetrically using the optical properties of the Au NPs.

    4. Polymer structuring

      Femtogram-Controlled Synthesis and Self-Aligned Fabrication of Polyaniline Micro- and Nanostructures (pages 627–632)

      Alexandru Vlad, Sami Yunus, Anne Attout, Dana Alina Serban, Loïk Gence, Sebastien Faniel, Jean-François Gohy, Patrick Bertrand and Sorin Melinte

      Article first published online: 3 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901771

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Femtogram-resolved synthesis of polyaniline nanostructures is reported. The electroless polymerization of aniline proceeds via the catalytic activity of Pt on micro- and nanoscale polymerization reactors. A combinatorial nanochemistry lab-on-chip assay is provided to highlight the salient features of the device-integrated polymerization process.

    5. Transparent conducting materials

      Transparent Conducting Films of Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide with Uniform Mesostructure Assembled from Preformed Nanocrystals (pages 633–637)

      Vesna Müller, Matthias Rasp, Jiři Rathouský, Benedikt Schütz, Markus Niederberger and Dina Fattakhova-Rohlfing

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901887

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transparent conducting films of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) with a uniform 3D mesostructure are prepared by self-assembly of crystalline ATO nanoparticles directed by commercially available Pluronic copolymers. The high electrical conductivity and uniform accessible mesoporosity combined with a simple and generally applicable preparation procedure make the developed ATO films promising nanostructured transparent electrodes for various optoelectronic applications.

    6. Ionic liquids

      Lead–Salt Quantum-Dot Ionic Liquids (pages 638–641)

      Liangfeng Sun, Jason Fang, Jason C Reed, Luis Estevez, Adam C. Bartnik, Byung-Ryool Hyun, Frank W. Wise, George G. Malliaras and Emmanuel P. Giannelis

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902218

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      PbS quantum dots (QDs) are functionalized using ionic liquids with thiol moieties as capping ligands. The resulting amphiphilic QD ionic liquids exhibit fluidlike behavior at room temperature, even in the absence of solvents. The photostability of the QDs is dramatically improved compared to the as-synthesized oleic acid-capped QDs dispersed in toluene.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Concept
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    1. Microcontact printing

      Microcontact Printing onto Oxide-Free Silicon via Highly Reactive Acid Fluoride-Functionalized Monolayers (pages 642–650)

      Luc Scheres, Jurjen ter Maat, Marcel Giesbers and Han Zuilhof

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901650

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly reactive acid fluoride-terminated monolayers are formed on oxide-free silicon and used as a reactive platform for further functionalization by microcontact printing (µCP) with primary amines as an ink. It is shown that amide formation by µCP is highly efficient, easily preserves the oxide-free monolayer–silicon interface, and can even be used to immobilize fluorescently labeled oligo-DNA on the oxide-free silicon surface.

    2. Polyelectrolytes

      Polysaccharide-Blend Multilayers Containing Hyaluronan and Heparin as a Delivery System for rhBMP-2 (pages 651–662)

      Thomas Crouzier, Anna Szarpak, Thomas Boudou, Rachel Auzély-Velty and Catherine Picart

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901728

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polyelectrolyte multilayer films made from poly(L-lysine) and a polysaccharide blend of hyaluronan (HA) and heparin (HEP) are observed by AFM and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. A preferential incorporation of HEP over HA in the film is observed, leading to variations in the film morphology and thickness.

    3. Hybrid materials

      Conjugated-Polyelectrolyte-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide with Excellent Solubility and Stability in Polar Solvents (pages 663–669)

      Xiaoying Qi, Kan-Yi Pu, Xiaozhu Zhou, Hai Li, Bin Liu, Freddy Boey, Wei Huang and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902221

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets are synthesized and functionalized in situ by a specially designed water-soluble conjugated polyelectrolyte (PFVSO3). The resulting functionalized rGO has good solubility and stability in a variety of polar solvents, and shows improved electrical conductivity compared to that of rGO owing to p-doping by the CPE.

    4. Quantum dots

      Transfer of Quantum Dots from Pregnant Mice to Pups Across the Placental Barrier (pages 670–678)

      Maoquan Chu, Qiang Wu, Hui Yang, Ruiqi Yuan, Shengke Hou, Yifeng Yang, Yajuan Zou, Shi Xu, Kaiyi Xu, Ailing Ji and Lingyi Sheng

      Article first published online: 8 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902049

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The effects of injecting Cd-containing quantum dots (QDs) into pregnant mice are investigated. It is found that the QDs may penetrate the placental barrier, depending on QD size, dosage, and capping material. The risk is greater with QDs containing higher levels of Cd and for smaller QDs, since more Cd is transferred to the fetuses. Although coating QDs with PEG or SiO2 reduces the QD and Cd2+ ion transfer, some Cd is still detected in pups of injected mothers.

    5. Nanoparticles

      Kinetic Study of the Formation of Polypyrrole Nanoparticles in Water-Soluble Polymer/Metal Cation Systems: A Light-Scattering Analysis (pages 679–686)

      Jin-Yong Hong, Hyeonseok Yoon and Jyongsik Jang

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902231

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A facile way to fabricate well-defined PPy nanoparticles in subkilogram quantities is demonstrated on the basis of the complexation of water-soluble polymer with metal cations. This novel strategy does not require an atypical temperature and pressure, and the simple process offers great possibility for mass production of polymer nanoparticles.

    6. Nanodiamonds

      Nitrogen and Luminescent Nitrogen-Vacancy Defects in Detonation Nanodiamond (pages 687–694)

      Igor I. Vlasov, Olga Shenderova, Stuart Turner, Oleg I. Lebedev, Artem A. Basov, Ilmo Sildos, Mickel Rähn, Andrey A. Shiryaev and Gustaaf Van Tendeloo

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901587

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bright, stable photoluminescence (PL) is observed from a fraction of detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles subjected to electron irradiation and annealing. Detailed PL-Raman analysis of the bright emitting spots reveals that the PL is related to nitrogen-vacancy defects and originates from DND particles with sizes exceeding approximately 30 nm in diameter.

    7. Quantum dots

      Ultrathin Alumina Membranes for Surface Nanopatterning in Fabricating Quantum-Sized Nanodots (pages 695–699)

      Minghong Wu, Liaoyong Wen, Yong Lei, Stefan Ostendorp, Kai Chen and Gerhard Wilde

      Article first published online: 21 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902038

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quantum-sized pore openings (see image) and surface nanostructures are fabricated using a combined synthesizing method of ultrathin alumina membranes based on a well-controlled pore-opening process and a modulated anodization process. This is the first time that large-scale regularly arrayed pores and surface nanostructures in the quantum size range are fabricated, which is an important breakthrough in template-directed surface nanopatterning.

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