Small

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 6

March 22, 2010

Volume 6, Issue 6

Pages 707–781

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Lithography: Fabrication of Hierarchical Pillar Arrays from Thermoplastic and Photosensitive SU-8 Small 6/2010

      Ying Zhang, Chia-Tai Lin and Shu Yang

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090016

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image illustrates an array of high-aspect-ratio (up to 7.7) polymer pillars from SU-8 photoresists imprinted by capillary force lithography (CFL), followed by photopatterning and a thermal reflow process. Because of the thermoplastic nature of SU-8, pillars with variable aspect ratios are created through CFL using a single poly(dimethylsiloxane) membrane as the mold, simply by tuning the initial film thickness of SU-8 on a substrate. The pillars are subsequently photopatterned through a photomask with a square dot array, followed by post-exposure bake above the glass-transition temperature (Tg) of SU-8. The pillars in the exposed region become highly crosslinked, and thus neither soluble nor reflowable, whereas the pillars in the unexposed regions can reflow and flatten out above Tg. In this way, a single-level, dual-scaled, high-aspect-ratio SU-8 pillar array is “developed” in the exposed region without the use of solvent. Such high-aspect-ratio pillar arrays may find applications in biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces and dry adhesion, microfluidics, diagnosis, tissue engineering, force sensing, and actuation. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Fabrication of Hierarchical Pillar Arrays from Thermoplastic and Photosensitive SU-8” by S. Yang et al., beginning on page 768.

  2. Inside Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Hybrid nanoparticles: Fluorescent–Magnetic Hybrid Nanoparticles Induce a Dose-Dependent Increase in Proinflammatory Response in Lung Cells in vitro Correlated with Intracellular Localization Small 6/2010

      Andrea D. Lehmann, Wolfgang J. Parak, Feng Zhang, Zulqurnain Ali, Carlheinz Röcker, G. Ulrich Nienhaus, Peter Gehr and Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090017

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows engineered nanoparticles localized inside a macrophage. Monocultures of human-blood monocyte-derived macrophages are incubated for 24 h with polymer-coated iron platinum nanoparticles, fluorescently labeled with the dye ATTO 590 embedded in the polymer shell (FePt–PMA–ATTO 2% NP). Afterwards the cells were stained with a cell-labeling dye and MitoTracker, which specifically label the mitochondria. The unfixed cells are then imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy and further processed using a 3D multichannel image-processing software. Nanoparticle agglomerates are shown (red) inside a single macrophage of which the upper half of the cell body is removed (gray). The mitochdondria are shown in blue. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Fluorescent–Magnetic Hybrid Nanoparticles Induce a Dose-Dependent Increase in Proinflammatory Response in Lung Cells in vitro Correlated with Intracellular Localization” by B. Rothen-Rutishauser et al., beginning on page 753.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Contents: Small 6/2010 (pages 707–710)

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090018

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Graphene

      Graphene Oxide, Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide, and Graphene: Versatile Building Blocks for Carbon-Based Materials (pages 711–723)

      Owen C. Compton and SonBinh T. Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901934

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This Review presents methods for the processing of graphene oxide, highly reduced graphene oxide, and graphene colloidal dispersions into a wide variety of materials including self-supporting papers, thin films, and polymer nanocomposites. The mechanical and electronic properties of these materials are highlighted.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Nanostructures

      Top-Down Nanomechanical Machining of Three-Dimensional Nanostructures by Atomic Force Microscopy (pages 724–728)

      Yongda Yan, Zhenjiang Hu, Xueshen Zhao, Tao Sun, Shen Dong and Xiaodong Li

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901947

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A closed-loop nanoscale precision stage is integrated with an atomic force microscope to mechanically fabricate 3D nanostructures according to predetermined designs, such as 3D human face nanostructures, nanoline arrays of sine-wave and triangular nanostructures, and nanodot arrays of sine-shaped, hemispheric, and concave/convex nanopatterns in a controllable and reproducible fashion.

    2. DNA–nanotube hybrids

      Tailoring the Electronic Structure of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Encapsulating Single-Stranded DNA (pages 729–732)

      Yongfeng Li, Toshiro Kaneko and Rikizo Hatakeyama

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902321

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The electrical transport properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) change dramatically when different single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules are encapsulated, depending on the type of DNA base. Cytosine-containing ssDNA@DWNTs exhibit p-type transport behavior, in contrast to the n-type characteristic of guanine-containing ssDNA@DWNTs, due to the charge-transfer effect between ssDNA and DWNTs.

    3. SERS probes

      Synthesis of Glass-Coated SERS Nanoparticle Probes via SAMs with Terminal SiO2 Precursors (pages 733–737)

      Max Schütz, Bernd Küstner, Manuel Bauer, Carsten Schmuck and Sebastian Schlücker

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902065

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A short synthesis route to silica-encapsulated nanoparticles coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is presented. The organic molecules within the SAM contain a SiO2 precursor to render the surface vitreophilic. Due to the high mechanical and chemical stability of a glass shell, such particles can be used as probes in targeted research with surface-enhanced Raman scattering as the read-out method.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Molecular dynamics: Tunable Water Channels with Carbon Nanoscrolls (Small 6/2010)

      Xinghua Shi, Yuan Cheng, Nicola M. Pugno and Huajian Gao

      Version of Record online: 23 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201090019

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece shows a cross-section image of a sheet of graphene rolled up into a “carbon nanoscroll”. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analyses show that the flow rate of water through the core of the nanoscrolls can be adjusted over a broad range through the effective surface energy, which in turn can be tuned by an applied DC or AC electric field. The results suggest that such carbon naonscrolls hold great promise in applications such as tunable water and ion channels, nanofluidic devices, and nanofilters, as well as tunable gene- and drug-delivery systems. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Tunable Water Channels with Carbon Nanoscrolls” by H. Gao et al., beginning on page 739.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Communications
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Full Papers
    1. Molecular dynamics

      Tunable Water Channels with Carbon Nanoscrolls (pages 739–744)

      Xinghua Shi, Yuan Cheng, Nicola M. Pugno and Huajian Gao

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902286

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate a tunable water channel based on carbon nanoscrolls. Through an applied DC/AC electric field, the size of the nanoscroll core can be controlled to expand or contract, thereby effectively controlling the flow rate of water.

    2. Cancer therapy

      Near-Infrared-Resonant Gold/Gold Sulfide Nanoparticles as a Photothermal Cancer Therapeutic Agent (pages 745–752)

      André M. Gobin, Emily M. Watkins, Elizabeth Quevedo, Vicki L. Colvin and Jennifer L. West

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901557

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gold/gold sulfide nanoparticles can be used as a photothermal therapeutic agent for cancer therapy in the same way as gold/silica nanoshells but they provide higher absorption in the near-infrared region and potentially better tumor penetration. The smaller nanoparticles can be purified to allow for both in vitro and in vivo applications.

    3. Hybrid nanoparticles

      Fluorescent–Magnetic Hybrid Nanoparticles Induce a Dose-Dependent Increase in Proinflammatory Response in Lung Cells in vitro Correlated with Intracellular Localization (pages 753–762)

      Andrea D. Lehmann, Wolfgang J. Parak, Feng Zhang, Zulqurnain Ali, Carlheinz Röcker, G. Ulrich Nienhaus, Peter Gehr and Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901770

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Iron–platinum nanoparticles embedded in a polymer shell are labeled with a fluorescent dye to investigate their intracellular localization in lung cells and potential to induce a proinflammatory response. Laser scanning and electron microscopy techniques are used to determine the extent to which the particles penetrate three different cell types.

    4. Nanocomposites

      Functionalized Carbon-Nanotube Sheet/Bismaleimide Nanocomposites: Mechanical and Electrical Performance Beyond Carbon-Fiber Composites (pages 763–767)

      Qunfeng Cheng, Ben Wang, Chuck Zhang and Zhiyong Liang

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901957

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Sheets of millimeter-long multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with stretch alignment and epoxidation functionalization are used to reinforce bismaleimide (BMI) resin, which results in composites with a very high tensile strength of 3081 MPa and modulus of 350 GPa. These values well exceed those of the state-of-the-art unidirectional carbon-fiber-reinforced composites.

    5. Lithography

      Fabrication of Hierarchical Pillar Arrays from Thermoplastic and Photosensitive SU-8 (pages 768–775)

      Ying Zhang, Chia-Tai Lin and Shu Yang

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200901843

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Different hierarchical SU-8 pillar arrays are fabricated by a combination of capillary force lithography and photolithography. After capillary imprinting of SU-8 pillar arrays and UV exposure through a photomask, two developing approaches are exploited: i) solvent developing and drying to create bilevel hierarchical structures with short pillars, and ii) thermal reflowing to create single-level, dual-scaled, high-aspect-ratio pillars in a microdot array.

    6. Nanostructures

      Synthesis and Applications of SnO Nanosheets: Parallel Control of Oxidation State and Nanostructure Through an Aqueous Solution Route (pages 776–781)

      Ken Sakaushi, Yuya Oaki, Hiroaki Uchiyama, Eiji Hosono, Haoshen Zhou and Hiroaki Imai

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902207

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A porous thin film of tin monoxide nanosheets is formed under mild conditions through an aqueous solution route at low temperature. The nanostructures induce photocurrent generation upon irradiation by UV/visible light and perform as the anode material of lithium-ion batteries with improved cycle stability.

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