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Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 10

Special Issue: Nanotechnology with Soft Matter

May 23, 2011

Volume 7, Issue 10

Pages 1273–1494

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Special Issue: Nanotechnology with Soft Matter: (Small 10/2011) (page 1273)

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190032

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      Soft matter science is a multidisciplinary area of chemistry, physics, biology, and materials science, while nanotechnology involves understanding and controlling matter typically on the sub-100-nanometer scale, where unique phenomena enable novel and functional applications. In order to exploit and advance fruitful synergies between nanotechnology and soft matter, we present you with a special issue with the topic of “nanotechnology with soft matter.” Herein, the concept of Yin-Yang is used to describe how nanotechnology and soft matter are interconnected and interdependent. The shape of the Yin and Yang sections of the symbol actually gives one a sense of the continual movement of nanotechnology and soft matter, Yin to Yang and Yang to Yin, causing the exploration of this emerging field. For instance, nano-engineering methods allow for the manipulation and engineering of a plethora of cellular behaviors, such as spreading and adhesion, induced alignment, as well as stem cell differentiation, as illustrated in the cover figure.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Polymer Brushes: Probing the Collapse Dynamics of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Brushes by AFM: Effects of Co-nonsolvency and Grafting Densities (Small 10/2011) (page 1274)

      Xiaofeng Sui, Qi Chen, Mark A. Hempenius and G. Julius Vancso

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190033

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      The cover picture illustrates the reversible collapse and swelling of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes induced at room temperature by the variation of solvent composition from water to methanol-water mixtures. Brushes with different grafting densities were obtained by surface-initiated polymerizations. The effective values of the Young's modulus of the polymer brushes in the collapsed and swollen states were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The variation of adherence between AFM colloidal probes and brush surfaces in different solvents was assessed, and the collapse dynamics was investigated by monitoring the change in adherence in real-time by AFM colloidal probes. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Probing the Collapse Dynamics of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Brushes by AFM: Effects of Co-nonsolvency and Grafting Densities” by G. J. Vancso and co-workers, beginning on page 1440.

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
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      Nanotechnology with Soft Matter: From Structures to Functions (pages 1275–1277)

      Freddy Yin Chiang Boey, Harald Fuchs and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100750

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 10/2011) (pages 1279–1286)

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190034

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Self-Assembled Nanoarchitectures: Thin-Film-Based Nanoarchitectures for Soft Matter: Controlled Assemblies into Two-Dimensional Worlds (Small 10/2011) (page 1287)

      Keita Sakakibara, Jonathan P. Hill and Katsuhiko Ariga

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190035

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      Under appropriate conditions, small molecular and polymeric building blocks self-assemble into various nanoarchitectures including thin films and 1D structures. The frontispiece of the Reviews section (left) illustrates dynamic self-assembly of nanowires with highly monodisperse dimensions from small amphiphilic porphyrin molecules at a solid substrate. For more information, please read the Review “Thin-Film-Based Nanoarchitectures for Soft Matter: Controlled Assemblies into Two-Dimensional Worlds” by K. Sakakibara,* J. P. Hill, and K. Ariga,* beginning on page 1287.

  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Thin-Film-Based Nanoarchitectures for Soft Matter: Controlled Assemblies into Two-Dimensional Worlds (pages 1288–1308)

      Keita Sakakibara, Jonathan P. Hill and Katsuhiko Ariga

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002350

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      Organic-thin-film-based nanoarchitectures (nanostructures and nanopatterns) offer great potential for the development of next-generation devices with electrical, optical, chemical, or biological functions. The scope of this review is to introduce an expanding methodology for the construction of nanoarchitectures on surfaces based on three technologies: i) π-conjugated molecular assembly in two dimensions, ii) biodirected mole­cular assembly on surfaces, and iii) supra­molecular thin-film technologies.

    2. Nanoscaled Surface Patterning of Conducting Polymers (pages 1309–1321)

      Lin Jiang, Xing Wang and Lifeng Chi

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002356

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      Recent advances in top-down and bottom-up patterning of conducting polymers on surfaces using ‘add-on’ processes such as direct writing, in-situ syntheses or assemblies, and ‘subtract-from’ processes such as etching and nanoscratching are summarised. These processes make possible high-precision positioning, high resolution, and considerable throughout. The most promising applications of the patterned conducting polymer devices with enhanced performance and new properties are also introduced.

    3. Cellular Uptake, Intracellular Trafficking, and Cytotoxicity of Nanomaterials (pages 1322–1337)

      Feng Zhao, Ying Zhao, Ying Liu, Xueling Chang, Chunying Chen and Yuliang Zhao

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100001

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      The cellular uptake, location and translocation, and biological consequence of nanoparticles are reviewed with regard to the size, shape, composition, charge, and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles in cells.

    4. Patterning of Conjugated Polymers for Organic Optoelectronic Devices (pages 1338–1360)

      Youyong Xu, Fan Zhang and Xinliang Feng

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002336

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      Recent progress in the patterning of conjugated polymers for high-performance optoelectronic devices is summarized in this review. Various patterning techniques based on bottom-up and top-down strategies are introduced. Future trends for conventional patterning techniques and emerging new techniques and trends in this field are also discussed.

    5. Micro-/Nano-engineered Cellular Responses for Soft Tissue Engineering and Biomedical Applications (pages 1361–1378)

      Chor Yong Tay, Scott Alexander Irvine, Freddy Y. C. Boey, Lay Poh Tan and Subbu Venkatraman

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100046

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      Advanced micro-/nanofabrication techniques applied at the cell–biomaterial interface can modulate a wide range of cellular activities such as i) spreading and adhesion, ii) induced alignment, and iii) stem cell differentiation. These 2D engineered surfaces and observations can be translated to the fabrication of 3D constructs with precise control over spatiotemporal regulatory factors.

  7. Concepts

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Superamphiphiles as Building Blocks for Supramolecular Engineering: Towards Functional Materials and Surfaces (pages 1379–1383)

      Chao Wang, Zhiqiang Wang and Xi Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002365

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      Superamphiphiles refer to amphiphiles that are constructed on the basis of noncovalent interactions or dynamic covalent bonds. Superamphiphiles are a new kind of building block for self-assembly, opening a new avenue of supramolecular engineering for well-defined nanostructured soft materials.

    2. Nanostructuring Polymeric Materials by Templating Strategies (pages 1384–1391)

      Wolfgang Knoll, Anne-Marie Caminade, Kookheon Char, Hatice Duran, Chuan Liang Feng, Antonis Gitsas, Dong Ha Kim, Aaron Lau, Thomas D. Lazzara, Jean-Pierre Majoral, Martin Steinhart, Basit Yameen and X. H. Zhong

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100026

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      Some of our efforts indesigning, assembling/synthesizing, and characterizing nanostructured materials based on nano­­porous alumina templating are summarized. Not only are interesting polymeric and organic–inorganic hybrid nano­structures generated, but functionality is also derived from using the templated nanocomposite architectures for all kinds of applications in sensing technologies based on integrated optics principles.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Gold Nanoparticles: Colorimetric Detection of HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Activity by Gold Nanoparticles (Small 10/2011) (page 1392)

      Xiaoji Xie, Wei Xu, Tianhu Li and Xiaogang Liu

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190036

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      The frontispiece of the Communications section (middle) features a low-cost and convenient approach to the colorimetric detection of HIV-1 ribonuclease H activity using unmodified gold nanoparticles. The method is potentially useful for screening enzyme inhibitors in drug discovery. For more information, please read the Communication “Colorimetric Detection of HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Activity by Gold Nanoparticles,” by X. Liu and co-workers, beginning on page 1392.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Colorimetric Detection of HIV-1 Ribonuclease H Activity by Gold Nanoparticles (pages 1393–1396)

      Xiaoji Xie, Wei Xu, Tianhu Li and Xiaogang Liu

      Article first published online: 24 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002150

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      Rapid colorimetric detection of HIV-1 Ribonuclease H activity has been achieved via a low-cost, convenient approach, based on oligonucleotide-unmodified gold nanoparticles.

    2. Stepwise Thermal and Photothermal Dissociation of a Hierarchical Superaggregate of DNA-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles (pages 1397–1402)

      Anne Buchkremer, Malte J. Linn, Maximilian Reismann, Thomas Eckert, Katrin G. Witten, Walter Richtering, Gero von Plessen and Ulrich Simon

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002324

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      Hierarchical superaggregates consisting of DNA-linked 14 nm AuNPs are synthesized and characterized by optical and scattering methods. Temperature changes, induced either thermally or photothermally, lead to a switching between specific sizes associated with superaggregates, primary networks, and individual nanoparticles. This could be of interest in the design of stimuli-responsive materials.

    3. High-Resolution Triple-Color Patterns Based on the Liquid Behavior of Organic Molecules (pages 1403–1406)

      Wenchong Wang, Chuan Du, Chenguang Wang, Michael Hirtz, Liqiang Li, Juanyuan Hao, Qiong Wu, Ran Lu, Nan Lu, Yue Wang, Harald Fuchs and Lifeng Chi

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002210

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      An efficient and scalable way to create high-resolution ordered triple-color patterns is based on the liquid behavior of molecules on patterned surfaces and solid sublimation. A blue, green, and orange pattern is obtained from two dyes by deposition of a naphyl diphenyl biphenyl derivative on a hierarchical pattern of a quinacridone derivative.

    4. Flexible Colorimetric Detection of Mercuric Ion by Simply Mixing Nanoparticles and Oligopeptides (pages 1407–1411)

      Jianjun Du, Yinghui Sun, Lin Jiang, Xuebo Cao, Dianpeng Qi, Shengyan Yin, Jan Ma, Freddy Y. C. Boey and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002270

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      A colorimetric detection system for Hg2+ in aqueous media is developed with high selectivity and sensitivity based on the mixing of gold nanoparticles and oligopeptides. Oligopeptides with cysteine (Cys) at both ends normally aggregate gold nanoparticles, which can be disturbed by Hg2+ through formation of an oligopeptide–Hg2+ complex.

    5. Large-Area Single-Crystalline Nanocone Arrays of an Organic Charge-Transfer Complex: Controlling Growth, Characterization, and Applications (pages 1412–1415)

      Yaling Liu, Lang Jiang, Huanli Dong, Zhiyong Tang and Wenping Hu

      Article first published online: 30 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002261

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      Single-crystalline nanocone arrays of a charge-transfer complex (copper tetracyanoquinodimethane), which can be very sharp and exhibit excellent field-emission properties, are synthesized with large ares. Moreover, the surface of the nanocone array is superhydrophobic, suggesting its potential applications in water/moisture-resistant and contamination-free nanoelectronic devices.

    6. Bio-inspired Micropatterned Platform to Steer Stem Cell Differentiation (pages 1416–1421)

      Chor Yong Tay, Mintu Pal, Haiyang Yu, Wen Shing Leong, Nguan Soon Tan, Kee Woei Ng, Subbu Venkatraman, Freddy Boey, David Tai Leong and Lay Poh Tan

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002298

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      Controlled stem cell differentiation on micropatterned biodegradable substrates involves modulation of the canonical FAK–ERK (focal adhesion kinase–extracellular-signal regulated kinase) signaling pathway in the absence of exogenous soluble factors. The use of a micropatterned platform to coerce human mesenchymal stem cells to adopt an elongated morphology bypasses the need to use pharmacological factors to repress FAK–ERK signaling activity to bring about substantial myogenesis.

    7. A Dithienosilole-Benzooxadiazole Donor–Acceptor Copolymer for Utility in Organic Solar Cells (pages 1422–1426)

      Bruno J. A. Caputo, Gregory C. Welch, Daniel A. Kamkar, Zachary B. Henson, Thuc-Quyen Nguyen and Guillermo C. Bazan

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100005

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      A systematic evaluation of a novel conjugated polymer, bearing alkyl side chains on both the donor and acceptor units, is conducted using nanoscale characterization techniques and device fabrication. How to manage the use of solvent additives to achieve power-conversion efficiencies of up to 3.7% is demonstrated.

    8. Site-Specific Attachment of Proteins onto a 3D DNA Tetrahedron through Backbone-Modified Phosphorothioate DNA (pages 1427–1430)

      Ngo Yin Wong, Chuan Zhang, Li Huey Tan and Yi Lu

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100140

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      Phosphorothioate-modified DNA and short bifunctional linkers are used to attach proteins to a DNA tetrahedron. Precise control of the position of and distance between protein modifications is achieved. This technique is simple, can be adapted to other DNA nanostructures, exhibits high yields, and the modification can be programmably placed within the structure.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Drug Delivery: Vaults Engineered for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery (Small 10/2011) (page 1431)

      Daniel C. Buehler, Daniel B. Toso, Valerie A. Kickhoefer, Z. Hong Zhou and Leonard H. Rome

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190037

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      The frontispiece of the Full Papers section (right) shows a single-particle electron microscope tomography reconstruction, which reveals that a fully assembled drug-loaded nanodisk (red) can be packaged into the vault lumen (green) as a viable method for vault-mediated drug delivery. The electron micrograph in the background shows negatively stained vaults containing nanodisks. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Vaults Engineered for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery” by L. H. Rome and co-workers, beginning on page 1431.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Editorial
    5. Contents
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Reviews
    8. Concepts
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Vaults Engineered for Hydrophobic Drug Delivery (pages 1432–1439)

      Daniel C. Buehler, Daniel B. Toso, Valerie A. Kickhoefer, Z. Hong Zhou and Leonard H. Rome

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002274

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      Drug-loaded nanodisks are packaged into vaults, naturally occurring nanoparticles which can be engineered for therapeutic delivery. A single-particle electron microscopic tomography reconstruction shows that a fully assembled drug-loaded nanodisk (red) can be packaged into the vault lumen (green) as a viable method of vault-mediated drug delivery.

    2. Probing the Collapse Dynamics of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Brushes by AFM: Effects of Co-nonsolvency and Grafting Densities (pages 1440–1447)

      Xiaofeng Sui, Qi Chen, Mark A. Hempenius and G. Julius Vancso

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002229

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      Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes are switched from swollen to collapsed states by introducing a co-nonsolvent consisting of water and methanol. Polymer brushes under different solvent conditions and grafting densities exhibit different mechanical properties according to colloidal probe atomic force microscopy measurements. The collapse dynamics are obtained by monitoring the change of adherence between the probe and the surface.

    3. Covalent Immobilization of Aggregation-Induced Emission Luminogens in Silica Nanoparticles Through Click Reaction (pages 1448–1455)

      Faisal Mahtab, Jacky W. Y. Lam, Yong Yu, Jianzhao Liu, Wangzhang Yuan, Ping Lu and Ben Zhong Tang

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002195

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      Luminogenic siloxanes with aggregation-induced emission characteristics are synthesized by click chemistry, and their sol–gel reactions followed by reactions with tetraethoxysilane furnish fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) with core/shell structures. The FSNPs are monodisperse, colloidally stable, and emit blue and green light with high efficiency upon UV irradiation. The FSNPs are benign to living cells and function as fluorescent visualizers for intracellular imaging.

    4. One-Pot Encapsulation of Luminescent Quantum Dots Synthesized in Aqueous Solution by Amphiphilic Polymers (pages 1456–1463)

      Lihui Yuwen, Biqing Bao, Ge Liu, Jing Tian, Haoting Lu, Zhimin Luo, Xingrong Zhu, Freddy Boey, Hua Zhang and Lianhui Wang

      Article first published online: 15 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002039

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      By using a novel one-pot strategy, CdTe/CdS quantum dots synthesized in aqueous solutions are encapsulated into amphiphilic polymer micelles, such as octadecylamine-modified poly(acrylic acid) (PAA-ODA). The materials have tunable morphology, high photoluminescence quantum yield, and good photostability.

    5. Synthesis of Amphiphilic Polythiophene for Cell Imaging and Monitoring the Cellular Distribution of a Cisplatin Anticancer Drug (pages 1464–1470)

      Hongwei Tang, Chengfen Xing, Libing Liu, Qiong Yang and Shu Wang

      Article first published online: 20 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002189

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      A new amphiphilic conjugated poly­thiophene derivative is synthesized and characterized. The amphiphilic characteristic makes it form nanoaggregates in water. The polymer shows good photo­stability and no toxicity to human lung epithelial (A549) cells, which meets the crucial requirement for cellular imaging. The new polymer is also used for monitoring cellular distribution of an anticancer cisplatin drug.

    6. Tuning Stamp Surface Energy for Soft Lithography of Polar Molecules to Fabricate Bioactive Small-Molecule Microarrays (pages 1471–1479)

      Amit Vaish, Mitchell J. Shuster, Sarawut Cheunkar, Paul S. Weiss and Anne M. Andrews

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100094

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      Polydimethylsiloxane stamp surface properties are tuned with precisely controlled oxygen plasma treatment. Contact angle measurements enable microcontact insertion printing of hydrophilic inks onto hydrophilic self-assembled monolayers. Surfaces patterned with prefunctionalized biotinylated tethers or on-chip functionalization with a mimic of the small-molecule neurotransmitter serotonin produce small-molecule microarrays at the dilute scales necessary for highly selective biorecognition.

    7. Age-Dependent Changes in Microscale Stiffness and Mechanoresponses of Cells (pages 1480–1487)

      Jasmin T. Zahn, Ilia Louban, Simon Jungbauer, Martin Bissinger, Dieter Kaufmann, Ralf Kemkemer and Joachim P. Spatz

      Article first published online: 2 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100146

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      The stiffness of skin cells for cells from young donors is considerably higher than for cells from older donors, as revealed by AFM force mapping. The reduction in compliance corresponds to a decrease of actin in the old cells. Those cells show a faster reorganization upon periodic mechanical manipulation. The qualitative correlation of stiffness, cellular actin amount, and altered response is confirmed by knockdown of the actin.

    8. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer in Quantum Dot–Dye-Loaded Zeolite L Nanoassemblies (pages 1488–1494)

      Srinidhi Ramachandra, Zoran D. Popovic′, Klaus C. Schuermann, Fabio Cucinotta, Gion Calzaferri and Luisa De Cola

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100010

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      An assembly comprising dye molecules organized in unidimensional channels of a zeolite L with quantum dots decorating the surface of the zeolite is described. The good spectral overlap of the green-emitting luminescent quantum dots (donor) and the red-emitting oxonine dye molecules (acceptor) allows the efficient electronic energy transfer across several nanometers from the excited quantum dots to the dye molecules.

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