Small

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 2

January 17, 2011

Volume 7, Issue 2

Pages 161–280

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review Article
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Nanoplasmonics: Beyond the SERS: Raman Enhancement of Small Molecules Using Nanofluidic Channels with Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (Small 2/2011) (page 161)

      Young-Jae Oh, Sang-Gil Park, Min-Hee Kang, Jun-Hyuk Choi, Yoonkey Nam and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190000

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows a monolayer of silica nanospheres covered by a silver film. When a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slab is placed over the monolayer, interstitial nanogaps between the PDMS and the silver-coated nanospheres can be utilized as nanofl uidic channels, where small molecules can be easily trapped at nanofluidic stagnation points, which also correspond to electromagnetic hot spots. Although Raman signal is very attractive for detecting the fingerprints of biomolecules, and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) can be used for identifying low-molecular-weight organic compounds at low concentrations, the current limit is at micromolar levels. Small molecules, such as neurotransmitters, have very low Raman scattering, but using nanofluidics they can be positioned near electromagnetic hot spots, enhancing their SERS scattering. This combination of nanofluidics and nanoplasmonics enables the Raman detection of major neurotransmitters at nanomolar levels. For more information, please read the Communication “Beyond the SERS: Raman Enhancement of Small Molecules Using Nanofluidic Channels with Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance” by K.-H. Jeong and co-workers beginning on page 184.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review Article
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Organic Nanowires: Organic Nanowire Crystals Combine Excellent Device Performance and Mechanical Flexibility (Small 2/2011) (page 162)

      Qingxin Tang, Yanhong Tong, Yongmei Zheng, Yudong He, Yajie Zhang, Huanli Dong, Wenping Hu, Tue Hassenkam and Thomas Bjørnholm

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190001

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows scanning electron microscopy images of organic nanowire crystals, which are viewed by setting the electron beam voltage to the minimum value. The flexibility and elasticity of individual organic nanocrystals are investigated, and the Young's modulus of the nanocrystals is measured to be about 1.9 GPa using atomic force microscopy in tapping mode. The field-effect properties of the organic nanocrystals are studied at both the straight and bent states. The average mobility of bent crystals is higher than that of their straight counterparts, indicating that the intrinsic bending of organic crystals could improve device performance. These investigations facilitate our understanding of charge transport in organic semiconductors. They show considerable promise for a general way to study the mechanical properties of organic nanocrystals and for exciting applications in flexible electronics. For more information, please read the Communication “Organic Nanowire Crystals Combine Excellent Device Performance and Mechanical Flexibility” by W. Hu, T. Bjørnholm, and co-workers, beginning on page 189.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review Article
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 2/2011) (pages 163–168)

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190002

  4. Review Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review Article
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. A New Era for Cancer Treatment: Gold-Nanoparticle-Mediated Thermal Therapies (pages 169–183)

      Laura C. Kennedy, Lissett R. Bickford, Nastassja A. Lewinski, Andrew J. Coughlin, Ying Hu, Emily S. Day, Jennifer L. West and Rebekah A. Drezek

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000134

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      Gold-nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies represent a promising technology for clinical cancer applications. To treat murine tumors in vivo, gold nanoparticles are intravenously injected, allowed to accumulate in the tumor, and irradiated with an energy source such as near-infrared laser light to thermally ablate the tumor. This review highlights recent literature in the field of gold-nanoparticle-mediated thermal therapies.

  5. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review Article
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. Beyond the SERS: Raman Enhancement of Small Molecules Using Nanofluidic Channels with Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (pages 184–188)

      Young-Jae Oh, Sang-Gil Park, Min-Hee Kang, Jun-Hyuk Choi, Yoonkey Nam and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001366

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement (SERS) of small molecules spatially entrapped near hot spots by using nanofluidic channels with localized surface plasmon resonance is reported. Small molecules are introduced into the interstitial nanogaps between a silver film over nanospheres and polydimethylsiloxane, which serve as ‘nanofluidic channels.’ The concurrence between nanofluid stagnation points and the hot spots greatly enhances the SERS signals.

    2. Organic Nanowire Crystals Combine Excellent Device Performance and Mechanical Flexibility (pages 189–193)

      Qingxin Tang, Yanhong Tong, Yongmei Zheng, Yudong He, Yajie Zhang, Huanli Dong, Wenping Hu, Tue Hassenkam and Thomas Bjørnholm

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001217

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The flexibility and elasticity of individual copper phthalocyanine nanowire crystals and the influence of strain on the field-effect mobility are investigated. The Young's modulus of the crystal nanowires is about 1.9 GPa. Statistical analysis of many devices shows that the bent-nanowire crystals have higher charge-carrier mobility than their straight counterparts.

    3. Template-Based Fabrication of Nanometer-Scaled Actuators from Liquid-Crystalline Elastomers (pages 194–198)

      Christian Ohm, Niko Haberkorn, Patrick Theato and Rudolf Zentel

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001315

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      Nanowires are prepared from liquid-crystalline elastomers by the use of anodized aluminum oxide as a template. The obtained rodlike structures are monodisperse and possess a uniform alignment. They show reversible actuation—a change in length of roughly 40%—during phase transition from the nematic to the isotropic phase.

    4. Highly Fluorescent Silica-Coated Bismuth-Doped Aluminosilicate Nanoparticles for Near-Infrared Bioimaging (pages 199–203)

      Hong-Tao Sun, Junjie Yang, Minoru Fujii, Yoshio Sakka, Yufang Zhu, Takayuki Asahara, Naoto Shirahata, Masaaki Ii, Zhenhua Bai, Ji-Guang Li and Hong Gao

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001011

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      The combined advantages of bismuth and aluminosilicates lead to a new type of nanosized biolabel. The near-infrared (NIR)-emitting silica-coated bismuth-doped aluminosilicate nanoparticles are simple to prepare and exhibit a broad excitation band in the first biological window, efficient long-lived photoluminescence (PL) covering the second window, high photostability, low cytotoxicity, and easy penetration into living tissues. In vivo PL bioimaging and decay are tested in living mice.

    5. Au25@SiO2: Quantum Clusters of Gold Embedded in Silica (pages 204–208)

      M. A. Habeeb Muhammed and T. Pradeep

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001332

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The formationof Au25@SiO2 is reported in which the quantum clusters (QCs) are embedded in a layer of silica. Polydisperse AumSGn QCs are converted rapidly into monodisperse Au25 QCs by the addition of (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTS) with ≈7-times-higher yield when compared to the glutathione-mediated synthesis. Subsequent hydro-lysis and condensation results in the formation of Au25@SiO2.

    6. Laterally Resolved and Direct Spectroscopic Evidence of Nanometer-Sized Lipid and Protein Domains on a Single Cell (pages 209–214)

      Marc Richter, Martin Hedegaard, Tanja Deckert-Gaudig, Peter Lampen and Volker Deckert

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001503

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is used as a label-free, nondestructive method for the direct mapping of nano­meter-sized lipid and protein domains on the surface of a single cell (see graphic). Spectral unmixing allows the analysis and visualization of the different cellular surface components down to a spatial resolution of 10–20 nm.

    7. A Solid-in-Oil Dispersion of Gold Nanorods Can Enhance Transdermal Protein Delivery and Skin Vaccination (pages 215–220)

      Dakrong Pissuwan, Keisuke Nose, Ryohsuke Kurihara, Kenji Kaneko, Yoshiro Tahara, Noriho Kamiya, Masahiro Goto, Yoshiki Katayama and Takuro Niidome

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001394

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A high-molecular-weight model protein, ovalbumin (OVA), can be delivered through the skin and induce an immune response in mice by a solid-in-oil dispersion of gold nanorods after irradiation with near-infrared light.

    8. Cation-Induced Unidirectional Self-Assembly of Amino-Terminated Poly(propylene imine) Dendrimers (pages 221–225)

      Torsten Pietsch, Nicolas Cheval, Dietmar Appelhans, Nabil Gindy, Brigitte Voit and Amir Fahmi

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001461

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanofibers are fabricated by the self-assembly of poly(propylene imine) (PPI) dendrimers in the presence of cadmium cations in aqueous media. The fibers consist of ribbons of PPI dendrimers linked by the cations. Subsequently, micrometer-long nanofibers are decorated with gold nanoparticles via wet-chemical reduction.

    9. Nanoscale-Controlled Enzymatic Degradation of Poly(L-lactic acid) Films Using Dip-Pen Nanolithography (pages 226–229)

      Hai Li, Qiyuan He, Xiaohong Wang, Gang Lu, Cipto Liusman, Bing Li, Freddy Boey, Subbu S. Venkatraman and Hua Zhang

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001977

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Proteinase K is patterned on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) film by agarose-assisted dip-pen nanolithography. Lateral biodegradation at the nanometer scale on PLLA film is faster than vertical biodegradation. The height and diameter of the patterned proteinase K dots can affect the depth of the biodegraded holes, while the concentration of the proteinase K solution (the ink used to coat the AFM tip) does not affect the biodegradation.

    10. Synthesis of Au(Core)/Ag(Shell) Nanoparticles and their Conversion to AuAg Alloy Nanoparticles (pages 230–234)

      Matthew S. Shore, Junwei Wang, Aaron C. Johnston-Peck, Amy L. Oldenburg and Joseph B. Tracy

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001138

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Au(core)/Ag(shell) and AuAg alloy nanoparticles are synthesized with stoichiometric control through digestive ripening, a potentially general approach for synthesizing core/shell and alloy nanoparticles. AuAg alloy nanoparticles are obtained by annealing Au(core)/Ag(shell) nanoparticles. These bimetal nanoparticles have a tunable surface plasmon resonance absorbance and are of interest for use in catalysis and as taggants for security applications.

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review Article
    6. Communications
    7. Full Papers
    1. TEM and HRTEM Evidence for the Role of Ligands in the Formation of Shape-Controlled Platinum Nanoparticles (pages 235–241)

      M. Rosa Axet, Karine Philippot, Bruno Chaudret, Martiane Cabié, Suzanne Giorgio and Claude R. Henry

      Version of Record online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001112

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The morphology of platinum nanoparticles is influenced by the nature of the ligands used as stabilizing agents. The use of a long alkyl chain amine leads to the formation of multipodal nanoparticles which transform into compact nano-objects, while the use of a diamine ligand generates polyfaceted nanoparticles which expose arrow-shaped compact faces.

    2. Nanomaterials Can Dynamically Steer Cell Responses to Biological Ligands (pages 242–251)

      Ram I. Sharma, Jean E. Schwarzbauer and Prabhas V. Moghe

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001518

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Biofunctionalized albumin nano­­carriers (ANCs) regulatecell adhesion and migration. Acting as a biointerface, fibronectin-fragment (green)-functionalized ANCs (red) of increasing nanoscale dimensions alter keratinocyte polarity and migration kinetics, which corre­­­late with the dynamics of ANC cytointernalization. Thus, nanoscale carriers of adhesion ligands can be used to dynamically control cell responsiveness to adhesion ligands.

    3. Highly Controlled Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Chips Using Nanoengineered Gold Blocks (pages 252–258)

      Yukie Yokota, Kosei Ueno and Hiroaki Misawa

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001560

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Well defined gold nanostructures of various sizes are used for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. SERS signals of crystal violet molecules are obtained with a high reproducibility and the SERS intensities change according to geometries of the gold nanostructures. From the analyses, it is found that the SERS signals follow the rule of the electromagnetic theory on SERS clearly.

    4. Tuning Temperature and Size of Hot Spots and Hot-Spot Arrays (pages 259–264)

      Elika Saïdi, Nicolas Babinet, Loïc Lalouat, Jérôme Lesueur, Lionel Aigouy, Sébastian Volz, Jessica Labéguerie-Egéa and Michel Mortier

      Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001476

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Usingscanning thermal microscopy, the heating at nanoscale constrictions made in metallic microwires is studied. It is shown that the confinement size and the temperature can be tuned by changing the substrate properties. Electrically excitable submicrometer hot spots and hot-spot arrays can be created.

    5. Effects of Gold Nanorod Concentration on the Depth-Related Temperature Increase During Hyperthermic Ablation (pages 265–270)

      Boseung Jang, Yu Shin Kim and Yongdoo Choi

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001532

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The concentration of gold nanorods (GNRs) is the major determinant for both homogeneous heat distribution and therapeutic temperatures in the deep regions of tumor tissue during illumination by light. Therefore, prior to the clinical application of hyperthermic ablation using GNRs, the concentration of the GNRs has to be optimized to ensure a homogeneous distribution of therapeutic temperature in the targeted tissue.

    6. In vivo Biodistribution and Urinary Excretion of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Effects of Particle Size and PEGylation (pages 271–280)

      Qianjun He, Zhiwen Zhang, Fang Gao, Yaping Li and Jianlin Shi

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001459

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The in vivo biodistribution and urinary excretion of spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and PEGylated MSNs of different particle sizes (80–360 nm) are investigated. The 1-month tissue compatibility of MSNs and PEGylated MSNs is also evaluated by histopathological examination.

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