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Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 22

November 18, 2011

Volume 7, Issue 22

Pages 3105–3247

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Lithography: A Portable, Benchtop Photolithography System Based on a Solid-State Light Source (Small 22/2011) (page 3105)

      Mark D. Huntington and Teri W. Odom

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190086

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Solid-state photolithography (SSP) enables the capabilities of one of the most important tools in nano- and microfabrication, the mask aligner, to be performed on the benchtop. SSP can create patterns over a wide range of different length scales (down to several hundred nanometers) and over macroscale areas at a fraction of the cost of current instruments. The design of the SSP system alleviates the need for dedicated power supplies, vacuum lines, and cooling systems, and thus makes SSP a compact and portable photolithography option. The cover image is a close-up of the ultraviolet light-emitting diode (LED) array that is used as the solid-state light source for SSP. It is anticipated that SSP will expedite the integration of sub-wavelength patterns and microscale devices such as microfluidic channels into diverse research areas. For more information, please read the Communication “A Portable, Benchtop Photolithography System Based on a Solid-State Light Source” by M. D. Huntington and T. W. Odom,* beginning on page 3144.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Imaging: CuInSe/ZnS Core/Shell NIR Quantum Dots for Biomedical Imaging (Small 22/2011) (page 3106)

      Jeaho Park, Charlene Dvoracek, Kwan Hyi Lee, Justin F. Galloway, Hyo-eun C. Bhang, Martin G. Pomper and Peter C. Searson

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190087

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A current challenge in biomedical imaging is the synthesis of water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) with emission wavelength in the near-IR, high quantum yield, stability in water, and relatively small size. In addition, due to concerns over toxicity if QDs are not cleared from the body, it is desirable to avoid elements such as cadmium, lead, and arsenic. The cover image presents copper-indium-selenide QDs with a zinc-sulfide (ZnS) shell, which satisfy many of these requirements. After functionalizing the surface with an alkanethiol monolayer and forming a lipid outer leaflet, the QDs are about 15 nm in diameter and show high quantum yield and excellent stability in water. Imaging experiments indicate excellent circulation and high signal-to-noise ratio, key features for biomedical imaging. For more information, please read the Communication “CuInSe/ZnS Core/Shell NIR Quantum Dots for Biomedical Imaging” by P. C. Searson and co-workers, beginning on page 3148. Artwork credit: Martin Rietveld.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
  4. Research Article

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Polymer-Coated Nanoparticles: A Universal Tool for Biolabelling Experiments (pages 3113–3127)

      Feng Zhang, Emma Lees, Faheem Amin, Pilar Rivera_Gil, Fang Yang, Paul Mulvaney and Wolfgang J. Parak

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100608

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Polymer coating is a universal tool for transfering hydrophobic nanoparticles to hydrophilic ones. The surface chemistry of nanoparticles can be engineered and further conjugated with interesting molecules. By making use of Debye–Hückel theory, the pKa of proton indicators can be tuned to fit further biological applications.

  5. Concept

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Structural Colors: From Plasmonic to Carbon Nanostructures (pages 3128–3136)

      Ting Xu, Haofei Shi, Yi-Kuei Wu, Alex F. Kaplan, Jong G. Ok and L. Jay Guo

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101068

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Structure, in addition to pigmentation, is a major contributor to a material's color. Recent developments in the nanofabrication of plasmonic and carbon nanostructures have opened up another efficient way to control the light properties of a material at subwavelength scale, including visible-light wavelength selection, which can produce vivid structural colors.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Solar Cells: Novel Silicon Nanohemisphere-Array Solar Cells with Enhanced Performance (Small 22/2011) (page 3137)

      Yali Li, HongYu Yu, Junshuai Li, She-Mein Wong, Xiao Wei Sun, Xianglin Li, Chuanwei Cheng, Hong Jin Fan, Jian Wang, Navab Singh, Patrick Guo-Qiang Lo and Dim-Lee Kwong

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel low-aspect-ratio Si nano- hemisphere array surface texturing is introduced to enhance the performance of Si thin-film solar cells, which show ahigher short-circuit current density thannanopillars. Simulation shows thatphotogenerated carriers are mainlyconcentrated within a thin layer on thenano-hemisphere array surface (the insetscheme is scaled to the size of a hemisphere) due to a strong light-absorbing effect. The demonstrated nano-hemispheres are highly compatible with and promising for Si thin-film-based solar cells.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Novel Silicon Nanohemisphere-Array Solar Cells with Enhanced Performance (pages 3138–3143)

      Yali Li, HongYu Yu, Junshuai Li, She-Mein Wong, Xiao Wei Sun, Xianglin Li, Chuanwei Cheng, Hong Jin Fan, Jian Wang, Navab Singh, Patrick Guo-Qiang Lo and Dim-Lee Kwong

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100950

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Low-aspect-ratio Si nanohemisphere-array surface texturing applicable to ultrathin-film solar cells is introduced to improve cell performance. Besides the excellent light confinement, the low-aspect-ratio characteristic of the Si nanohemispheres facilitates the formation of high-quality p–n junctions and electrical contacts, relative to their high-aspect-ratio counterparts such as Si nanowires.

    2. A Portable, Benchtop Photolithography System Based on a Solid-State Light Source (pages 3144–3147)

      Mark D. Huntington and Teri W. Odom

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101209

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A portable and compact photolithography system based on a solid-state light source of UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is described. Solid-state photolithography can achieve high-quality patterns over a wide range of length scales at a fraction of the cost of contact mask aligners. 2D nanoscale and 1D microscale patterns can easily be created.

    3. CuInSe/ZnS Core/Shell NIR Quantum Dots for Biomedical Imaging (pages 3148–3152)

      Jeaho Park, Charlene Dvoracek, Kwan Hyi Lee, Justin F. Galloway, Hyo-eun C. Bhang, Martin G. Pomper and Peter C. Searson

      Version of Record online: 21 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101558

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CuInxSeY/ZnS core/shell quantum dots are synthesized with an emission peak in the near IR and a high quantum yield, suitable for biomedical imaging in the optical window. After lipid coating and transferring to water, the quantum dots show good stability, retain their high quantum yield, and have relatively small sizes to optimize circulation and clearance post-injection (P.I.).

    4. Photonic Nose–Sensor Platform for Water and Food Quality Control (pages 3153–3157)

      Leonardo D. Bonifacio, Geoffrey A. Ozin and André C. Arsenault

      Version of Record online: 14 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101074

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Smelling with photonic color is a simple and cost-effective method to tackle sensing problems of great practical relevance, including water-quality analysis and monitoring of high-value foods such as fish and meat. New methods for the selection of statistically relevant, multivariate information can enhance results and bring real applications closer to practice.

    5. Nucleic Acid–Gold Nanoparticle Conjugates as Mimics of microRNA (pages 3158–3162)

      Liangliang Hao, Pinal C. Patel, Ali H. Alhasan, David A. Giljohann and Chad A. Mirkin

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101018

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Novel conjugates of gold nanoparticles functionalized with synthetic microRNAs can enter cells without the aid of cationic co-carriers and mimic the function of endogenous microRNAs. These conjugates can regulate multiple proteins through interactions with the 3′ untranslated region of the target messenger RNA and control cell behavior. The conjugates are promising new tools for studying microRNA function and are candidates for microRNA replacement therapies.

    6. Preparation of Novel 3D Graphene Networks for Supercapacitor Applications (pages 3163–3168)

      Xiehong Cao, Yumeng Shi, Wenhui Shi, Gang Lu, Xiao Huang, Qingyu Yan, Qichun Zhang and Hua Zhang

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100990

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Chemical vapor deposition is used to prepare novel 3D graphene networks, with ethanol as the carbon source. These networks are used as templates for the construction of graphene/metal oxide composite-based supercapacitor electrodes. As a proof of concept, NiO is deposited on 3D graphene networks. The product exhibits a high specific capacitance of about 816 F g−1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s−1 and good cycling performance.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Life Cycle Imaging: Carbon Nano-onions for Imaging the Life Cycle of Drosophila Melanogaster (Small 22/2011) (page 3169)

      Mitrajit Ghosh, Sumit Kumar Sonkar, Manav Saxena and Sabyasachi Sarkar

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190085

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The image colorfully shows some ofthe developmental phases of Drosophila melanogaster, which haveorally ingested water-soluble carbonnano-onions. The nano-onions aresynthesized from wood waste, and theyare used to image the entire life cycle of this species–from egg to adulthood–without any toxic effect. The fluorescent organisims excrete the fluorescing material, and upon removal of the nanoparticles from their diet, they revert to their normal form demonstrating the reversibility of this process. This nontoxic fluorescent probe would be a viable alternative to barium meal in X-ray imaging.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Research Article
    6. Concept
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Carbon Nano-onions for Imaging the Life Cycle of Drosophila Melanogaster (pages 3170–3177)

      Mitrajit Ghosh, Sumit Kumar Sonkar, Manav Saxena and Sabyasachi Sarkar

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101158

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ingestion of noninvasive, nontoxic, water-soluble carbon nano-onions causes Drosophila melanogester to fluoresce. The carbon nano-onion allows Drosophila to be imaged in multiple colors in all the different stages of its life cycle.

    2. Self-Assembled DNA-Based Fluorescence Waveguide with Selectable Output (pages 3178–3185)

      Jonas K. Hannestad, Simon R. Gerrard, Tom Brown and Bo Albinsson

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101144

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A self-assembled DNA-based photonic waveguide with selectable output is constructed. The assembly consists of one input fluorophore and two spatially and spectrally distinct outputs. Output selection is achieved with the addition of the DNA intercalator, YO-PRO-1, which mediates the energy transfer from the injector dye to the secondary output. The self-assembled construct allows information transfer with nanometer precision.

    3. Flexible and Transparent Electrothermal Film Heaters Based on Graphene Materials (pages 3186–3192)

      Dong Sui, Yi Huang, Lu Huang, Jiajie Liang, Yanfeng Ma and Yongsheng Chen

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101305

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Transparent and flexible graphene electrothermal films are prepared on different substrates such as quartz and polyimide. These films show high electrothermal performances and several potential applications are proposed.

    4. Bioconjugated Fluorescent Zeolite L Nanocrystals as Labels in Protein Microarrays (pages 3193–3201)

      Zhen Li, Gianluigi Luppi, Albert Geiger, Hans-Peter Josel and Luisa De Cola

      Version of Record online: 28 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100959

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A microarray fluorescent sandwich immunoassay based on fluorescent labels consisting of dye-loaded zeolite L shows high sensitivity in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) assays. Anti-digoxigenin (anti-DIG) and DIG serve as a binding pair. The lower detection limit of TSH is calculated in the femtomolar range.

    5. Physical Vapor Deposition of Metal Nanoparticles on Chemically Modified Graphene: Observations on Metal–Graphene Interactions (pages 3202–3210)

      Priyanka A. Pandey, Gavin R. Bell, Jonathan P. Rourke, Ana M. Sanchez, Mark D. Elkin, Bryan J. Hickey and Neil R. Wilson

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101430

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metal nanoparticle arrays on chemically modified graphene are fabricated by physical vapor deposition and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Fine control over the nanoparticle size and density is achieved. The metal–graphene interactions are shown to dictate the resultant nanoparticle morphology, which in turn means that the nanoparticle morphology gives experimental insight into the energetics of the metal–graphene interface.

    6. Orthogonal Protein Decoration of DNA Nanostructures (pages 3211–3218)

      Rebecca Meyer and Christof M. Niemeyer

      Version of Record online: 23 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101365

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-labeling fusion proteins are used for site-selective decoration of DNA nanostructures. Since the fusion proteins bind orthogonally to biotin–streptavidin and antibody–antigen interactions, multifunctional DNA structures bearing up to four different proteins can be generated.

    7. Dipolar versus Octupolar Triphenylamine-Based Fluorescent Organic Nanoparticles as Brilliant One- and Two-Photon Emitters for (Bio)imaging (pages 3219–3229)

      Venkatakrishnan Parthasarathy, Suzanne Fery-Forgues, Elisa Campioli, Gaëlle Recher, Francesca Terenziani and Mireille Blanchard-Desce

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100726

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) with one- and two-photon brightness (larger than that of inorganic water-soluble quantum dots) are prepared as aqueous suspensions and used as probes for biphotonic in-vivo 3D imaging. Their colloidal stability and lack of toxicity make them good candidates as biocompatible tracers for angiography.

    8. Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxic Impact of Chemically Functionalized and Polymer-Coated Carbon Nanotubes (pages 3230–3238)

      Hanene Ali-Boucetta, Khuloud T. Al-Jamal, Karin H. Müller, Shouping Li, Alexandra E. Porter, Ayad Eddaoudi, Maurizio Prato, Alberto Bianco and Kostas Kostarelos

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A modified cytotoxic (LDH) assay is developed in an attempt to offer a valid and reliable methodology for screening carbon nanotube (CNT) toxicity in vitro. Two types of CNT are screened using this assay and the results are compared to other commonly used assays. This assay is a promising tool, particularly in a field eager for reliable in vitro cytotoxicity assays.

    9. Electroactive Microwell Arrays for Highly Efficient Single-Cell Trapping and Analysis (pages 3239–3247)

      Soo Hyeon Kim, Takatoki Yamamoto, Dominique Fourmy and Teruo Fujii

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101028

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electroactive microwells attract a single cell per well by inducing dielectrophoresis, and lyse trapped cells with electroporation for subsequent analysis of the intracellular constituents. An array of the electroactive microwells is used for high-throughput and parallelized read-outs of individual intracellular-β-galactosidase levels in a large population of cells.

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