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Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 23

December 2, 2011

Volume 7, Issue 23

Pages 3253–3398

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Nanostructure Synthesis: On-Chip Screening of Experimental Conditions for the Synthesis of Noble-Metal Nanostructures with Different Morphologies (Small 23/2011) (page 3253)

      Jianhua Zhou, Jie Zeng, Jennifer Grant, Hongkai Wu and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190091

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows an on-chip approach to the rapid screening of experimental conditions pivotal to the production of nanostructures with different morphologies. By taking advantages of microfluidics, this approach uses an array of reactors containing solutions with a 1D or 2D gradient in reagent concentration, pH value, or reaction temperature. In the proof-of-concept experiments, the parameters needed for the production of Au and Pd nanostructures with various morphologies are quickly identified. In principle, this approach can be extended to other systems for rapid screening and optimization of experimental conditions involved in the syntheses of different types of nanostructures. For more information, please read the Full Paper “On-Chip Screening of Experimental Conditions for the Synthesis of Noble-Metal Nanostructures with Different Morphologies” by Y. Xia and co-workers, beginning on page 3308.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. DNA Sensors: Combining a Nanowire SERRS Sensor and a Target Recycling Reaction for Ultrasensitive and Multiplex Identification of Pathogenic Fungi (Small 23/2011) (page 3254)

      Seung Min Yoo, Taejoon Kang, Hyungchang Kang, Hyoban Lee, Mijeong Kang, Sang Yup Lee and Bongsoo Kim

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190093

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows a detection of pathogenic fungal DNAs by combining a surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering sensor comprising patterned Au nanowires on a film and an exonuclease-III-assisted target recycling reaction. The patterned Au nanowires allow the identification of multiple pathogen DNAs in a single step, and the enzymatic reaction provides highly improved sensitivity. By using this sensor, multiple label-free DNAs from clinical samples are successfully identified with a detection limit of 100 fm. We anticipate that this sensor can apply to high-throughput diagnostic sensors for various infectious diseases. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Combining a Nanowire SERRS Sensor and a Target Recycling Reaction for Ultrasensitive and Multiplex Identification of Pathogenic Fungi” by S. Y. Lee, B. Kim, and co-workers, beginning on page 3371.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
  4. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum: N-Alkyl-PEI-Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoclusters for Efficient siRNA Delivery (page 3260)

      Gang Liu, Jin Xie, Fan Zhang, Zhiyong Wang, Kui Luo, Lei Zhu, Qimeng Quan, Gang Niu, Seulki Lee, Hua Ai and Xiaoyuan Chen

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190092

      This article corrects:

      N-Alkyl-PEI-Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoclusters for Efficient siRNA Delivery

      Vol. 7, Issue 19, 2742–2749, Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2011

    2. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum: The Burning Rate of Energetic Films of Nanostructured Porous Silicon (page 3260)

      Andrew Plummer, Valerian Kuznetsov, Timothy Joyner, Joe Shapter and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190094

      This article corrects:

      The Burning Rate of Energetic Films of Nanostructured Porous Silicon

      Vol. 7, Issue 23, 3392–3398, Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Molecular Imaging with SERS-Active Nanoparticles (pages 3261–3269)

      Yin Zhang, Hao Hong, Duane V. Myklejord and Weibo Cai

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100597

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      SERS-active nanoparticles have been conjugated with various targeting ligands for molecular imaging applications. This review presents recent progress in this field.

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Drug Delivery: Multiphoton Molecular Photorelease in Click-Chemistry-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles (Small 23/2011) (page 3270)

      Valerio Voliani, Fernanda Ricci, Giovanni Signore, Riccardo Nifosì, Stefano Luin and Fabio Beltram

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190089

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The image shows an illustration of the modular nanosystem developed for the controlled photorelease of molecular payloads, induced by yellow-green laserlight. Peptide-coated 30-nm gold nanospheres are covalently conjugated to molecular payloads by standard click chemistry, via a 1,2,3-triazole-ring linker. The photorelease of payloads is triggered in living cells by low-power continuous-wave 561-nm laser light within a standard confocal microscope setup. In agreement with theoretical calculations, the process follows a nonlinear effect promoted by thestimulation of the localized surface plasmon resonance. The ability to perform controlled photocleavage of UV-labile molecules with visible or NIR radiation opens up new, exciting possibilities for nanomedicine applications.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Multiphoton Molecular Photorelease in Click-Chemistry-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles (pages 3271–3275)

      Valerio Voliani, Fernanda Ricci, Giovanni Signore, Riccardo Nifosì, Stefano Luin and Fabio Beltram

      Version of Record online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101753

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Yellow–green controlled photorelease: probes click-linked to peptide-coated gold nanospheres by a triazole ring can be released in living cells under a focused 561 nm laser at low power. Photocleaving follows a three-photon event stimulated by the excitation of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

    2. Raman-Active Two-Tiered Ag Nanoparticles with a Concentric Cavity (pages 3276–3280)

      Jung-Sub Wi, Sweta Sengupta, Robert J. Wilson, Mingliang Zhang, Mary Tang and Shan X. Wang

      Version of Record online: 11 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101523

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A two-tiered Ag nanoparticle containing a cavity at the center of each nanoparticle is generated by two simple steps of nano-imprinting and metal vacuum deposition. It enables sub-zeptomole detection of organic molecules and five orders of the dynamic sensing range.

    3. Bioderived Polyelectrolyte Nanogels for Robust Antigen Loading and Vaccine Adjuvant Effects (pages 3281–3286)

      Yong Taik Lim, Sang-Mu Shim, Young-Woock Noh, Kyung-Soon Lee, Doo-Yeol Choi, Hiroshi Uyama, Hee Ho Bae, Ji Hyun Kim, Kwan Soo Hong, Moon-Hee Sung and Haryoung Poo

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101836

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      An easy but robust strategy for the synthesis of bioderived polyelectrolyte nanogels for protein antigen loading and vaccine adjuvant systems that can improve both humoral (Th2) and cellular immunity (Th1) is presented. The synthesized polyelectrolyte nanogels promote the uptake of antigens into antigen-presenting cells and strongly induce ovalbumin-specific INF-γ producing cells, cytotoxic T cell activity, and antibody production.

    4. Patterned Growth of Polyaniline Nanowire Arrays on a Flexible Substrate for High-Performance Gas Sensing (pages 3287–3291)

      Wenjun Zou, Baogang Quan, Kai Wang, Lin Xia, Jianlin Yao and Zhixiang Wei

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100889

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Uniform patterning of polyaniline nanowire arrays on a wafer-sized flexible substrate is achieved by combining photolithography and in situ polymerization techniques. Chemical gas sensors based on the patterned polyaniline nanowire arrays exhibit excellent performance because of their highly ordered morphology and large specific surface area.

    5. Optically and Biologically Active Mussel Protein-Coated Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 3292–3297)

      Yong Chae Jung, Hiroyuki Muramatsu, Kazunori Fujisawa, Jin Hee Kim, Takuya Hayashi, Yoong Ahm Kim, Morinobu Endo, Mauricio Terrones and Mildred S. Dresselhaus

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100668

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A method of dispersing strongly bundled double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNTs) via a homogeneous coating of mussel protein in an aqueous solution is presented. Optical activity, mechanical strength, as well as electrical conductivity coming from the nanotubes and the versatile biological activity from the mussel protein make mussel-coated DWNTs promising as a multifunctional scaffold and for anti-fouling materials.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Composite Nanoparticles: Hybrid Au–CdSe and Ag–CdSe Nanoflowers and Core–Shell Nanocrystals via One-Pot Heterogeneous Nucleation and Growth (Small 23/2011) (page 3298)

      Khaled M. AbouZeid, Mona B. Mohamed and M. Samy El-Shall

      Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Heterogeneous nucleation and growth of CdSe nanocrystals on preformed Aucores are observed. In the early stages of the process, the Au nanocrystal cores form chainlike assemblies surrounded by small CdSe clusters assembled in a rodlike domain. By the addition of more Cd and Se ions, CdSe nanocrystals form multiply branched structures around the Au cores resulting in nanoflower-shaped hybrid structures. At relatively high temperatures such as 300 °C, the formation of large, faceted Au cores creates preferential growth sites for the CdSe nanocrystalline shell, thus resulting in well-defined Au–CdSe core–shell structures with large interfaces between the Au and CdSe domains.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Corrigendum
    6. Review
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Hybrid Au–CdSe and Ag–CdSe Nanoflowers and Core–Shell Nanocrystals via One-Pot Heterogeneous Nucleation and Growth (pages 3299–3307)

      Khaled M. AbouZeid, Mona B. Mohamed and M. Samy El-Shall

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100688

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A versatile one-pot route for the synthesis of hybrid nanoflowers consisting of a gold or silver core and multipod CdSe rods. The approach is based on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of CdSe nanocrystals on preformed metal cores. At lower growth temperatures (150 °C) Au–CdSe nanoflowers are formed, while at high temperatures such as 300 °C a CdSe shell grows on the large faceted Au cores.

    2. On-Chip Screening of Experimental Conditions for the Synthesis of Noble-Metal Nanostructures with Different Morphologies (pages 3308–3316)

      Jianhua Zhou, Jie Zeng, Jennifer Grant, Hongkai Wu and Younan Xia

      Version of Record online: 15 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101299

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An on-chip approach to rapidly screening reagent concentrations, pH values, and temperatures for the syntheses of noble-metal nanostructures is reported. By forming a gradient for each parameter, a large number of reactions can be performed in parallel to quickly identify the necessary conditions for generating Au and Pd nanostructures with a specific morphology.

    3. Probing the Electromagnetic Field Distribution within a Metallic Nanodisk (pages 3317–3323)

      David Meneses-Rodríguez, Elías Ferreiro-Vila, Patricia Prieto, José Anguita, María U. González, José M. García-Martín, Alfonso Cebollada, Antonio García-Martín and Gaspar Armelles

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101060

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetoplasmonic Au/Co/Au nanodisks are fabricated by hole mask colloidal lithography, thermal evaporation, and sputtering with different positions of the Co layer in the vertical direction. The Magneto-optical activity as a function of the Co layer position gives a direct picture of the internal electromagnetic field distribution within the nanodisk when the localized surface plasmon resonance is excited. Theoretical calculations confirm these experimental findings.

    4. Micro/Nanoscale Spatial Resolution Temperature Probing for the Interfacial Thermal Characterization of Epitaxial Graphene on 4H-SiC (pages 3324–3333)

      Yanan Yue, Jingchao Zhang and Xinwei Wang

      Version of Record online: 13 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101598

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      Epitaxial graphene is grown on 4H-SiC and heated by a DC current with the generated heat dissipated into the substrate. A simultaneous Raman measurement is conducted to distinguish the temperatures of the graphene sheet and SiC substrate adjacent to their interface in the vertical direction. The interfacial thermal resistance can be directly evaluated based on the measured temperature and heat flux.

    5. Controlled Synthesis of Tantalum Oxynitride and Nitride Nanoparticles (pages 3334–3340)

      Qingsheng Gao, Cristina Giordano and Markus Antonietti

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101207

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      A Calcium-assisted urea method is introduced to synthesize TaON and Ta3N5 nanoparticles. The addition of Ca2+ remarkably improves control over both the size and composition of the particles. Investigations of the formation mechanism of these nanoparticles clearly show that Ca2+ slows down NH3 release from urea decomposition, which is indispensable to control the synthesis of tantalum oxynitrides and nitride nanoparticles.

    6. Quantitative Assessment of the Comparative Nanoparticle-Uptake Efficiency of a Range of Cell Lines (pages 3341–3349)

      Tiago dos Santos, Juan Varela, Iseult Lynch, Anna Salvati and Kenneth A. Dawson

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101076

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      Uptake and localization of Texas Red-labeled, carboxylate-modified polystyrene nanoparticles are studied comparatively across a panel of cell lines. Internalization of the particles is found to be highly size-dependent for all cell lines studied, but the uptake kinetics vary across different cell types. Intracellular uptake is found to be highest in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lowest in HeLa cells. The results suggest that (nano)particle uptake may not follow the size limits commonly defined for uptake processes, and highlight the variability of uptake kinetics for the same material in different cell lines, with important implications regarding the safety of nanomaterials and their use in biomedical applications.

    7. Programmable Chemical Gradient Patterns by Soft Grayscale Lithography (pages 3350–3362)

      Audrey M. Bowen, Joshua A. Ritchey, Jeffrey S. Moore and Ralph G. Nuzzo

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100920

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      The fabrication of programmable molecular-level grayscale patterns on planar and nonplanar substrates is demonstrated using poly(dimethyl siloxane)-based compliant grayscale amplitude masks (in figure) and a hydrophobic coumarin-based photocleavable monolayer that exposes a polar group upon irradiation. This chemical gradient fabrication scheme enables explicit engineering of both surface properties that dictate nonspecific interactions and functional chemistry necessary for covalent bonding.

    8. The Exocytosis of Fluorescent Nanodiamond and Its Use as a Long-Term Cell Tracker (pages 3363–3370)

      Chia-Yi Fang, V. Vaijayanthimala, Chi-An Cheng, Shih-Hua Yeh, Ching-Fang Chang, Chung-Leung Li and Huan-Cheng Chang

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluorescent nanodiamond (FND) emits far-red photoluminescence from built-in nitrogen-vacancy centers. The particles of 100 nm in size are readily taken up by cells with low exocytosis. This characteristic, together with the high biocompatibility and excellent photostability of this nanomaterial, makes FND a promising candidate for long-term labeling and tracking of cancer and stem cells.

    9. Combining a Nanowire SERRS Sensor and a Target Recycling Reaction for Ultrasensitive and Multiplex Identification of Pathogenic Fungi (pages 3371–3376)

      Seung Min Yoo, Taejoon Kang, Hyungchang Kang, Hyoban Lee, Mijeong Kang, Sang Yup Lee and Bongsoo Kim

      Version of Record online: 8 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100633

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An ultrasensitive and multiplex pathogen DNA detection method is reported that combines a patterned Au nanowire SERRS sensor with a target recycling reaction. By using this sensor, multiple DNAs from clinical samples are successfully identified. It is anticipated that this sensor can be used as a high-throughput diagnostic sensor for various infectious diseases.

    10. A Mobile Sn Nanowire Inside a β-Ga2O3 Tube: A Practical Nanoscale Electrically/Thermally Driven Switch (pages 3377–3384)

      Rujia Zou, Zhenyu Zhang, Qiwei Tian, Guanxing Ma, Guosheng Song, Zhigang Chen and Junqing Hu

      Version of Record online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101204

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The melting, freezing, and electrical behavior of Sn encapsulated in Ga2O3 tubes is investigated through in-situ observation in a transmission electron microscope. The Sn nanowires move and merge or split inside the tube, forming a practical, nanoscale switch structure that can be controlled either electrically, using an applied current, or thermally, at a predetermined temperature.

    11. Guest Effect on Nanopatterned Spin-Crossover Thin Films (pages 3385–3391)

      Carlos Bartual-Murgui, Amal Akou, Lionel Salmon, Gábor Molnár, Christophe Thibault, Jose Antonio Real and Azzedine Bousseksou

      Version of Record online: 14 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101089

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Regular nanopatterned thin films of the metal–organic framework {Fe(bpac)[Pt(CN)4]} (bpac=bis(4-pyridyl)acetylene) are elaborated by the combination of a sequential assembly process and a lithographic method. These patterns still exhibit cooperative spin transition with hysteresis loop and are sensitive to the adsorption of guest molecules.

    12. The Burning Rate of Energetic Films of Nanostructured Porous Silicon (pages 3392–3398)

      Andrew Plummer, Valerian Kuznetsov, Timothy Joyner, Joe Shapter and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Version of Record online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101087

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Porous silicon impregnated with sodium perchlorate reacts explosively when initiated by a high voltage spark. The burning rate of this energetic material is investigated using fiber-optic velocity probes and high-speed video, demonstrating velocities up to 500 m s−1. Strong plumes of flame emerge from the surface, leading to applications in micro-electromechanical systems.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Corrigendum: The Burning Rate of Energetic Films of Nanostructured Porous Silicon

      Vol. 7, Issue 23, 3260, Version of Record online: 1 DEC 2011

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