Small

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 3

February 7, 2011

Volume 7, Issue 3

Pages 285–414

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Tissue Engineering: Nanofiber Membranes with Controllable Microwells and Structural Cues and Their Use in Forming Cell Microarrays and Neuronal Networks (Small 3/2011) (page 285)

      Jingwei Xie, Wenying Liu, Matthew R. MacEwan, Yi-Chun Yeh, Stavros Thomopoulos and Younan Xia

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows neurites emanating from a dorsal root ganglia that was seeded in a microwell on a nanofiber-based membrane. The simple and versatile fabrication method of the membrane, which features arrayed microwells and 1D structural cues on its surface, involves electrospinning with an array of stainless steel beads as the collector. The diameter and depth of the microwells and the distance between adjacent microwells can all be separately adjusted by varying the size, separation, and arrangement of the steel beads. Using this novel class of nanofiber-based substrates, neuronal networks and cell microarrays can be formed. The unique architecture of these electrospun nanofiber membranes may also be useful for a range of other biomedical applications. For more information, please read the Communication “Nanofiber Membranes with Controllable Microwells and Structural Cues and Their Use in Forming Cell Microarrays and Neuronal Networks” by Y. Xia and co-workers beginning on page 293.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Supramolecular Polymers: Rigid Dimers Formed through Strong Interdigitated H-Bonds Yield Compact 1D Supramolecular Helical Polymers (Small 3/2011) (page 286)

      Artur Ciesielski, Artur R. Stefankiewicz, Felix Hanke, Mats Persson, Jean-Marie Lehn and Paolo Samorì

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture shows supramolecular ordered structures, which are achieved through the self-assembly of small rigid molecules. The self-association of phenylpyrimidine-based dimeric species through directional H-bonding between two lateral pyridin-2(1H)-one units of neighboring molecules allowed the formation of highly compact 1D supramolecular polymers by self-assembly on graphite. The concentration-dependent study by scanning tunneling microscopy at the solid-liquid interface is corroborated by dispersion-corrected density functional studies and revealed the controlled generation of either linear supramolecular 2D arrays or long helical supramolecular polymers with a high shape persistence. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Rigid Dimers Formed through Strong Interdigitated H-Bonds Yield Compact 1D Supramolecular Helical Polymers” by F. Hanke, J.-M. Lehn, P. Samorì, and co-workers, beginning on page 342.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 3/2011) (pages 287–292)

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190005

  4. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Nanofiber Membranes with Controllable Microwells and Structural Cues and Their Use in Forming Cell Microarrays and Neuronal Networks (pages 293–297)

      Jingwei Xie, Wenying Liu, Matthew R. MacEwan, Yi-Chun Yeh, Stavros Thomopoulos and Younan Xia

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001446

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Neural scaffolds: A method for fabricating electrospun nanofiber membranes with arrayed microwells and aligned structural cues on their surfaces by using a collector assembled from stainless steel beads is reported. It is demonstrated that formation of cell microarrays and neuronal networks can be achieved using this novel class of nanofiber scaffolds.

    2. Self-Assembly of a Fullerene Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Dyad (pages 298–301)

      Mingfeng Wang, Alan J. Heeger and Fred Wudl

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001364

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      A C60-capped poly(3-hexylthiophene) dyad molecule (PCB–P3HT) serves as a “surfactant” to enhance the solubility of fullerenes in poor solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, a selective good solvent for P3HT. Moreover, the phase separation of PCB–P3HT in thin films leads to well-defined nanostructures wherein the solvent plays a vital role in determining the morphology and the structure of these self-assembling structures.

    3. Characteristics and Properties of Carboxylated Cellulose Nanocrystals Prepared from a Novel One-Step Procedure (pages 302–305)

      Alfred C. W. Leung, Sabahudin Hrapovic, Edmond Lam, Yali Liu, Keith B. Male, Khaled A. Mahmoud and John H. T. Luong

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001715

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      High quality cellulose nanocrystals are synthesized using a simple one-step procedure with ammonium persulfate. This versatile method processes a variety of cellulosic biomass without the need for pretreatments to remove non- cellulosic plant contents.

    4. Visualizing Low-Level Point Mutations: Enzyme-like Selectivity Offered by Nanoparticle Probes (pages 306–310)

      Yanbing Zu, Aik Leong Ting and Zhiqiang Gao

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001774

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly selective DNA probes prepared by functionalizing gold nanoparticles with nonionic morpholino oligos are described. The nanoparticle probes offer enzyme-like selectivity based simply on hybridization reactions, allowing visual detection of a perfectly matched target within a large excess (>1000-fold) of single-base-mismatched DNA.

    5. Photoinduced Hydrogen-Generating Nanogel Systems (pages 311–315)

      Kosuke Okeyoshi, Daisuke Suzuki, Akihiro Kishimura and Ryo Yoshida

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201000872

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Photoinduced hydrogen nanogenerators are prepared by closely integrating sensitizer and catalyst in a nanogel network. The nanogenerators operate an internal electronic transmission circuit by coordinating the internal sensitizer and catalyst. This nanomaterial could be useful as an artificial photosynthetic system for solar-energy conversion.

    6. Label-Free Indirect Immunoassay Using an Avidin-Induced Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrate (pages 316–320)

      Xiao Xia Han, Lei Chen, Wei Ji, Yunfei Xie, Bing Zhao and Yukihiro Ozaki

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001936

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      A label-free immunoassay based on a simple, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) approach is reported. Biotin-conjugated antibodies are at­­tached to avidin-aggregated Ag nanoparticles via biotin–avidin biorecognition. More highly sensitive protein detection and more biocompatible protein adsorption are achieved compared to previous relevant methods. Importantly, a SERS intensity ratio of two bands is found to be sensitive to the concentration of corresponding antigens.

    7. Fast Fabrication of Large-Area, Nanostructured Arrays from Polymers or Carbon Nanotubes by Wet-Processing (pages 321–325)

      Alessandro Fraleoni-Morgera

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001281

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A novel, fast, and low-cost method for fabricating large-area arrays of organic-material-based filamentary nanostructures is presented. The technique, auxiliary solvent-based sublimation-aided nanostructuring (ASB-SANS), only takes minutes and exploits a templating matrix easily removable by sublimation. Proof-of-concept patterns fabricated out of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are demonstrated.

    8. Generalized Synthesis of Mesoporous Shells on Zeolite Crystals (pages 326–332)

      Yu Han, Pemakorn Pitukmanorom, Lan Zhao and Jackie Y. Ying

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001180

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      A simple and generalized synthetic approach is developed for creating mesoporous shells on zeolite crystals. This method allows for the tailoring of thickness, pore size, and composition of the mesoporous shell, and can be applied to zeolites of various structures, compositions, and crystal sizes.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Nanotoxicology: Advanced Optical Imaging Reveals the Dependence of Particle Geometry on Interactions Between CdSe Quantum Dots and Immune Cells (Small 3/2011) (page 333)

      Jesse S. Aaron, Adrienne C. Greene, Paul G. Kotula, George D. Bachand and Jerilyn A. Timlin

      Article first published online: 4 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190006

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Optical imaging approaches are used to characterize the interactions of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with live immune cells in order to gain insight into particle shape and size-dependent behavior. Through the use of total internal reflectance fluorescence (TIRF) and hyper-spectral confocal microscopy (HCM), Timlin and co-workers are able to characterize particle diffusion and partitioning within the plasma membrane, cellular uptake kinetics, as well as sorting of particles into lysosomes. TIRF imaging reveals that rod-shaped QDs are internalized into the cell two- to three times more slowly than more spherical ones, and HCM suggests that QDs tend to partition within the cell membrane into regions containing a single particle type. on page 333

  6. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Communications
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Full Papers
    1. Advanced Optical Imaging Reveals the Dependence of Particle Geometry on Interactions Between CdSe Quantum Dots and Immune Cells (pages 334–341)

      Jesse S. Aaron, Adrienne C. Greene, Paul G. Kotula, George D. Bachand and Jerilyn A. Timlin

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001619

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Using hyperspectral confocal fluorescence (HCF) microscopy, it is shown that quantum dots of various sizes and shapes partition themselves into distinct regions within the cell membrane of RBL-2H3 rat mast cells. HCF microscopy allows for deconvolving the signal from multiple, overlapping fluorophores in the sample in order to reveal precise concentrations and distributions of nanoparticles in the cell.

    2. Rigid Dimers Formed through Strong Interdigitated H-Bonds Yield Compact 1D Supramolecular Helical Polymers (pages 342–350)

      Artur Ciesielski, Artur R. Stefankiewicz, Felix Hanke, Mats Persson, Jean-Marie Lehn and Paolo Samorì

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001419

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymers are observed by scanning tunneling microscopy at the solid–liquid interface. The architecture consists of rigid molecular modules self-assembled via multiple H-bonding into a compact supramolecular polymer. A controlled geometry of the virtually infinite 1D architecture, i.e., a linear or helical motif, is obtained by working at different concentrations.

    3. Synthesis and Characterization of Ratiometric Ion-Sensitive Polyelectrolyte Capsules (pages 351–363)

      Loretta L. del Mercato, Azhar Z. Abbasi and Wolfgang J. Parak

      Article first published online: 22 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001144

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ion-sensitive polyelectrolyte capsules for protons, sodium, potassium, and chloride ions were fabricated by embedding sensor dye molecules, whose fluorescence intensity depends on the ion concentration, and reference dye molecules into their cavities. The fluorescence response of every sensor type to changes in ion concentration was quantitatively evaluated by ratiometric fluorescence spectroscopy and ratiometric fluorescence microscopy measurements.

    4. Effective Gene Silencing by Multilayered siRNA-Coated Gold Nanoparticles (pages 364–370)

      Seung Koo Lee, Myung Shin Han, Subashini Asokan and Ching-Hsuan Tung

      Article first published online: 30 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001314

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A layering approach to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) with an extended gene-silencing effect is developed. Multilayers of siRNA are fabricated on a nanometer-sized core with a protease-sensitive polypeptide, which can be degraded gradually by intracellular protease, resulting in a prolonged siRNA effect.

    5. Tailoring Plasmonic Nanostructures for Optimal SERS Sensing of Small Molecules and Large Microorganisms (pages 371–376)

      Jiajie Xu, Lei Zhang, Heng Gong, Jir˘í Homola and Qiuming Yu

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001673

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Local electric fields can be tuned dramatically by varying the diameter of quasi-3D gold plasmonic nano­structure arrays, as indicated by 3D finite-difference time-domain calculations. Utilizing quasi-3D arrays that exhibit a maximum electric field intensity either at the bottom (gold nanodisks) or on the top (gold film patterned with nanoholes), the optimal surface-enhanced Raman scattering sensitivity for the detection of small molecules or large microorganisms can be achieved.

    6. Interplay Between Size and Crystal Structure of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoparticles—Synthesis, Growth Mechanism, and Electrochemical Performance (pages 377–387)

      Dorota Koziej, Marta D. Rossell, Bettina Ludi, Andreas Hintennach, Petr Novák, Jan-Dierk Grunwaldt and Markus Niederberger

      Article first published online: 20 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001606

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The rapid reduction of MoO2Cl2 precursor triggers the nucleation of 2 nm MoO2 nanospheres with a hexagonal crystal structure. An increase in particle size induces a crystal phase transition from hexagonal to monoclinic. The transformation from spheres into rods emerges as a complex process driven by oriented attachment.

    7. Receptor-Mediated Interactions between Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (pages 388–394)

      Dorota Bartczak, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Fethi Louafi, Timothy M. Millar and Antonios G. Kanaras

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001816

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A strategy to manipulate cell operations is based on the membrane-receptor-specific interactions between colloidal peptide-capped gold nanoparticles (NPs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The specific binding of the peptide-capped particles to angiogenic receptors is demonstrated. The cellular fate of the functional NPs is imaged and the influence of the peptide-coated NPs on the gene expression profile of hypoxic and angiogenic genes is monitored.

    8. Ultrasensitive Detection of Low-Abundance Surface-Marker Protein Using Isothermal Rolling Circle Amplification in a Microfluidic Nanoliter Platform (pages 395–400)

      Tania Konry, Irina Smolina, Joel M. Yarmush, Daniel Irimia and Martin L. Yarmush

      Article first published online: 27 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001620

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A highly sensitive labeling method that translates antigen–antibody recognition processes into DNA-detection events that can be greatly amplified via isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) is applied. Using this method, it is demonstrated that the identification of specific protein markers can be achieved on tumor-cell surfaces in miniaturized nanoliter reaction droplets.

    9. Two-Photon-Sensitive and Sugar-Targeted Nanocarriers from Degradable and Dendritic Amphiphiles (pages 401–406)

      Lin Sun, Yang Yang, Chang-Ming Dong and Yen Wei

      Article first published online: 28 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001729

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) can be released in a controlled manner from degradable and dendritic amphiphiles by changing the light irradiation time. Different sugar- and light-sensitive groups (e.g., diazonaphthoquinone, DNQ) are modularly conjugated in the nanocarriers. The sugar-coated micelles demonstrate specific binding with lectins, which makes them useful for targeted drug-delivery vesicles.

    10. Ordered Mesoporous α-Fe2O3 (Hematite) Thin-Film Electrodes for Application in High Rate Rechargeable Lithium Batteries (pages 407–414)

      Kirstin Brezesinski, Jan Haetge, John Wang, Simone Mascotto, Christian Reitz, Alexander Rein, Sarah H. Tolbert, Jan Perlich, Bruce Dunn and Torsten Brezesinski

      Article first published online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001333

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Phase-pure α-Fe2O3 nanoarchitectures with both a mesoporous morphology and crystalline domain structure can be readily produced in the form of thin films through coassembly of hydrated ferric nitrate with a poly(ethylene-co-butylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer. These novel materials exhibit enhanced lithium-ion storage capabilities and excellent cycling stabilities by suppressing the irreversible phase transformations that are observed in microcrystalline α-Fe2O3.

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