Small

Cover image for Vol. 7 Issue 4

February 18, 2011

Volume 7, Issue 4

Pages 417–545

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Microcontact Printing: Arrays of Silicon Micro/Nanostructures Formed in Suspended Configurations for Deterministic Assembly Using Flat and Roller-Type Stamps (Small 4/2011) (page 417)

      Yumi Yang, Youngkyu Hwang, Hyun A Cho, Jung-Hoon Song, Seong-Ju Park, John A. Rogers and Heung Cho Ko

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190007

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows structures of single crystalline silicon in the suspended and tethered confi gurations that facilitate their deterministic assembly using the technique of transfer printing. Polymer pedestals (red) hold the silicon structures in their lithographically defi ned positions for release onto an elastomeric stamp, in a manner that involves minimal adhesion to the underlying substrate, and which therefore preserves their spatial order and enhances yields. Diverse shapes (e.g., straight or curved edges), thicknesses (between 55 nm and 3 μm), and sizes (areas of 4000 μm2 to 117 mm2) of structures in various layouts (regular or irregular arrays, with dense or sparse coverages) can be achieved, using either flat or cylindrical roller-type stamps. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Arrays of Silicon Micro/Nanostructures Formed in Suspended Configurations for Deterministic Assembly Using Flat and Roller-Type Stamps” by J. A. Rogers, H. C. Ko, and co-workers, beginning on page 484.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Magnetic Nanocomposites: Magnetic Nanocomposites with Mesoporous Structures: Synthesis and Applications (Small 4/2011) (page 418)

      Jian Liu, Shi Zhang Qiao, Qiu Hong Hu and Gao Qing (Max) Lu

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190008

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover picture features examples of the development and applications of magnetic nanocomposites with well-defined mesoporous structures, shapes, and tailored properties. These composites combine the properties of magnetic nanoparticles and mesoporous materials, and are categorized into four types: 1) ordered mesoporous materials with magnetic nanoparticles loaded inside the porous channels or cages; 2) monodisperse magnetic nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous silica nanospheres; 3) microspheres with magnetic cores and perpendicularly aligned mesoporous shells; and 4) rattle-type magnetic nanocomposites. Magnetic mesostructured nanocomposites are versatile frameworks that can be functionalized with various active molecules and metal nanocrystals to create multifunctional materials. For more information, please read the Review “Magnetic Nanocomposites with Mesoporous Structures: Synthesis and Applications” by S. Z. Qiao, G. Q. M. Lu, and co-workers, beginning on page 425. The use of magnetic nanocomposites with mesoporous structures in the areas of health care, catalysis, and environmental separation are highlighted and summarized; relevant areas that require additional investigation are identified, and future perspectives are offered.

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Contents: (Small 4/2011) (pages 419–424)

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190009

  4. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Magnetic Nanocomposites with Mesoporous Structures: Synthesis and Applications (pages 425–443)

      Jian Liu, Shi Zhang Qiao, Qiu Hong Hu and Gao Qing (Max) Lu

      Version of Record online: 19 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001402

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Magnetic nanocompsites with mesoporous structures, defined shapes, and tailored properties are of immense scientific and technological interest. This review highlights recent advances in the synthesis and applications of the nanocomposites of magnetic nanoparticles and mesoporous materials with different morphology and structures. In addition, some perspectives on the future developments and directions of the synthesis, device fabrication, and application of such magnetic particle and mesoporous material nanocomposites are provided.

  5. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Nanotubes: Tube-in-Tube TiO2 Nanotubes with Porous Walls: Fabrication, Formation Mechanism, and Photocatalytic Properties (Small 4/2011) (page 444)

      Xijin Xu, Xiaosheng Fang, Tianyou Zhai, Haibo Zeng, Baodan Liu, Xiaoye Hu, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The frontispiece image shows SEM images of tube-in-tube (TIT) TiO2 nanostructures with porous walls produced in a single step in HF and DMSO solution. The nanotubes are several micrometers long with an outer diameter of 200 nm. These novel nanostructures show potential for the formation of perpendicularly grown, 1D TiO2 nanotubes with enlarged surface areas due to their porous walls-a clear advantage in photocatalytic and solar energy conversion applications. A study of the mechanism shows that for the formation of the TIT TiO2 nanotubes, the equalfield strength growth and localized dissolution of the formed TiO2 tubular walls dominate the formation of this novel morphology. For more information, please read the Communication “Tube-in-Tube TiO2 Nanotubes with Porous Walls: Fabrication, Formation Mechanism, and Photocatalytic Properties” by X. J. Xu, T. Y. Zhai, D. Golberg, and co-workers, beginning on page on page 444.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Tube-in-Tube TiO2 Nanotubes with Porous Walls: Fabrication, Formation Mechanism, and Photocatalytic Properties (pages 445–449)

      Xijin Xu, Xiaosheng Fang, Tianyou Zhai, Haibo Zeng, Baodan Liu, Xiaoye Hu, Yoshio Bando and Dmitri Golberg

      Version of Record online: 27 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001849

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Self-organized, freestanding TiO2 nanotube arrays that exhibit tube-in-tube morphology are fabricated using a one-step anodic method. These arrays are uniform and compact. The tubes within the arrays are several micrometers long with a 200 nm outer diameter. They have a coarse lateral profile that leads to a large aspect ratio and guarantees good photocatalytic properties.

    2. Approaching the Intrinsic Electron Field-Emission of a Graphene Film Consisting of Quasi-Freestanding Graphene Strips (pages 450–454)

      Qingsong Huang, Gang Wang, Liwei Guo, Yuping Jia, Jingjing Lin, Kang Li, Wenjun Wang and Xiaolong Chen

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001502

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon films made up of vertically standing, tall graphene strips can be peeled off a substrate. By this route, the film forms a cathode material with a long life and a high field enhancement factor for stable field emission. This film is a further step toward understanding and manipulating the intrinsic field-emission properties of graphene.

    3. Artificial Surface-Modified Si3N4 Nanopores for Single Surface-Modified Gold Nanoparticle Scanning (pages 455–459)

      Yann Astier, Lucien Datas, Randy Carney, Francesco Stellacci, Francesco Gentile and Enzo DiFabrizio

      Version of Record online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002113

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Si3N4 nanopores functionalized with 4–4’ bipyridyl, 3.2–6.5 nm in diameter and 30–50 nm in length, are shown to interact with single, negatively charged, coated gold nanoparticles from 2.4 to 8.9 nm diameter. It is possible to detect the interactions through alterations in the ionic current, whether or not the electric-field driven nanoparticle threads through the pore.

    4. Enhanced Chemotherapy Efficacy by Sequential Delivery of siRNA and Anticancer Drugs Using PEI-Grafted Graphene Oxide (pages 460–464)

      Liming Zhang, Zhuoxuan Lu, Qinghuan Zhao, Jie Huang, He Shen and Zhijun Zhang

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001522

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Loading and delivery of Bcl-2-targeted short interfering RNA (siRNA) and anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) by polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated graphene oxide (PEI-GO) is studied. A higher knockdown efficiency of siRNA delivered by PEI-GO than by PEI is achieved. Sequential delivery of siRNA and DOX by the PEI-GO nanocarrier shows a synergistic effect, which leads to significantly improved chemotherapy efficacy.

    5. Hunting for Monolayer Boron Nitride: Optical and Raman Signatures (pages 465–468)

      Roman V. Gorbachev, Ibtsam Riaz, Rahul R. Nair, Rashid Jalil, Liam Britnell, Branson D. Belle, Ernie W. Hill, Kostya S. Novoselov, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Andre K. Geim and Peter Blake

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001628

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The identification of single- and few-layer boron nitride is described. Its optical contrast is much smaller than that of graphene, but even monolayers are discernable by optimizing viewing conditions. The number of layers in thicker crystals can be counted by exploiting an integer-step increase in the Raman intensity and optical contrast.

    6. Homoepitaxial Size Control and Large-Scale Synthesis of Highly Monodisperse Amine-Protected Palladium Nanoparticles (pages 469–473)

      Ryota Sato, Masayuki Kanehara and Toshiharu Teranishi

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001685

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly monodisperse amine-protected palladium nanoparticles are synthesized by liquid-phase reduction in the presence of an amine and a carboxylic acid. Their sizes are controlled between 2 and 5 nm using homoepitaxial growth. These palladium nanoparticles are obtained in large-scale synthesis, and are applicable as structural units for functional materials.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Nanoparticles: Well Shaped Mn3O4 Nano-octahedra with Anomalous Magnetic Behavior and Enhanced Photodecomposition Properties (Small 4/2011) (page 474)

      Yu Li, Haiyan Tan, Xiao-Yu Yang, Bart Goris, Jo Verbeeck, Sara Bals, Pierre Colson, Rudi Cloots, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo and Bao-Lian Su

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201190011

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Uniform and well shaped Mn3O4 nano-octahedra synthesized with PEG200 using a simple hydrothermal method exhibit anomalous magnetic properties in regard to their Curie and blocking temperatures. These Mn3O4 nano-octahedra also show high performance in the photodecomposition of organic pollutants. The anomalous magnetic properties and superior photodecomposition activity of the Mn3O4 are thought to be related to their special shape: the vertical axis of the [001] plane and the abundantly exposed {101} facets at the surfaces. They are promising magnetic materials and as starting materials in the preparation of soft magnetic materials such as manganese ferrite for dioxymagnetic cores in transformers for power supplies, in the lithiation of Li-Mn-O electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries, and in a corrosion-inhibiting pigment for epoxy-polyamide- and epoxy-ester-based primers and top coatings. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Well Shaped Mn3O4 Nano-octahedra with Anomalous Magnetic Behavior and Enhanced Photodecomposition Properties” by B.-L. Su and co-workers, beginning on page 474.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Well Shaped Mn3O4 Nano-octahedra with Anomalous Magnetic Behavior and Enhanced Photodecomposition Properties (pages 475–483)

      Yu Li, Haiyan Tan, Xiao-Yu Yang, Bart Goris, Jo Verbeeck, Sara Bals, Pierre Colson, Rudi Cloots, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo and Bao-Lian Su

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001403

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Uniformand well shaped Mn3O4 nano-octahedra of 150 nm in diameter exhibit anomalous magnetic properties. With these Mn3O4 nano-octahedra as a catalyst, the photodecomposition of the rhodamine B pollutant is found to be much superior to that when using commercial Mn3O4 powders. The anomalous magnetic properties and high superior photo­decomposition activity of well shaped Mn3O4 nano-octahedra should be related to the special shape of the nanoparticles and the abundantly exposed {101} facets at the external surfaces.

    2. Arrays of Silicon Micro/Nanostructures Formed in Suspended Configurations for Deterministic Assembly Using Flat and Roller-Type Stamps (pages 484–491)

      Yumi Yang, Youngkyu Hwang, Hyun A Cho, Jung-Hoon Song, Seong-Ju Park, John A. Rogers and Heung Cho Ko

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001633

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The ability to create and manipulate large arrays of inorganic semiconductor micro/nanostructures for integration on unconventional substrates provides new possibilities in device engineering. Here, simple methods are described for the preparation of structures of single crystalline silicon in suspended and tethered configurations that facilitate their deterministic assembly using transfer-printing techniques.

    3. Semiconducting Two-Dimensional Graphene Nanoconstriction Arrays (pages 492–498)

      Nathaniel S. Safron, Adam S. Brewer and Michael S. Arnold

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001193

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two-dimensional sub-20-nm graphene nanoconstriction arrays are fabricated in a scalable top–down fashion using self-assembled nanospheres as lithographic templates. The arrays act as semiconductors with a field-effect conductance modulation of up to 450 with bandgaps that scale inversely with the nanoconstriction width and simultaneously as 2D arrays of coupled Coulomb islands affected by single-electron charging events.

    4. A New Approach to Solution-Phase Gold Seeding for SERS Substrates (pages 499–505)

      Scott M. Tabakman, Zhuo Chen, Hernan Sanchez Casalongue, Hailiang Wang and Hongjie Dai

      Version of Record online: 3 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001836

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A solution-phase method to seed nanoparticle precursors and grow plasmonic gold films on a wide variety of unmodified substrates is presented. The resulting gold-on-gold films exhibit a strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect, with enhancement factors of ≈107 observed stably and uniformly over large areas. Combined with carbon nanotube Raman labels, the films afford highly sensitive detection of a cancer biomarker protein.

    5. Formation of Peelable Rough Gold Patterns on an Ionic Liquid Template (pages 506–513)

      Takuya Ohzono, Hirosato Monobe, Nobuko Fukuda, Masahiro Fujiwara and Yo Shimizu

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201002072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Rough gold nanoribbons can be formed on a liquid micropattern on microwrinkles through the diffusion and aggregation of gold particles grown during gold deposition. The rough gold nanoribbons can be peeled off and transferred onto other substrates.

    6. Polymorph- and Size-Dependent Uptake and Toxicity of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Living Lung Epithelial Cells (pages 514–523)

      Per Ola Andersson, Christian Lejon, Barbro Ekstrand-Hammarström, Christine Akfur, Linnéa Ahlinder, Anders Bucht and Lars Österlund

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001832

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cellular uptake and distribution of anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles and the intracellular oxidative stress they induce in lung epithelial cells are shown to correlate with their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Uptake is found to be kinetically activated and strongly dependent on the hard agglomeration size. In-vitro Raman microspectroscopy facilitates size- and polymorph-specific discrimination of particles inside cells.

    7. Multiwalled Carbon-Nanotube-Functionalized Microelectrode Arrays Fabricated by Microcontact Printing: Platform for Studying Chemical and Electrical Neuronal Signaling (pages 524–530)

      Kai Fuchsberger, Alan Le Goff, Luca Gambazzi, Francesca Maria Toma, Andrea Goldoni, Michele Giugliano, Martin Stelzle and Maurizio Prato

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001640

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon nanotube (CNT) layers are transferred from nano-porous alumina filters onto micro-electrode arrays (MEA) by means of micro-fabricated silicone elastomer stamps. Layer thickness is pre-determined by UV/VIS spectrometry of the CNT solution. This represents an enabling technology for MEA devices particularly useful in neuroscience research. Results obtained from neuronal recordings as well as from chemical sensing of dopamine are shown.

    8. Dissolving Microneedle Patch for Transdermal Delivery of Human Growth Hormone (pages 531–539)

      Jeong Woo Lee, Seong-O Choi, Eric I. Felner and Mark R. Prausnitz

      Version of Record online: 4 JAN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001091

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Human growth hormone is encapsulated without loss of activity in a dissolving microneedle patch. The patch is designed for painless self-administration without generating sharp, biohazardous waste. It achieves a systemic pharmacokinetic profile similar to subcutaneous hypodermic injection in rats, and the microneedles almost completely dissolve while the patch is worn.

  9. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Frontispiece
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    1. Carbon Nanotube-Tipped Endoscope for In Situ Intracellular Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (pages 540–545)

      Jun Jie Niu, Michael G. Schrlau, Gary Friedman and Yury Gogotsi

      Version of Record online: 28 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001757

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Carbon nanotubesdecorated with gold nanoparticles form a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-enabled endoscope. The SERS-enabled endoscope is used to detect DNA and other biomolecules in situ within the nucleus of a single human cervical carcinoma cell in a minimally invasive manner.

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