The image features late transition metal chalcogenide (LTMC) nanomaterials produced via solution-based approaches, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, single-source precursor, hot-injection, template-directed soft synthesis, and Kirkendall-effect-induced soft synthesis approaches. Due to their low costs, good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, high methanol tolerance, and facile synthesis, LTMCs have been introduced as promising Pt-free ORR electrocatalysts. Furthermore, hybrids of LTMCs with other functional nanoparticles can lead to signi? cantly better ORR catalytic activity. It is expected that new synthetic approaches, modi? cation techniques, and LTMCs with desirable morphology, size, composition, and structures could be developed in the future to satisfy the requirements of commercial fuel cells.