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Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 1

January 9, 2012

Volume 8, Issue 1

Pages 1–159

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Nanocomposites: Highly Luminescent Metal–Organic Frameworks Through Quantum Dot Doping (Small 1/2012) (page 1)

      Dario Buso, Jacek Jasieniak, Matthew D. H. Lay, Piero Schiavuta, Paolo Scopece, Jamie Laird, Heinz Amenitsch, Anita J. Hill and Paolo Falcaro

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290003

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image features the synergic combination of ultraporous crystals with functional nanoparticles for the fabrication of smart devices. With a one-pot approach, quantum dots are embedded in the framework crystal without affecting the properties of the luminescent particles. The final framework composite represents a new class of ultraporous luminescent materials that has been tested as a molecular sieve sensor. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Highly Luminescent Metal-Organic Frameworks Through Quantum Dot Doping” by D. Buso, P. Falcaro, and co-workers, beginning on page 80.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Layered Nanomaterials: Fabrication of Single- and Multilayer MoS2 Film-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Sensing NO at Room Temperature (Small 1/2012) (page 2)

      Hai Li, Zongyou Yin, Qiyuan He, Hong Li, Xiao Huang, Gang Lu, Derrick Wen Hui Fam, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Qing Zhang and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290004

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image illustrates the fabricated MoS2 film field-effect transistor (FET) used for sensing nitric oxide (NO). By using the scotch-tape-based mechanical exfoliation technique, single- and multilayer MoS2 films are prepared and deposited onto Si/SiO2 substrates, which are then used for fabrication of FETs, exhibiting n-type semiconducting properties. These FETs are used as gas sensors to detect NO. The double-layer MoS2 FET device gives a detection limit of 0.8 ppm, suggesting potential applications for these 2D MoS2 FETs. For more information, please read the Communication “Fabrication of Single- and Multilayer MoS2 Film-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Sensing NO at Room Temperature” by H. Zhang and co-workers, beginning on page 63.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Small 1/2012)

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290005

  4. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      It's a Small World! (pages 3–4)

      Dr. José Oliveira

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102583

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 1/2012) (pages 5–11)

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290002

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Catalysis: Solution-Based Synthesis and Design of Late Transition Metal Chalcogenide Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) (Small 1/2012) (page 12)

      Min-Rui Gao, Jun Jiang and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290000

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The image features late transition metal chalcogenide (LTMC) nanomaterials produced via solution-based approaches, including hydrothermal/solvothermal, single-source precursor, hot-injection, template-directed soft synthesis, and Kirkendall-effect-induced soft synthesis approaches. Due to their low costs, good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, high methanol tolerance, and facile synthesis, LTMCs have been introduced as promising Pt-free ORR electrocatalysts. Furthermore, hybrids of LTMCs with other functional nanoparticles can lead to signi? cantly better ORR catalytic activity. It is expected that new synthetic approaches, modi? cation techniques, and LTMCs with desirable morphology, size, composition, and structures could be developed in the future to satisfy the requirements of commercial fuel cells.

  7. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Solution-Based Synthesis and Design of Late Transition Metal Chalcogenide Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) (pages 13–27)

      Min-Rui Gao, Jun Jiang and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101573

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Recent advances in the design and synthesis of late transition metal chalcogenides (LTMCs) by solution-based approaches and their applications as Pt-free oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysts are reviewed.

  8. Concepts

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Ferroelectric Thin Films in Fluidic Environments: A New Interface for Sensing and Manipulation of Matter (pages 28–35)

      Robert Ferris, Benjamin Yellen and Stefan Zauscher

      Article first published online: 21 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101173

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      Recent advances in the fabrication and understanding of ferroelectric thin films have provided platforms that transcend the typical use of ferroelectric thin films. This concept article looks at novel ways to use ferroelectric thin films in fluidic environments. After a review of recent work involving the exposure of ferroelectric thin films to gases and fluids, alternative applications for ferroelectric thin films are discussed.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Inverse Opals: Quantum-Dot-Sensitized TiO2 Inverse Opals for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation (Small 1/2012) (page 36)

      Chuanwei Cheng, Siva Krishna Karuturi, Lijun Liu, Jinping Liu, Hongxing Li, Liap Tat Su, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok and Hong Jin Fan

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290001

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A nanoarchitectured photoelectrode based on TiO2 inverse opals and CdS quantum dot sensitization is used for solar hydrogen generation. The 3D percolated periodical pore structure of TiO2 inverse opal provides a high surface area for sensitizer loading plus a good electrical transport path and intimate contact with the electrolyte, all of which contribute to the photoelectrochemical performance. The inverse opals provide a unique platform for further hybridization with other photoactive nanostructures and enhancement of light manipulation.

  10. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized TiO2 Inverse Opals for Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Generation (pages 37–42)

      Chuanwei Cheng, Siva Krishna Karuturi, Lijun Liu, Jinping Liu, Hongxing Li, Liap Tat Su, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok and Hong Jin Fan

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101660

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new nanoarchitecture photoelectrode design comprising CdS quantum-dot-sensitized, optically and electrically active TiO2 inverse opals is developed for photoelectrochemical water splitting. The photoelectrochemical performance shows high photocurrent density (4.84 mA cm−2 at 0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) under simulated solar-light illumination.

    2. Electrical Probing of Submicroliter Liquid Using Graphene Strip Transistors Built on a Nanopipette (pages 43–46)

      Chang-Hsiao Chen, Cheng-Te Lin, Yi-Hsien Lee, Keng-Ku Liu, Ching-Yuan Su, Wenjing Zhang and Lain-Jong Li

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101859

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      Graphene sheets made by chemical vapor deposition are transferred onto a glass nanopipette to form graphene strips. Two strips are connected at the nanopipette tip end to form a transistor channel. This graphene-based transistor can be operated in a liquid-gating condition, thereby allowing the electrical detection of the pH value of a droplet with submicroliter volume.

    3. Environment-Dependent Generation of Photoacoustic Waves from Plasmonic Nanoparticles (pages 47–52)

      Yun-Sheng Chen, Wolfgang Frey, Salavat Aglyamov and Stanislav Emelianov

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101140

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoparticle-augmented photoacoustics is an emerging technique for molecular imaging. This study investigates the fundamental process of the photoacoustic signal generation by plasmonic nanoparticles suspended in a weakly absorbing fluid. The photoacoustic signal of gold nanospheres with varying silica shell thicknesses is shown to be dominated by the heat transfer between the nanoparticles and the surrounding environment.

    4. Conduction Performance of Individual Cu@C Coaxial Nanocable Connectors (pages 53–58)

      Weihong Xu, Yongxing Zhang, Zheng Guo, Xing Chen, Jinhuai Liu, Xingjiu Huang and Shu-Hong Yu

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101445

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Individual, ultralong Cu@C coaxial nanocables show excellent electrical transport properties in the temperature range of 5–350 K, and the room-temperature resistivity of the Cu nanowire core almost retains that of the bulk copper, indicating their potential application as connectors in micro- and nanodevices.

    5. Controlled Ambipolar-to-Unipolar Conversion in Graphene Field-Effect Transistors Through Surface Coating with Poly(ethylene imine)/Poly(ethylene glycol) Films (pages 59–62)

      Zheng Yan, Jun Yao, Zhengzong Sun, Yu Zhu and James M. Tour

      Article first published online: 10 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101528

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A controlled ambipolar-to-unipolar (n-type) conversion with a fourfold increase in electron mobility in graphene field-effect transistors is reported. This is achieved by coating the surface of graphene with a layer of poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) in poly(ethylene glycol). Both unipolar and ambipolar n-type doping are realized by adjusting the thickness of the PEI film.

    6. Fabrication of Single- and Multilayer MoS2 Film-Based Field-Effect Transistors for Sensing NO at Room Temperature (pages 63–67)

      Hai Li, Zongyou Yin, Qiyuan He, Hong Li, Xiao Huang, Gang Lu, Derrick Wen Hui Fam, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Qing Zhang and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 20 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101016

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single- and multilayer MoS2 films are deposited onto Si/SiO2 using the mechanical exfoliation technique. The films were then used for the fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs). These FET devices can be used as gas sensors to detect nitrous oxide (NO). Although the single-layer MoS2 device shows a rapid response after exposure to NO, the current was found to be unstable. The two-, three-, and four-layer MoS2 devices show both stable and sensitive responses to NO down to a concentration of 0.8 ppm.

    7. Green Nanochemistry: Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Porous Thin Films from Bare Metal Powders (pages 68–72)

      Engelbert Redel, Srebri Petrov, Ömer Dag, Jonathon Moir, Chen Huai, Peter Mirtchev and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101596

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A universal, simple, robust, widely applicable and cost-effective aqueous process is described for a controlled oxidative dissolution process of micrometer-sized metal powders to form high-purity aqueous dispersions of colloidally stable 3–8 nm metal oxide nanoparticles. Their utilization for making single and multilayer optically transparent high-surface-area nanoporous films is demonstrated. This facile synthesis is anticipated to find numerous applications in materials science, engineering, and nanomedicine.

    8. Contact Resistance and Megahertz Operation of Aggressively Scaled Organic Transistors (pages 73–79)

      Frederik Ante, Daniel Kälblein, Tarek Zaki, Ute Zschieschang, Kazuo Takimiya, Masaaki Ikeda, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Takao Someya, Joachim N. Burghartz, Klaus Kern and Hagen Klauk

      Article first published online: 17 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101677

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Bottom-gate, top-contact organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) with excellent static characteristics (on/off ratio: 107; intrinsic mobility: 3 cm2 (V s)−1) and fast unipolar ring oscillators (signal delay as short as 230 ns per stage) are fabricated. The significant contribution of the transfer length to the relation between channel length, contact length, contact resistance, effective mobility, and cutoff frequency of the TFTs is theoretically and experimentally analyzed.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Editorial
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Review
    9. Concepts
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Communications
    12. Full Papers
    1. Highly Luminescent Metal–Organic Frameworks Through Quantum Dot Doping (pages 80–88)

      Dario Buso, Jacek Jasieniak, Matthew D. H. Lay, Piero Schiavuta, Paolo Scopece, Jamie Laird, Heinz Amenitsch, Anita J. Hill and Paolo Falcaro

      Article first published online: 19 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100710

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Highly luminescent quantum dots (QDs) are successfully incorporated within metal–organic framework (MOF)-5 crystals. QD@MOF-5 composites retain the QDs' optical quality and the MOF-5 cage nanoporosity, despite the dots' size being bigger than the MOF-5 cavities. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that no large-scale distortion of the MOF-5 lattice exists. Emission quenching tests expose the sieving nature of the composites, opening opportunities for the application of MOFs as optical devices.

    2. Nanoscale DNA Tetrahedra Improve Biomolecular Recognition on Patterned Surfaces (pages 89–97)

      Robert Schlapak, Jürgen Danzberger, David Armitage, David Morgan, Andreas Ebner, Peter Hinterdorfer, Philipp Pollheimer, Hermann J. Gruber, Friedrich Schäffler and Stefan Howorka

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101576

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      A nanoscale tetrahedral object is created from the bottom up via self-assembly of chemically modified DNA oligonucleotides. The rationally designed biomaterial is able to bind via three thiol legs to a gold surface leaving a DNA strand on the fourth tetrahedral vertex available for efficient analyte capture. Micro- to nanoscale patterned gold features on glass substrates can be biofunctionalized with the tetrahedra to produce arrayed surfaces that are beneficial to analytical chemistry, cell biology, and single-molecule biophysics.

    3. Synergistic Control of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation by Nanoscale Surface Geometry and Immobilized Growth Factors on TiO2 Nanotubes (pages 98–107)

      Jung Park, Sebastian Bauer, Andreas Pittrof, Manuela S. Killian, Patrik Schmuki and Klaus von der Mark

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100790

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      Combined signals provided by nanoscale topography and growth factors control the behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a synergistic rather than additive manner. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) stimulates chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation, but lineage decision depends on nanoscale geometry. Chondrogenic differentiation is only achieved on 100 nm nanotubes, not on 15 nm nanotubes, while the opposite response occurs during osteogenic differentiation.

    4. Co-tunneling Enhancement of the Electrical Response of Nanoparticle Networks (pages 108–115)

      Matthias Pauly, Jean-François Dayen, Dimitry Golubev, Jean-Baptiste Beaufrand, Benoit P. Pichon, Bernard Doudin and Sylvie Bégin-Colin

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100931

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A co-tunneling charge-transfer process dominates the electrical properties of a “nanoslice” in a nanoparticle network, which results in universal scaling of the conductance as well as enhanced spintronics properties. Magnetic-nanoparticle nanoslices exhibit a magnetoresistance (MR) ratio unreachable by tunneling or hopping processes. The size-matched planar device is optimal for realizing multifunctional devices with enhanced properties.

    5. Radial Mechanical Properties of Single-Walled Boron Nitride Nanotubes (pages 116–121)

      Meng Zheng, Xiaoming Chen, In-Tae Bae, Changhong Ke, Cheol Park, Michael W. Smith and Kevin Jordan

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201100946

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The radial mechanical properties of single-walled boron nitride nanotubes (SW-BNNTs) are characterized by atomic force microscopy. The measured effective radial elastic moduli of SW-BNNTs are found to follow a decreasing trend with an increase in tube diameter, and to be relatively lower than those of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) of the same diameter.

    6. Interactions of Human Endothelial Cells with Gold Nanoparticles of Different Morphologies (pages 122–130)

      Dorota Bartczak, Otto L. Muskens, Simone Nitti, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Timothy M. Millar and Antonios G. Kanaras

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101422

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Interactions between noncancerous, primary human endothelial cells and gold nanoparticles with different morphologies are presented. Cytotoxicity studies show that for the concentrations used in these experiments gold nanoparticles do not damage the cells. The number of particles taken up by the cells is found to differ depending on particle morphology. Employing laser hyperthermia studies and theoretical model calculations, it is shown that collective heating effects of several cells loaded with nanoparticles must be included to explain the observed viability of the endothelial cells.

    7. Graphene as a Nanocarrier for Tamoxifen Induces Apoptosis in Transformed Cancer Cell Lines of Different Origins (pages 131–143)

      Santosh K. Misra, Paturu Kondaiah, Santanu Bhattacharya and C. N. R. Rao

      Article first published online: 18 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101640

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An amphiphile (PY+-Chol) aids the dispersion of graphene (GR) in water. The resulting suspension is able to efficiently solubilize a breast-cancer drug, Tamoxifen Citrate (TmC). TmC–GR–PY+-Chol suspension is a better and more selective apoptotic agent than free TmC or TmC–PY+-Chol suspensions against transformed cancer cells, making the former a promising system for use in cancer therapy.

    8. Facile and Large-Scale Fabrication of Anisometric Particles from Fibers Synthesized by Colloid-Electrospinning (pages 144–153)

      Kathrin Friedemann, Tomas Corrales, Michael Kappl, Katharina Landfester and Daniel Crespy

      Article first published online: 14 NOV 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101247

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      A chain is as strong as its weakest link. The three Moirae from Greek mythology (Parcae or Norns in Roman and Nordic mythology, respectively) are controlling the destiny of mortals and immortals through the symbolic thread of life. In this work, nanoparticles are spun into nanofibers by colloid-electrospinning. These nanofibers are measured and subsequently cut to yield anisotropic nanoparticles.

    9. Assembly of Graphene Oxide–Enzyme Conjugates through Hydrophobic Interaction (pages 154–159)

      Yan Zhang, Jingyan Zhang, Xuelei Huang, Xuejiao Zhou, Haixia Wu and Shouwu Guo

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101695

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The enzyme loadings on chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRGO) increase with the hydrophobicity of the CRGO surface, thus suggesting that hydrophobic interaction is a driving force for the enzyme immobilization. These results indicate that CRGO is an ideal candidate as a macromolecule carrier and biosensor.

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