Small

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 13

July 9, 2012

Volume 8, Issue 13

Pages 1961–2124

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Enzyme Recognition: Substrate-Baited Nanoparticles: A Catch and Release Strategy for Enzyme Recognition and Harvesting (Small 13/2012) (page 1961)

      Michael A. Daniele, Yuriy P. Bandera, Deepti Sharma, Parul Rungta, Ryan Roeder, Michael G. Sehorn and Stephen H. Foulger

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290072

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image illustrates a universal model for concentrating and extracting protein–substrate pairs via substrate-baited nanoparticles, which can be an invaluable tool in recognizing unknown protein–substrate affinities. The isolation of a single type of protein from a complex mixture is vital for the characterization of the function, structure, and interactions of the protein of interest and is typically the most laborious aspect of the protein purification process. Enzyme trapping and recycling is illustrated with the carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) system, an enzyme important in bioremediation and natural product synthesis. The enzymes are baited by carbazolyl-moieties attached to nanoparticles through a click transformation. The single-step procedure for attracting the enzymes to the particles is capable of concentrating the protein from raw lysate and sequestering all required components of the protein to maintain bioactivity. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Substrate-Baited Nanoparticles: A Catch and Release Strategy for Enzyme Recognition and Harvesting” by S. H. Foulger, and co-workers, beginning on page 2083.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Biosensors: Cancer Prognostics by Direct Detection of p53-Antibodies on Gold Surfaces by Impedance Measurements (Small 13/2012) (page 1962)

      Elisabet Prats-Alfonso, Xavier Sisquella, Nadia Zine, Gemma Gabriel, Anton Guimerà, F. Javier del Campo, Rosa Villa, Adam H. Eisenberg, Milan Mrksich, Abdelhamid Errachid, Jordi Aguiló and Fernando Albericio

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290073

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image shows the detection of an antibody by its epitope immobilized through a self-assembled monolayer on a gold surface. The detection is made possible by impedance measurements. The light dots and flashes represent the electrical conductivity through the gold surface, where two different molecules are presented: the blocking molecules to avoid non-specific adsorption and the reactive epitopes. It is observed that the epitopes can be in different configurations to mimic the induced-fit approach, which is carried out by the proximity of the epitope to the reactive site of the antibody. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Cancer Prognostics by Direct Detection of p53-Antibodies on Gold Surfaces by Impedance Measurements” by E. Prats-Alfonso, F. Albericio, and co-workers, beginning on page 2106. Image credit: Gemma Gabriel and Elisabet Prats-Alfonso.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Small 13/2012)

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290074

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 13/2012) (pages 1963–1969)

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290069

  5. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Highly Permeable and Selective Pore-Spanning Biomimetic Membrane Embedded with Aquaporin Z (page 1969)

      Honglei Wang, Tai-Shung Chung, Yen Wah Tong, Kandiah Jeyaseelan, Arunmozhiarasi Armugam, Zaichun Chen, Minghui Hong and Wolfgang Meier

      Article first published online: 6 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201148

      This article corrects:

      Highly Permeable and Selective Pore-Spanning Biomimetic Membrane Embedded with Aquaporin Z

      Vol. 8, Issue 8, 1185–1190, Article first published online: 29 FEB 2012

  6. Highlights

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Nanotoxicity: How the Body Develops A Way to Reduce the Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes (pages 1970–1972)

      Kristina Riehemann

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200400

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      New insights into the interaction between cells and carbon nanotubes are reported in a recent article by Ge et al. In their report, the binding of bovine fibrinogen and single-walled carbon nanotubes was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Using molecular modeling, the mechanisms of interaction via tyrosine (red) and phenylalanine (green) residues were shown to interact with the nanotube (silver). Knowledge about the way proteins interact with nanoparticles is most important for future applications of nanosized materials.

  7. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. CVD-Grown Horizontally Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Synthesis Routes and Growth Mechanisms (pages 1973–1992)

      Imad Ibrahim, Alicja Bachmatiuk, Jamie H. Warner, Bernd Büchner, Gianaurelio Cuniberti and Mark H. Rümmeli

      Article first published online: 23 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102010

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Single-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit attractive electrical and physical properties, which make them suitable for various applications. For some applications however, in particular those involving electronics, the nanotubes need to be synthesized with a high degree of control in terms of yield, length, alignment, diameter, and chirality. Control has been achieved when growing nanotubes using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This review presents the characterization routes, growth parameters, and growth mechanisms of horizontally aligned tubes grown via CVD.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Biosensors: Graphene-Oxide-Based Immunosensing through Fluorescence Quenching by Peroxidase-Catalyzed Polymerization (Small 13/2012) (page 1993)

      Seong Yoon Lim, Junhyoung Ahn, Joon Seok Lee, Min-Gon Kim and Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290070

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      Graphene oxide (GO), an intermediary of graphene nanosheets, possesses many unique properties. The present immunosensing platform utilizes innate fluorescence of GO, not demanding biomolecules labeled with fluorescent dyes used in other types of optical biosensors. Peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of a dye (e.g., diaminobenzidine) directly quenches the innate fluorescence of GO, which does not require anadditional quenching probe. Based on the phenomenon, a highly sensitive immunosensor is developed for the detection of target analytes, such as interleukin-5, a key cytokine associated with asthma pathology and eosinophilia. The GO-based immunoassay system can extend its application to the detection of other target chemicals and high-throughput screening.

  9. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Graphene-Oxide-Based Immunosensing through Fluorescence Quenching by Peroxidase-Catalyzed Polymerization (pages 1994–1999)

      Seong Yoon Lim, Junhyoung Ahn, Joon Seok Lee, Min-Gon Kim and Chan Beum Park

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200379

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A graphene oxide (GO)-based immunosensor is developed for the detection of interleukin-5 (IL-5), a key cytokine associated with asthma pathology and eosinophilia. The immunosensing platform utilizes the innate fluorescence of GO, not demanding biomolecules labeled with fluorescent dyes. The GO-based immunoassay exhibits high specificity for IL-5 among other cytokines and is not affected by nonspecific proteins in human serum.

    2. Polymer Pen Lithography (PPL)-Induced Site-Specific Click Chemistry for the Formation of Functional Glycan Arrays (pages 2000–2005)

      Shudan Bian, Jiajun He, Kevin B. Schesing and Adam B. Braunschweig

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102707

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      Polymer pen lithography (PPL) can be combined with the CuI-catalyzed azide–alkyne click reaction to create molecular arrays with control over orientation and sub-1 μm feature sizes over cm2 areas. The process has been applied to the deposition of carbohydrates to form functional glycochips.

    3. High-Damping Carbon Nanotube Hinged Micromirrors (pages 2006–2010)

      Michaël F. L. De Volder, Jeroen De Coster, Dominiek Reynaerts, Chris Van Hoof and Sang-Gook Kim

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102683

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      New developments in digital mirror devices (DMDs) require suspension hinges with a good damping and high temperature stability. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer these unique properties. Herein it is shown how CNT hinges can be integrated in micromirrors. The image illustrates a micromirror with a CNT suspension, and a typical overdamped stepresponse (Q-factor < 0.5).

    4. Graphene Enhances the Specificity of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (pages 2011–2015)

      Jing Jia, Liping Sun, Nan Hu, Guoming Huang and Jian Weng

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200139

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Graphene can inhibit non-specific DNA fragments, and the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be retained even after eight rounds of repeated amplification in the presence of graphene in the form of reduced graphene oxide (RGO). In the figure, the numbers at the top give the number of rounds of PCR; lanes marked with C correspond to controls (no RGO), and the concentration of RGO in the other samples is 12 μg mL−1.

    5. Controlling the Formation of DNA Origami Structures with External Signals (pages 2016–2020)

      Antti-Pekka Eskelinen, Henna Rosilo, Anton Kuzyk, Päivi Törmä and Mauri A. Kostiainen

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102697

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      Degradable Newkome-type and polylysine dendrons functionalized with spermine surface units are used to control the formation of DNA origami structures. The intact dendrons form polyelectrolyte complexes with the scaffold strands, therefore blocking the origami formation. Degradation of the dendron with an optical trigger or chemical reduction leads to the release of the DNA scaffold and efficient formation of the desired origami structure. These results provide new insights towards realizing responsive materials with DNA origami.

    6. Alignment Control of Polythiophene Chains with Mesostructured Silica Nanofibers Having Different Pore Orientations (pages 2021–2026)

      Baocheng Yang, Manda Xiao, Chunmei Zhao, Shouren Zhang, Aiyun Jiang and Jianfang Wang

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200036

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Alignment control of polythiophene chains with mesostructured silica nanofibers through an organic–inorganic co-assembly approach is realized. Cationic ammonium surfactants with a polymerizable thiophene end group are synthesized and subsequently used as structure-directing agents to grow silica nanofibers with two different pore architectures. In situ polymerization produces mesostructured polythiophene−silica nanofibers with the polymer chains aligned along the pore channels.

  10. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Fluorescent Probes: Well-Defined Nanoclusters as Fluorescent Nanosensors: A Case Study on Au25(SG)18 (Small 13/2012) (page 2027)

      Zhikun Wu, Man Wang, Jiao Yang, Xiaohong Zheng, Weiping Cai, Guowen Meng, Huifeng Qian, Huimin Wang and Rongchao Jin

      Article first published online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290071

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Due to the polydispersity of nanocrystals and their unknown structures, in many cases it is difficult to conduct in-depth investigation on the sensing mechanism when nanocrystals are used as fluorescent probes; however, their smaller counterparts–structurally well-defined gold nanoclusters as sensors–have provided opportunities to do so. Herein, an example is provided by Wu et al. The potential of glutathione-capped Au25 nanocluster as silver-ion sensor is evaluated; more importantly, three factors are revealed to be responsible for the unique fluorescence enhancement of Au25(SG)18 illuminated in the image. This work is dedicated to the 30th anniversary of the Institute of Solid Physics, CAS.

  11. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Highlights
    8. Review
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Communications
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Well-Defined Nanoclusters as Fluorescent Nanosensors: A Case Study on Au25(SG)18 (pages 2028–2035)

      Zhikun Wu, Man Wang, Jiao Yang, Xiaohong Zheng, Weiping Cai, Guowen Meng, Huifeng Qian, Huimin Wang and Rongchao Jin

      Article first published online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102590

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Glutathionate (SG)-capped Au25 acts as a silver ion sensor, with a detection limit of approximately 200 nM. Three factors are responsible for the unique fluorescence enhancement caused by silver ions. Experiments reveal the very different chemistry of hydrophobic Au25(SC2H4Ph)18 and hydrophilic Au25(SG)18 in their interaction with silver ions.

    2. Thirty-Femtogram Detection of Iron in Mammalian Cells (pages 2036–2044)

      Aymeric Galimard, Malak Safi, Nawel Ould-Moussa, David Montero, Hélène Conjeaud and Jean-François Berret

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102356

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      A highly sensitive colorimetric method for quantifying the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles in mammalian cells is proposed. Masses of iron between 0.03 to 300 picograms per cell are detected. The study examines the effects of physico-chemical parameters on the nanoparticle/cell interactions. For nanoparticles precipitating in biological fluids, scanning electron microscopy discloses huge amounts of resiliently adsorbed material at the cell membrane.

    3. Resonant Laser-Induced Formation of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Peapods under Ambient Conditions (pages 2045–2052)

      Mourad Berd, Pascal Puech, Ariete Righi, Arezki Benfdila and Marc Monthioux

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102410

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      The transformation of fullerene- encapsulating single-walled carbon nanotubes into double-walled carbon nanotubes is demonstrated in air at room temperature, through use of a laser probe the wavelength of which is highly absorbed by the fullerenes only. The progressive transformation is monitored by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy via the Gaussian distribution of the laser intensity.

    4. Asymmetric Hybrid Silica Nanomotors for Capture and Cargo Transport: Towards a Novel Motion-Based DNA Sensor (pages 2053–2059)

      Juliane Simmchen, Alejandro Baeza, Daniel Ruiz, Maria José Esplandiu and Maria Vallet-Regí

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101593

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      A novel hybrid nanomotor executes motion-based detection of oligonucleotide sequences. The innovative nature of this approach arises from a DNA sandwich hybridization principle of motor and cargo, which enables the control of movement and transportation of a specific DNA analyte. The easily detectable cargo particle provides direct information of the presence of target biomolecules in the media.

    5. Improved Photodynamic Cancer Treatment by Folate-Conjugated Polymeric Micelles in a KB Xenografted Animal Model (pages 2060–2069)

      Wei-Jhe Syu, Hsiu-Ping Yu, Chia-Yen Hsu, Yeasudhasan Christu Rajan, Yuan-Hung Hsu, Yuan-Chia Chang, Wen-Yuan Hsieh, Chau-Hui Wang and Ping-Shan Lai

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102695

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      Delivery of the photosensitizer meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m-THPC) to tumors by folate-conjugated polymeric micelles (PMs) produces more efficient phototoxicity and tumor shrinkage in folate receptor-overexpressed KB cancer cells than free m-THPC or m-THPC-loaded micelles. Clinically, this improved selectivity via folate–folate receptor interaction has the potential to reduce, not only the skin photosensitivity, but also the required drug dose for photodynamic therapy (PDT).

    6. Structural Effect and Mechanism of C70-Carboxyfullerenes as Efficient Sensitizers against Cancer Cells (pages 2070–2077)

      Qiaoling Liu, Mirong Guan, Li Xu, Chunying Shu, Chan Jin, Junpeng Zheng, Xiaohong Fang, Yongji Yang and Chunru Wang

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200158

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      C70-carboxyfullerenes display an efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) property and good biocompatibility. The internalized C70-carboxyfullerene produces excess intracellular reactive oxygen species under light irradiation, which lead to damage of the intracellular organelles. Cell death occurs via necrosis accompanied by membrane blebbing, a unique phenomenon for photosensitizer-induced cell death.

    7. Chiral Pinwheel Clusters Lacking Local Point Chirality (pages 2078–2082)

      Kai Sun, Ting-Na Shao, Jia-Le Xie, Meng Lan, Hong-Kuan Yuan, Zu-Hong Xiong, Jun-Zhong Wang, Ying Liu and Qi-Kun Xue

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200168

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      Achiral pentacene molecules are self-assembled into chiral pinwheel clusters on the Bi(111) surface, driven by enhanced intermolecular interactions. The regular pentacene pinwheels are composed of six homochiral hexamers with π stacking (parallel and shifted arrangement). Individual pentacene molecules remain achiral within the pinwheels, indicating that point chirality is not essential for organizational chirality.

    8. Substrate-Baited Nanoparticles: A Catch and Release Strategy for Enzyme Recognition and Harvesting (pages 2083–2090)

      Michael A. Daniele, Yuriy P. Bandera, Deepti Sharma, Parul Rungta, Ryan Roeder, Michael G. Sehorn and Stephen H. Foulger

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200013

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoparticles baited with a substrate are employed in harvesting a specific enzyme that maintains its bioactivity after release from the particles. Enzyme trapping and recycling is illustrated with an enzyme important in bioremediation and natural product synthesis. The enzymes are baited with carbazolyl moieties attached to poly(propargyl acrylate) nanoparticles through a click transformation.

    9. High-Throughput Transfection of Interfering RNA into a 3D Cell-Culture Chip (pages 2091–2098)

      Haiyuan Zhang, Moo-Yeal Lee, Michael G. Hogg, Jonathan S. Dordick and Susan T. Sharfstein

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102205

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      Three-dimensional cultures more closely mimic the in vivo cellular milieu than conventional 2D cultures, thereby providing cellular responses to genetic manipulation more similar to the in vivo situation. A method for high-throughput transfection of interfering RNA into 3D cell-culture microarrays is described, which is applicable to screening therapeutic interfering RNA or functional genomics studies.

    10. A Redox-Switchable Au8-Cluster Sensor (pages 2099–2105)

      Te-Haw Wu, Yu-Yen Hsu and Shu-Yi Lin

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102742

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      A redox-switchable sensor is based on a photoinduced electron-transfer event between an Au8-cluster and 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) to allow efficient fluorescence quenching in the absence of coupling reagents. The quenching process is activated and deactivated by 2-PyT and pyridine disulfide (PDS), respectively. The potential use of the sensor for detecting H2O2-generating enzymatic transformations is assessed.

    11. Cancer Prognostics by Direct Detection of p53-Antibodies on Gold Surfaces by Impedance Measurements (pages 2106–2115)

      Elisabet Prats-Alfonso, Xavier Sisquella, Nadia Zine, Gemma Gabriel, Anton Guimerà, F. Javier del Campo, Rosa Villa, Adam H. Eisenberg, Milan Mrksich, Abdelhamid Errachid, Jordi Aguiló and Fernando Albericio

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102724

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A highly sensitive, label-free approach for the detection of p53-antibodies is described. This approach uses impedance measurements on gold microelectrodes to measure antibody concentrations at the picomolar level in undiluted serum samples.

    12. Adjuvant Properties of Mesoporous Silica Particles Tune the Development of Effector T Cells (pages 2116–2124)

      Helen Vallhov, Natalia Kupferschmidt, Susanne Gabrielsson, Staffan Paulie, Maria Strømme, Alfonso E. Garcia-Bennett and Annika Scheynius

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102620

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      After exposure to mesoporous silica particles, dendritic cells (DC) derived from primary human monocytes are capable of tuning autologous naïve T cells into different effector cells, depending on the size and functionalization of the particles used. This suggests that mesoporous silica particles can be used as delivery vehicles with tunable adjuvant properties, which may be of importance for several medical applications.

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