Small

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 14

July 23, 2012

Volume 8, Issue 14

Pages 2129–2286

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Logic Gates: Simple and Universal Platform for Logic Gate Operations Based on Molecular Beacon Probes (Small 14/2012) (page 2129)

      Ki Soo Park, Myung Wan Seo, Cheulhee Jung, Joon Young Lee and Hyun Gyu Park

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290077

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      The cover picture illustrates how the hairpin-structured molecular beacon probe interacts with DNA input and generates a high fluorescence signal through a sequencespecific hybridization, as demonstrated by H. G. Park and co-workers on page 2203. By employing this molecular beacon probe as a basic work unit and rationally designing a series of DNA inputs, a new universal platform technology for molecular logic gates is demonstrated, which achieves not only a complete set of two-input logic gates, but also gate wiring in multilevel circuits and the reversible modulation of logic gates. This work holds great promise for applications in molecular computing and bioelectronics.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Planar Micro-Optics: Planar Emulation of Natural Compound Eyes (Small 14/2012) (page 2130)

      Dongmin Keum, Hyukjin Jung and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290078

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      Nature provides ten different anatomical structures of compound eyes for arthropod vision. The cover image presents the direct visualization of light propagation inside natural compound eyes. Despite being an inspiration to engineering, none of these vision schemes is well understood. The method presented by K.-H. Jeong and coworkers on page 2169 provides a novel approach to emulating the optical schemes and functions of two representative types of simple apposition and reflecting superposition.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Small 14/2012)

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290079

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 14/2012) (pages 2131–2137)

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290075

  5. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Extraordinary Physical Properties of Functionalized Graphene (pages 2138–2151)

      Weili Wei and Xiaogang Qu

      Version of Record online: 4 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200104

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      Modulating graphene physics: The extraordinary physical properties of graphene can be manipulated through proper functionalization. In addition to stabilization of graphene's inherent properties, some intriguing new properties can be introduced through functionalization.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Fireflies-On-A-Chip: (Ionic Liquid)–Aqueous Microdroplets for Biphasic Chemical Analysis (pages 2152–2157)

      Zahra Barikbin, Md. Taifur Rahman and Saif A. Khan

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102748

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      Inspired by the enchanting bioluminescence of fireflies, herein microfluidic droplet-based ‘fireflies’ for non-invasive biphasic chemical analysis are demonstrated. Bicompartmental droplets are created where a model analyte is transported from the aqueous compartment to the adjacent ionic liquid segment, yielding a bright fluid firefly structure via a localized catalytic reaction. Analysis of fluorescence emission kinetics and a method to passively decouple the two compartments at a constriction are presented.

    2. Critical Capillary Absorption of Current-Melted Silver Nanodroplets into Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (pages 2158–2162)

      Yen-Song Chen, Yuan-Chih Chang, Shau-Chieh Wang, Li-Ying Chen, Der-Hsien Lien, Lih-Juann Chen and Chia-Seng Chang

      Version of Record online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200393

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      Capillarity phenomena at the nanometer scale are investigated by real-time experiments. The capillary absorption of a molten Ag droplet can occur only when the ratio of the droplet's size Di to the inner diameter Dt of a multiwalled carbon nanotube (CNT) goes below a critical value, and this value decreases as the CNT's inner diameter reduces.

    3. Mechanism Studies on the Superior Optical Limiting Observed in Graphene Oxide Covalently Functionalized with Upconversion NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ Nanoparticles (pages 2163–2168)

      Tingchao He, Wei Wei, Lin Ma, Rui Chen, Shixin Wu, Hua Zhang, Yanhui Yang, Jan Ma, Ling Huang, Gagik G. Gurzadyan and Handong Sun

      Version of Record online: 21 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200249

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      Superior optical limiting (OL) characteristics and mechanisms are explored in a novel nanocomposite made from graphene oxide (GO) and NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoparticles via covalent chemical bonding. Due to the synergistic effect of enhanced nonlinear scattering, two-photon absorption, and efficient energy transfer between NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoparticles and GO, the nanocomposite displays dramatically improved OL effects compared to either GO or NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ nanoparticles, making it a very promising material for practical OL devices.

    4. Planar Emulation of Natural Compound Eyes (pages 2169–2173)

      Dongmin Keum, Hyukjin Jung and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 29 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200107

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ten different anatomical structures of compound eyes are provided by nature for arthropod vision. All the vision schemes are not well understood to be used for inspiration in engineering applications. This method demonstrates the planar emulation of the optical schemes and their functions for two representative types of the simple apposition and the reflecting superposition by using planar micro-optics. This new paradigm can discover nature's beautiful designs and also step up engineering bio-inspiration from natural compound eyes.

    5. Sensitive Detection of Spores Using Volume-Amplified Magnetic Nanobeads (pages 2174–2177)

      Teresa Zardán Gómez de la Torre, Rongqin Ke, Anja Mezger, Peter Svedlindh, Maria Strømme and Mats Nilsson

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102632

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      A magnetic-nanobead-based, substrate-free method for the sensitive detection of spores in an immunoassay format is presented. The method is shown to detect Bacillus globigii spores, the non-pathogenic simulant of Bacillus anthracis, with a limit-of-detection of 50 spores with a reaction time of 135 min. The study shows the versatility of magnetic nanobeads for detection of biological molecules other than DNA.

    6. Ultra-thin and Flat Mica as Gate Dielectric Layers (pages 2178–2183)

      Chong Guan Low and Qing Zhang

      Version of Record online: 27 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200300

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      Ultra-thin and flat mica-based carbon nanotube field-effect transistors reveal the excellent gate control capability and low leakage current due to the high dielectric constant and high dielectric strength of ultra-thin mica as the gate dielectric. Subthreshold swing of 110 mV/dec and carrier mobility improvement are achieved. The ultra-thin mica retains its surface flatness, indicating the potential application for low-dimensional materials in which surface roughness scattering is significant.

    7. Self-Assembling Peptide-Based Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery in Primary Cell Lines (pages 2184–2188)

      Sébastien Deshayes, Karidia Konate, Anna Rydström, Laurence Crombez, Cédric Godefroy, Pierre-Emmanuel Milhiet, Annick Thomas, Robert Brasseur, Gudrun Aldrian, Frédéric Heitz, Maria A. Muñoz-Morris, Jean-Marie Devoisselle and Gilles Divita

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102413

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      The secondary amphipathic peptide CADY forms stable positively charged nanoparticles with short interfering RNA (siRNA), which involves both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. CADY/siRNA self-assembling nanoparticles adopt a “raspberry”-like architecture cemented together by a matrix of free peptides. These nanoparticles are nontoxic and promote efficient delivery of siRNA in challenging primary cell lines.

    8. Hysteresis-Free Blue Phase Liquid-Crystal-Stabilized by ZnS Nanoparticles (pages 2189–2193)

      Ling Wang, Wanli He, Xia Xiao, Fanguo Meng, Yang Zhang, Pangyen Yang, Liping Wang, Jiumei Xiao, Huai Yang and Yunfeng Lu

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200052

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      Reversible electro-optical switching is achieved in a facile manner by dispersing a small amount of ZnS nanoparticles into blue phase I (BPI). The hysteresis is so small that it can be considered as hysteresis-free at a 0.5–0.7 wt% doping level, and the on-state voltage is much lower than that of polymer-stabilized BPI.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. Biomimetic Mineralization: The Role of Nanoscale Architecture in Supramolecular Templating of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Mineralization (Small 14/2012) (page 2194)

      Christina J. Newcomb, Ronit Bitton, Yuri S. Velichko, Malcolm L. Snead and Samuel I. Stupp

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290076

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      When 3D peptide amphiphile assemblies with flat and cylindrical morphologies are used as templates for mineralization, the nanoscale architecture is found to play a significant role in orienting hydroxyapatite in a bone-like fashion. Cylindrical nanostructures facilitate mineral orientation parallel to the long axis of the 1D assembly while flatter, ribbonlike architectures nucleate randomly oriented mineral. Macroscopically aligned constructs of the cylindrical nanostructures further demonstrate the ability to orient hydroxyapatite across length scales. This work by S. I. Stupp and co-workers emphasizes the importance of template morphology.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Review
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    1. The Role of Nanoscale Architecture in Supramolecular Templating of Biomimetic Hydroxyapatite Mineralization (pages 2195–2202)

      Christina J. Newcomb, Ronit Bitton, Yuri S. Velichko, Malcolm L. Snead and Samuel I. Stupp

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102150

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hierarchical mineralization of hydroxyapatite using supramolecular templates: Peptide amphiphile molecules with different nanoscale morphologies are mineralized with hydroxyapatite. The ability to nucleate oriented hydroxyapatite is observed to be dependent on the template geometry and is recapitulated at higher length scales to form hierarchical organic–inorganic hybrid materials mimetic of cortical bone. These constructs have potential for studying the role of alignment in cell signaling and could be prepared into therapeutic scaffolds for regeneration of mineralized tissue.

    2. Simple and Universal Platform for Logic Gate Operations Based on Molecular Beacon Probes (pages 2203–2212)

      Ki Soo Park, Myung Wan Seo, Cheulhee Jung, Joon Young Lee and Hyun Gyu Park

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102758

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A new universal platform technology is demonstrated to construct molecular logic gates, which hold great promise for applications in molecular computing and bioelectronics, by employing a specifically designed molecular beacon probe as a basic work unit. With this novel strategy, a complete set of two-input logic gates is successfully constructed at the molecular level. In addition, gate wiring into multi-level circuits and reversible modulation of logic gates is achieved.

    3. Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging Super-Enhanced by Multishell Nanophotonic Particles, with Application to Subcellular pH (pages 2213–2221)

      Aniruddha Ray, Yong-Eun Koo Lee, Gwangseong Kim and Raoul Kopelman

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102664

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      The two-photon fluorescence signal of a fluorophore is enhanced by utilizing the second harmonic of the exciting light generated by noble metal nanospheres in whose near-field dye molecules are placed. A multishell hydrogel nanoparticle containing a silver core, protective citrate capping, pH indicator dye, and polyacrylamide cladding is utilized for pH sensing and fluorescence imaging in live cells.

    4. How Shape Influences Uptake: Interactions of Anisotropic Polymer Nanoparticles and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (pages 2222–2230)

      Laura Florez, Christine Herrmann, Jens M. Cramer, Christoph P. Hauser, Kaloian Koynov, Katharina Landfester, Daniel Crespy and Volker Mailänder

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102002

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      The interaction between prolate ellipsoidal polymer nanoparticles—with the same mass, but different aspect ratios—and human mesenchymal stromal cells is herein investigated by electron and fluorescence techniques.

    5. Formation Mechanism of LiFePO4 Sticks Grown by a Microwave-Assisted Liquid-Phase Process (pages 2231–2238)

      Daniel Carriazo, Marta D. Rossell, Guobo Zeng, Idalia Bilecka, Rolf Erni and Markus Niederberger

      Version of Record online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102515

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      A detailed study on the formation of LiFePO4 sticks is presented. The microscale sticks are synthesized by a nonaqueous route assisted by microwave irradiation. The electrochemistry of the microsticks is investigated to assess the potential of their application as cathodes in lithium-ion batteries.

    6. Non-lithographic SERS Substrates: Tailoring Surface Chemistry for Au Nanoparticle Cluster Assembly (pages 2239–2249)

      Sarah M. Adams, Salvatore Campione, Joshua D. Caldwell, Francisco J. Bezares, James C. Culbertson, Filippo Capolino and Regina Ragan

      Version of Record online: 23 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102708

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      Au nanoparticles from colloids are assembled in clusters on chemically patterned polymer surfaces using surface chemical reactions, thus providing a versatile assembly method for metal nanoarchitectures. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements on samples with a high density of clusters exhibit uniform enhancement factors as high as 109 across the sample and are reusable for the detection of SERS-active molecules.

    7. Real-Time Microscopy of Graphene Growth on Epitaxial Metal Films: Role of Template Thickness and Strain (pages 2250–2257)

      Peter Sutter, Cristian V. Ciobanu and Eli Sutter

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200196

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      Graphene growth on epitaxial transition metal films is studied as a method for the scalable synthesis of transferable graphene. Real-time microscopy on epitaxial Ru films on sapphire shows high-quality graphene growth in macroscopic domains to full surface coverage. By analyzing graphene nucleation and growth, two powerful approaches are identified for controlling graphene growth on metals with high C solubility: i) limiting the template thickness, and ii) tuning the interstitial C solubility via strain.

    8. Fabrication of a Carbon-Nanotube-Based Field-Effect Transistor by Microcontact Printing (pages 2258–2263)

      Jan Mehlich, Yasumitsu Miyata, Hisanori Shinohara and Bart Jan Ravoo

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102248

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      Dendrimer-mediated microcontact printing is used to fabricate carbon-nanotube (CNT)-based field-effect transistors. Stripes of semiconducting CNTs serve as channels; perpendicular stripes of metallic CNTs are used as electrodes, and the silicon substrate acts as gate electrode.

    9. Electrochemically Reduced Single-Layer MoS2 Nanosheets: Characterization, Properties, and Sensing Applications (pages 2264–2270)

      Shixin Wu, Zhiyuan Zeng, Qiyuan He, Zhijuan Wang, Shi Jie Wang, Yaping Du, Zongyou Yin, Xuping Sun, Wei Chen and Hua Zhang

      Version of Record online: 24 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200044

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      Single-layer, 2D MoS2 nanosheets and their composites are used to modify the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). After electrochemical reduction, the electrodes exhibit good conductivity and fast electron transfer rate in the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+ redox systems. These electrodes can be used for sensing of glucose and dopamine.

    10. Nanocomposites of Graphene Oxide and Upconversion Rare-Earth Nanocrystals with Superior Optical Limiting Performance (pages 2271–2276)

      Wei Wei, Tingchao He, Xue Teng, Shixin Wu, Lin Ma, Hua Zhang, Jan Ma, Yanhui Yang, Hongyu Chen, Yu Han, Handong Sun and Ling Huang

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200065

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      A novel graphene oxide (GO)–NaYF4:Yb/Er nanocomposite, which combines the advantages of both GO and NaYF4:Yb/Er nanocrystals, shows an improved optical limiting effect in the near-IR region. The proof-of-concept product with perfect transparency and superior optical limiting performance has potential applications in making high-performance laser-protecting products and optoelectronic devices.

    11. Synthesis, Characterization, and Direct Intracellular Imaging of Ultrasmall and Uniform Glutathione-Coated Gold Nanoparticles (pages 2277–2286)

      Alioscka A. Sousa, Jeffrey T. Morgan, Patrick H. Brown, April Adams, M. P. Suresh Jayasekara, Guofeng Zhang, Christopher J. Ackerson, Michael J. Kruhlak and Richard D. Leapman

      Version of Record online: 20 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200071

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      The synthesis and characterization of an ultrasmall and uniform glutathione-coated gold nanoparticle is reported. It is also shown that scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) enables the visualization and quantification of individual gold nanoparticles as well as small aggregates in the cytoplasm and nucleus of HeLa cells.

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