Small

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 21

November 5, 2012

Volume 8, Issue 21

Pages 3225–3375

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Biosensors: CdSe Quantum Dots Enhance Electrical and Electrochemical Signals of Nanogap Devices for Bioanalysis (Small 21/2012) (page 3225)

      Yang Yu, Xing Chen, Yan Wei, Jin-Huai Liu, Shu-Hong Yu and Xing-Jiu Huang

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290115

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Electrical and electrochemical signals are enhanced by CdSe quantum dots in a nanogap device for biotin–streptavidin sensing events, as demonstrated by X.-J. Huang and co-workers on page 3274. By employing CdSe quantum dots, the ejection of the conduction-band electrons to the streptavidin, with a concomitant transfer of electrons from the chain of biotin–streptavidin to the gold nanoparticle electrode, yields an enhanced current signal. This work could provide a massive multiplexing, high-throughput, and high-sensitivity technique for biosensing through the use of large microelectrode arrays.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Neuron Adhesion: Control of Cell Adhesion and Neurite Outgrowth by Patterned Gold Nanoparticles with Tunable Attractive or Repulsive Surface Properties (Small 21/2012) (page 3226)

      Sandra Gilles, Silke Winter, Kristin E. Michael, Simone H. Meffert, Pinggui Li, Kyrylo Greben, Ulrich Simon, Andreas Offenhäusser and Dirk Mayer

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290116

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A colorized neurite of a rat cortical neuron is shown growing on a pattern of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The background image illustrates a larger area of AuNPs assembled in a pattern predefined by nanoimprint lithography. The AuNPs are equipped with different surface functionalities by D. Mayer and co-workers on page 3357, and used to investigate patterned neuron surface adhesion and neurite outgrowth. The neurites can be guided between or along the pattern using bare AuNPs or particles with positively charged ligands. Surface areas are easily switched between being cellattractive/repulsive by simple thiol chemistry.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Bioassays: DNA–Protein Binding Force Chip (Small 21/2012) (page 3376)

      Philip M. D. Severin and Hermann E. Gaub

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290117

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A binding force chip translates differences in the interactions between ligands and nucleotide strands into fluorescence intensities with the help of molecular force balances. Such balances, developed by P. M. D. Severin and H. E. Gaub on page 3269, consist of tandem DNA duplexes bridging the gap between a microscope slide and an elastomer stamp, with one duplex acting as a target for ligand binding, the other as a reference. When the stamp is lifted off the glass, the force balance is stretched and the force in the molecular chain increases until the weaker of the two duplexes dissociates. Cover Art by Nanosystems Initiative Munich.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Small 21/2012)

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290118

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 21/2012) (pages 3227–3232)

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290113

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. In Situ TEM Electromechanical Testing of Nanowires and Nanotubes (pages 3233–3252)

      Horacio D. Espinosa, Rodrigo A. Bernal and Tobin Filleter

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200342

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      One-dimensional nanostructures are the constituents of advanced materials and next-generation electronic and electromechanical devices. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been the technique of choice for characterizing their atomic structure and defects. Recently, TEM has been combined with in-situ characterization in the emerging field of in-situ TEM electromechanical testing. Here, the development and latest advances of several in-situ TEM techniques to carry out mechanical and electromechanical testing of nanowires and nanotubes are reviewed.

  7. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Dendronized Gold Nanoparticles for siRNA Delivery (pages 3253–3256)

      Sung Tae Kim, Apiwat Chompoosor, Yi-Cheun Yeh, Sarit S. Agasti, David J. Solfiell and Vincent M. Rotello

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201141

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      Dendronized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are effective nanocarriers for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. Electrostatic condension of these AuNPs with siRNA provides efficient silencing (∼50%) without cytotoxicity.

    2. Continuous In Situ Synthesis of ZnSe/ZnS Core/Shell Quantum Dots in a Microfluidic Reaction System and its Application for Light-Emitting Diodes (pages 3257–3262)

      Byoung-Hwa Kwon, Kyoung G. Lee, Tae Jung Park, Hyunki Kim, Tae Jae Lee, Seok Jae Lee and Duk Young Jeon

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200773

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      ZnSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with efficient blue emission are in situ synthesized using a novel microfluidic reaction system. This advances research on both simple one-step synthesis of core/shell QDs and their production using thermoplastic-based microfluidic reaction systems. Furthermore, QD light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated using ZnSe/ZnS QDs as wavelength converters.

    3. Thin, Flexible Sensors and Actuators as ‘Instrumented’ Surgical Sutures for Targeted Wound Monitoring and Therapy (pages 3263–3268)

      Dae-Hyeong Kim, Shuodao Wang, Hohyun Keum, Roozbeh Ghaffari, Yun-Soung Kim, Hu Tao, Bruce Panilaitis, Ming Li, Zhan Kang, Fiorenzo Omenetto, Yonggang Huang and John A. Rogers

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200933

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Proper healing of incised skin is critical to the natural processes of tissue repair. Concepts in flexible silicon electronics enable integration of actuators, sensors and a variety of semiconductor devices onto thin strips of plastic or biopolymers, to yield ‘instrumented’ suture threads for monitoring and accelerating the wound healing in this context. Bifacial systems of this type demonstrate various classes of functionality, in live animal models. Detailed modelling of the mechanics reveals stress and strain distributions in such applications, to support design strategies for robust operation.

    4. DNA–Protein Binding Force Chip (pages 3269–3273)

      Philip M. D. Severin and Hermann E. Gaub

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201088

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The binding force chip (BiFo-Chip) allows the quantification of DNA–protein interactions. It employs arrays of molecular force probes. Each molecular force probe functions comparable to a balance, which is influenced by the binding of a protein to one of the two DNA duplexes. The BiFo-chip is easy to operate, requires only a quantitative fluorescence microscope and fulfills all essential criteria for high throughput screening.

    5. CdSe Quantum Dots Enhance Electrical and Electrochemical Signals of Nanogap Devices for Bioanalysis (pages 3274–3281)

      Yang Yu, Xing Chen, Yan Wei, Jin-Huai Liu, Shu-Hong Yu and Xing-Jiu Huang

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200487

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      CdSe quantum dot-labeled streptavidin (CdSe QD–SAv) is introduced into nanogap to amplify the current and impedimetric signals generated in a biosensor for detecting the biotin–streptavidin binding event by electrical and electrochemical measurements.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Nanoporous Carbon: Topological Defects: Origin of Nanopores and Enhanced Adsorption Performance in Nanoporous Carbon (Small 21/2012) (page 3282)

      Junjie Guo, James R. Morris, Yungok Ihm, Cristian I. Contescu, Nidia C. Gallego, Gerd Duscher, Stephen J. Pennycook and Matthew F. Chisholm

      Version of Record online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290114

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The building blocks of nanoporous carbon materials, as demonstrated by this image of atomic resolution from M. F. Chisholm and co-workers, are randomly wrinkled graphene sheets. The observed non-hexagonal defects are dominated by energetically favorable adjacent 5-7 ring pairs. Moreover, on page 3283 it is shown that these defects are highly correlated with each other, typically being found within 1-2 rings of another 5-7 ring pair structure. This is similar to what has been observed for grain boundaries. These topological defects induce localized rippling of the graphene sheets, which influences their stacking and therefore affects the porosity and physisorption performance of such nanoporous carbon materials.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Topological Defects: Origin of Nanopores and Enhanced Adsorption Performance in Nanoporous Carbon (pages 3283–3288)

      Junjie Guo, James R. Morris, Yungok Ihm, Cristian I. Contescu, Nidia C. Gallego, Gerd Duscher, Stephen J. Pennycook and Matthew F. Chisholm

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200894

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Atomic-resolution images of nanoporous carbon show that it comprises isotropic, 3D networks of wrinkled one-atom-thick graphene sheets. In each graphene plane, nonhexagonal defects are identified as connected five- and seven-atom rings. These topological defects induce localized rippling of graphene sheets, which interferes with their graphitic stacking and induces nanopores that lead to enhanced adsorption performance.

    2. Effect of Carbon Coating on the Physico-chemical Properties and Toxicity of Copper and Nickel Nanoparticles (pages 3289–3299)

      Shalini Minocha and Russell J. Mumper

      Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200478

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Compared to Cu nanoparticles (NPs), carbon-coated Cu (C-Cu) NPs show protection against surface oxidation, a tenfold increase in cellular uptake, and a fourfold decrease in the release of soluble Cu. C-Cu NPs elicit a pronounced effect on mitochondrial function whereas Cu NPs are associated with a significant damage to plasma membrane integrity. The effects of carbon coating on Ni NPs are also presented.

    3. Fatigue-Free, Electrically Reliable Copper Electrode with Nanohole Array (pages 3300–3306)

      Byoung-Joon Kim, Yigil Cho, Min-Suk Jung, Hae-A-Seul Shin, Myoung-Woon Moon, Heung Nam Han, Ki Tae Nam, Young-Chang Joo and In-Suk Choi

      Version of Record online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200674

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      Nanohole-structured fatigue-damage-free metal electrode is developed using a nanorod polymer substrate to realize highly stable flexible devices. The nanohole metal electrode shows almost no degradation of the electrical resistance during repeating bending deformation because of the suppression of damage initiation and propagation.

    4. Superior Functionality by Design: Selective Ozone Sensing Realized by Rationally Constructed High-Index ZnO Surfaces (pages 3307–3314)

      Firat Güder, Yang Yang, Andreas Menzel, Chunyu Wang, Julia Danhof, Kittitat Subannajui, Andreas Hartel, Daniel Hiller, Rajeevan Kozhummal, Niranjan S. Ramgir, Volker Cimalla, Ulrich T. Schwarz and Margit Zacharias

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200841

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The transformation of smooth nonpolar ZnO nanowire surfaces to zigzagged high-index polar surfaces by combining atomic layer deposition (ALD) of polycrystalline ZnO thin films with post-annealing is reported. The zigzagged ZnO nanowires show significantly higher room-temperature sensitivity to varying O3 concentrations owing to the surrounding high-index polar surfaces.

    5. Layered Nanoprobe for Long-Lasting Fluorescent Cell Label (pages 3315–3320)

      Seung Koo Lee, Myung Shin Han and Ching-Hsuan Tung

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200751

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Multilayered fluorescent nanoprobes are developed for long-term cell tracking studies. The nanoprobes are packed with optically silent fluorochromes based on a self-quenching mechanism. The hidden fluorescence signal is later slowly activated inside the cell following intracellular proteolysis, which results in a constant signal that lasts for weeks in dividing cells.

    6. Investigating Structural Alterations in Pyrogallol[4]arene-Pyrene Nanotubular Frameworks (pages 3321–3325)

      Harshita Kumari, Steven R. Kline, Wei G. Wycoff and Jerry L. Atwood

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201384

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A solution-phase study of the C-hexylpyrogallol[4]arene-pyrene nanoassembly reveals structural alterations from a solid-state tubular to a solution-phase spherical dimeric architecture, which reflects the structural flexibility of hydrogen-bonded pyrogallol[4]arene-based nanoassemblies.

    7. Understanding the Antibacterial Mechanism of CuO Nanoparticles: Revealing the Route of Induced Oxidative Stress (pages 3326–3337)

      Guy Applerot, Jonathan Lellouche, Anat Lipovsky, Yeshayahu Nitzan, Rachel Lubart, Aharon Gedanken and Ehud Banin

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200772

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A water suspension of CuO nanoparticles releases an excess of reactive oxygen radicals (ROS). Moreover, it is apparent that CuO nanoparticles promote an enhanced toxicity toward bacteria. Monitoring ROS production in the presence of bacteria shows increased oxidative stress, partially resulting from within the bacterial cells.

    8. Graphene-Based Nafion Nanocomposite Membranes: Enhanced Proton Transport and Water Retention by Novel Organo-functionalized Graphene Oxide Nanosheets (pages 3338–3349)

      Apostolos Enotiadis, Kristina Angjeli, Noemi Baldino, Isabella Nicotera and Dimitrios Gournis

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200609

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nafion hybrid membranes based on organo-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) show high water diffusion coefficients over a wide temperature range (25–140 °C) while maintaining stable diffusion for many hours at high temperatures (as high as 140 °C) and without external humidification, which proves the exceptional water retention property of these materials.

    9. Template-Free Pseudomorphic Synthesis of Tungsten Carbide Nanorods (pages 3350–3356)

      Ya Yan, Lan Zhang, Xiaoying Qi, Hao Song, Jing-Yuan Wang, Hua Zhang and Xin Wang

      Version of Record online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200877

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A unique nanorod-structured tungsten carbide material with high specific surface area is synthesized by pseudomorphic transformation of chemically synthesized WO3 nanorods through a high-temperature method. Application of the WC nanorods as an electrocatalyst support is demonstrated.

    10. Control of Cell Adhesion and Neurite Outgrowth by Patterned Gold Nanoparticles with Tunable Attractive or Repulsive Surface Properties (pages 3357–3367)

      Sandra Gilles, Silke Winter, Kristin E. Michael, Simone H. Meffert, Pinggui Li, Kyrylo Greben, Ulrich Simon, Andreas Offenhäusser and Dirk Mayer

      Version of Record online: 24 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200465

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The growth of rat cortical neurons on gold nanoparticle structures with different surface functionalities is investigated. Neurites can be guided between or along the pattern by using bare gold nanoparticles or particles with positively charged ligands, respectively. Cell preference for structures versus background is easily switched.

    11. Kidney Podocytes as Specific Targets for cyclo(RGDfC)-Modified Nanoparticles (pages 3368–3375)

      Klaus Pollinger, Robert Hennig, Miriam Breunig, Joerg Tessmar, Andreas Ohlmann, Ernst R. Tamm, Ralph Witzgall and Achim Goepferich

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200733

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Ligand-modified nanoparticles interact specifically with kidney podocytes: renal filtration of nanoparticles allows the targeting of new cell species like kidney podocytes, which are part of the renal filtration barrier. This work shows that receptor-mediated binding to podocyte αvβ3 integrin is possible by using cyclo(RGDfC)-modified nanoparticles.

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