Small

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 22

November 19, 2012

Volume 8, Issue 22

Pages 3381–3537

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Quantum Dots: A Quantum Dot Photoswitch for DNA Detection, Gene Transfection, and Live-Cell Imaging (Small 22/2012) (page 3381)

      Yuzhou Wu, Klaus Eisele, Mikheil Doroshenko, Gerardo Algara-Siller, Ute Kaiser, Kaloian Koynov and Tanja Weil

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290122

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      The preparation of a protein-derived biopolymer coating for encapsulating quantum dots (QDs) by multivalent interactions is described on page 3465 by T. Weil and co-workers. Coated QDs undergo fast endocytosis, and they are highly stable and noncytotoxic in live cells. The formation of complexes containing QDs and plasmid DNA leads to proportionally decreased photoluminescence of the QDs. Efficient gene transfection is achieved, which is attractive for live-cell bioimaging and mechanistic studies of non-viral gene delivery.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Drug Delivery: Synergistic Targeting of Cancer and Associated Angiogenesis Using Triple-Targeted Dual-Drug Silica Nanoformulations for Theragnostics (Small 22/2012) (page 3382)

      Srivani Veeranarayanan, Aby Cheruvathoor Poulose, M. Sheikh Mohamed, Saino Hanna Varghese, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa and D. Sakthi Kumar

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290123

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      A silica nanoparticle-based drug-delivery system developed by D. S. Kumar and co-workers for transporting multiple drugs and imaging agents is armed with tripletargeting ligands, which home in on cancer and angiogenic cells in a collegial fashion. This high-precision, multi-target concept described on page 3476 culminates in an effective therapeutic nanoformulation against breast cancer cells, completely disabling the migration and angiogenic sprouting abilities of activated endothelial cells, achieving both anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic potential in a singular lethal form. This nanoscheme could become the paragon for future cancer/angiogenesis treatment strategies.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Hybrid Materials: Enhanced Catalytic Activity for Methanol Electro-oxidation of Uniformly Dispersed Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles—Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Materials (Small 22/2012) (page 3540)

      Xili Tong, Yong Qin, Xiangyun Guo, Oussama Moutanabbir, Xianyu Ao, Eckhard Pippel, Lianbing Zhang and Mato Knez

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290124

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      NiO nanoparticles on pristine carbon nanotubes, with high crystallinity and uniform dispersion, are synthesized using atomic layer deposition (ALD) by Y. Qin, X. Guo, M. Knez, and co-workers. The sizes of the NiO nanoparticles can be precisely controlled by varying the number of ALD cycles. The as-prepared NiO/CNT hybrid nanostructures, described on page 3390, exhibit a greatly enhanced electrochemical catalytic ability and stability for methanol electro-oxidation. This method provides a general route to prepare functional and complex hierarchical nanostructures with precise control over the size of the supported nanoparticles.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Small 22/2012)

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290125

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 22/2012) (pages 3383–3389)

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290119

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Enhanced Catalytic Activity for Methanol Electro-oxidation of Uniformly Dispersed Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles—Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Materials (pages 3390–3395)

      Xili Tong, Yong Qin, Xiangyun Guo, Oussama Moutanabbir, Xianyu Ao, Eckhard Pippel, Lianbing Zhang and Mato Knez

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200839

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      Highy crystalline NiO nanoparticles are uniformly grown on the walls of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at moderate temperature.Their size and stoichiometry are controlled by the ALD process parameters. The obtained NiO/CNT hybrids exhibit excellent performance in the electro-oxidation of methanol.

    2. Cross-Sectional Characterization of Electrodeposited, Monocrystalline Au Nanowires in Parallel Arrangement (pages 3396–3399)

      Manuel Schneckenburger, Marion Kelsch, Peter A. van Aken, Gunther Richter, Joachim P. Spatz and Amin Rustom

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200963

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      Cross-sections of cylindrically shaped nanowires are fabricated using a focused ion beam technique. They are oriented such that the electron beam direction is parallel to a low-index zone axis for high- resolution imaging. In this configuration the direction of gold nanowire growth can be determined using electron diffraction.

    3. Enormous Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Dimers of Flower-Like Silver Mesoparticles (pages 3400–3405)

      Hongyan Liang, Zhipeng Li, Zhuoxian Wang, Wenzhong Wang, Federico Rosei, Dongling Ma and Hongxing Xu

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201081

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      The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of flower-like silver mesoparticle dimers with large hot areas is ≈10 to 100 times higher than the individual mesoparticles. The dependence of incident polarization illustrates that, even in the rough-surface mesoparticle dimer system, the coupling effect still dominates the SERS. More importantly, the micro-manipulator can be used to form dimers controlled with high SERS quality.

    4. Controllable Self-Assembly of Di(p-methoxylphenyl)Dibenzofulvene into Three Different Emission Forms (pages 3406–3411)

      Xinggui Gu, Jingjing Yao, Guanxin Zhang and Deqing Zhang

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201334

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      Self-assembly of di(p-methoxylphenyl)dibenzofulvene in the absence and presence of CTAB (cetyl trimethylammonium bromide) leads to three emission forms: strongly yellow-green- and blue-emissive crystalline forms (as microrods), and weakly orange-emissive amorphous form. Each of these three emission forms can be prepared by adjusting the concentration of CTAB.

    5. Colorimetric Chemodosimeter Based on Diazonium–Gold-Nanoparticle Complexes for Sulfite Ion Detection in Solution (pages 3412–3416)

      Jianjun Du, Qi Shao, Shengyan Yin, Lin Jiang, Jan Ma and Xiaodong Chen

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201650

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      A fast and simple colorimetric detection system for sulfite, based on diazonium–gold-nanoparticle(AuNP) complexation, has high selectivity and sensitivity in aqueous media. The positively charged diazonium has affinity for the AuNP surface due to an electrostatic effect, which prevents AuNPs from aggregating in highly saline solutions. Upon addition of sulfite, the AuNPs are free to aggregate due to the formation of a neutral and insoluble phenylhydrazine derivative.

    6. Silicon Nanowire Charge-Trap Memory Incorporating Self-Assembled Iron Oxide Quantum Dots (pages 3417–3421)

      Ruo-Gu Huang and James R. Heath

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200940

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      Charge-trap non-volatile memory devices based upon the precise integration of quantum dot storage elements with silicon nanowire field-effect transistors are described. Template-assisted assembly yields an ordered array of FeO QDs within the trenches that separate highly aligned SiNWs, and injected charges are reversibly stored via Fowler–Nordheim tunneling into the QDs. Stored charges shift the transistor threshold voltages, providing the basis for a memory device. Quantum dot size is found to strongly influence memory performance metrics.

    7. Size-Dependent Evolution of Graphene Nanopores Under Thermal Excitation (pages 3422–3426)

      Tao Xu, Kuibo Yin, Xiao Xie, Longbing He, Binjie Wang and Litao Sun

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200979

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      Graphene nanopores expand when pore diameter is larger than membrane thickness after heat treatment; otherwise, nanopore size shrinks. Such size-dependent evolutionary mechanism of nanopores is considered as thermal-induced migration of uncombined carbon atoms. The amount of carbon adatoms determines the extent of diameter change. This could provide an applicable strategy for nanopore fabrication.

    8. Enhanced Photoconversion Efficiency of All-Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on a Ti Substrate with TiO2 Nanoforest Underlayer (pages 3427–3431)

      Jiang An, Wei Guo and Tingli Ma

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200802

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      An easily prepared TiO2 nanoforest underlayer improves the photovoltaic performance of Ti substrate-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A high photoconversion efficiency of 8.46% is reached, which is almost 2.5 times that of the DSSCs without surface treatment of the flexible substrates. The nanoforest underlayer increases both the surface roughness of the substrate and the electrical contact between the Ti substrate and the screen-printed TiO2 nanoparticles.

    9. One-Pot Synthesis of Ultra-Light Nickel Nanofoams Composed of Nanowires and Their Transformation into Various Functional Nanofoams (pages 3432–3437)

      Wei Ni, Hao Bin Wu, Bao Wang, Rong Xu and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201678

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      Ultra-light Ni nanofoams composed of nanowires have been synthesized on a large scale by a facile reflux approach. From the Ni nanofoam, many other functional nanofoams, composed of semi-hollow NiO nanowires, multi-generation Ni nanowires, and noble metal nanotubes, can be easily derived for many important applications. As an example, the promising application of the NiO nanofoam in lithium-ion batteries is demonstrated.

    10. Shape Transformation and Visible Region Plasmonic Modulation of Silver Nanoplates by Graphene Oxide (pages 3438–3442)

      Ping Wang, Haili He and Yongdong Jin

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201164

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      The plasmon band of Ag nanoplates can be continuously tuned over the visible region by simply stirring with graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, accompanied with the shape transformation from triangle to round. The ability of GO to competitively adsorb ligands (from Ag nanoplates) has been considered to response for this interesting change. Through the protection of sufficient citrate ions, the resultant Ag nanoplates exhibit the excellent stability over a long time without noticeable change of their optical properties.

    11. Water-Vapor-Assisted Nanoimprinting of PEDOT:PSS Thin Films (pages 3443–3447)

      Htay Hlaing, Xinhui Lu, Chang-Yong Nam and Benjamin M. Ocko

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201267

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      PEDOT:PSS thin films are successfully patterned using water-vapor-assisted nanoimprinting, a process compatible with organic electronic devices. The imprinted patterns are characterized via grazing-incident small-angle X-ray scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Superior pattern transfer quality of water-vapor assisted nanoimprinting over conventional thermal nanoimprinting is demonstrated.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Enzyme Catalysis: Enzymatic Growth of Quantum Dots: Applications to Probe Glucose Oxidase and Horseradish Peroxidase and Sense Glucose (Small 22/2012) (page 3448)

      Laura Saa and Valeri Pavlov

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290120

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      Three innovative assays have been developed for the detection of the enzymatic activities of glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by the generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs) in situ using an unconventional enzymatic reaction. By employing 1-thiob-D-glucose and sodium thiosulfate as enzymatic substrates, sulfide ions are generated which, in the presence of cadmium ions, yield fluorescent CdS nanoparticles. On page 3449, L. Saa and V. Pavlov show how the combination of GOx with HRP allows quantification of the glucose in human plasma by following the growth of the fluorescent QDs.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Enzymatic Growth of Quantum Dots: Applications to Probe Glucose Oxidase and Horseradish Peroxidase and Sense Glucose (pages 3449–3455)

      Laura Saa and Valeri Pavlov

      Version of Record online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201364

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      The enzymatic activities of glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) can be followed by generation of CdS quantum dots (QDs) in situ using non-conventional enzymatic reactions. GOx and HRP catalyze the oxidation of sulfur containing substrates, generating H2S which in the presence of cadmium ions yields fluorescent CdS QDs. These assays allow detection of GOx activity, hydrogen peroxide and quantification of glucose in plasma.

    2. Fabrication of Novel Hierarchical Structured Fe3O4@LnPO4 (Ln=Eu, Tb, Er) Multifunctional Microspheres for Capturing and Labeling Phosphopeptides (pages 3456–3464)

      Zhi-Gang Wang, Gong Cheng, Yan-Lin Liu, Ji-Lin Zhang, De-Hui Sun and Jia-Zuan Ni

      Version of Record online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200601

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      Magnetic Fe3O4@LnPO4 (Ln=Eu, Tb, Er) multifunctional microspheres are fabricated by the combination of homogeneous precipitation and ion-exchange processes. As affinity probes they can selectively trap, rapidly isolate, and expediently label phosphopeptides from complex biological samples. This facile synthesis strategy may provide a general way to fabricate similar composite materials.

    3. A Quantum Dot Photoswitch for DNA Detection, Gene Transfection, and Live-Cell Imaging (pages 3465–3475)

      Yuzhou Wu, Klaus Eisele, Mikheil Doroshenko, Gerardo Algara-Siller, Ute Kaiser, Kaloian Koynov and Tanja Weil

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200409

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      Quantum dots (QDs) coated with an albumin-derived copolymer are positively charged, have attractive optical properties, and are noncytotoxic and stable in live cells. Their formation of a complex with plasmid DNA leads to proportionally decreased photoluminescence and facilitates efficient gene transfection, which is suitable for live-cell bioimaging and mechanistic studies of nonviral gene delivery.

    4. Synergistic Targeting of Cancer and Associated Angiogenesis Using Triple-Targeted Dual-Drug Silica Nanoformulations for Theragnostics (pages 3476–3489)

      Srivani Veeranarayanan, Aby Cheruvathoor Poulose, M. Sheikh Mohamed, Saino Hanna Varghese, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa and D. Sakthi Kumar

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200874

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      A triple targeting scheme for nanodrug delivery simultaneously to cancer and angiogenesis is reported. This synergized multitarget concept culminates in elevated uptake of nanoparticles by cancer and angiogenic cells with amplified proficiency. The active targeted silica-based nanoformulation gains entry only into cancer and pathoangiogenic cells, sparing normal cells, whereas nontargeted nanoformulation shows nonspecific accumulation in both cancer and normal cells leading to normal cell damage.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Coating DNA: Coating of Single DNA Molecules by Genetically Engineered Protein Diblock Copolymers (Small 22/2012) (page 3490)

      Armando Hernandez-Garcia, Marc W. T. Werten, Martien Cohen Stuart, Frits A. de Wolf and Renko de Vries

      Version of Record online: 14 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290121

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      Virus-like complexes of supercoiled plasmid DNA with diblock polypeptides are produced by A. Hernandez-Garcia et al. The polypeptide consists of a very long hydrophilic block and a very short cationic block. Polymers containing cationic blocks are widely investigated as non-viral gene transfer agents. These polymers form very heterodisperse complexes with DNA, both in terms of shape and size, which usually contain multiple DNA molecules. In contrast, the diblock polypeptides developed on page 3491 form equilibrium complexes with a single DNA molecule that is uniformly coated by the polypeptide. The coating increases the stiffness and diameter of the DNA molecule such that the final complexes resemble linear viruses. This diblock polypeptide is a convenient and promising scaffold for further functionalization as a new type of nonviral gene transfer agent.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Coating of Single DNA Molecules by Genetically Engineered Protein Diblock Copolymers (pages 3491–3501)

      Armando Hernandez-Garcia, Marc W. T. Werten, Martien Cohen Stuart, Frits A. de Wolf and Renko de Vries

      Version of Record online: 3 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200939

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      Biosynthetic protein diblock copolymers are designed to form stable protein-coated flexible nanorods consisting of single plasmid DNA molecules, reminiscent of cylindrical viruses. The protein coating forms a polymer brush that prevents inter- and intramolecular aggregation of DNA molecules. The controlled coating of single DNA molecules modulates their physical properties and interactions.

    2. Screening Conditions for Rationally Engineered Electrodeposition of Nanostructures (SCREEN): Electrodeposition and Applications of Polypyrrole Nanofibers using Microfluidic Gradients (pages 3502–3509)

      Hayden A. Burgoyne, Philseok Kim, Mathias Kolle, Alexander K. Epstein and Joanna Aizenberg

      Version of Record online: 2 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200888

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      The conditions for electrodepositing desired polypyrrole (PPy) nanostructures are quickly screened using a microfluidic concentration gradient generator integrated with an electrochemical cell. After optimization of the conditions for depositing 1D nanofibers of PPy, large-area bulk deposition of PPy is carried out. The PPy nanofiber-coated surfaces show remarkable optical and wetting properties.

    3. Structure and Function of Glucose Binding Protein–Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Complexes (pages 3510–3516)

      Thomas P. McNicholas, Kyungsuk Yum, Jin-Ho Ahn, Bin Mu, Oliver Plettenburg, Annlouise Gooderman, Sridaran Natesan and Michael S. Strano

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200649

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      Single-walled carbon nanotubes complexed with glucose binding protein-functionalized polyvinyl alcohol are analyzed in order to determine the effect that each component has on the other. Ultimately, circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that binding to the single-walled carbon nanotubes destabilizes the periplasmic binding protein. As such, this investigation highlights the need for more in-depth characterization of single-walled carbon nanotube–protein complexes.

    4. Preparation of MoS2-Polyvinylpyrrolidone Nanocomposites for Flexible Nonvolatile Rewritable Memory Devices with Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes (pages 3517–3522)

      Juqing Liu, Zhiyuan Zeng, Xiehong Cao, Gang Lu, Lian-Hui Wang, Qu-Li Fan, Wei Huang and Hua Zhang

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200999

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      Few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets dispersed in low-boiling ethanol solvent are prepared via the polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) enhanced exfoliation. The obtained MoS2-PVP nanocomposites sandwiched between reduced graphene oxide film and Al electrode exhibite the electrically bistable behavior with the function of nonvolatile rewritable memory. This study paves a way of employing two-dimensional nanomaterials as both functional materials and conducting electrodes for the future flexible data storage.

    5. Hyperbranched Conjugated Polyelectrolyte for Dual-modality Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Cancer Imaging (pages 3523–3530)

      Dan Ding, Guan Wang, Jianzhao Liu, Kai Li, Kan-Yi Pu, Yong Hu, Jason C. Y. Ng, Ben Zhong Tang and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201216

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      Gadolinium ion (Gd (III))-chelated hyperbranched conjugated polyelectrolytes (HCPE-Gd) have been developed for the first time to serve as an optical and magnetic resonance (MR) dual imaging probe. HCPE-Gd shows strong photobleaching resistance, high MR sensitivity, as well as low cytoxicity, and in vivo toxicity, and has been demonstrated as an efficient optical/MR dual-modal imaging nanoprobe for in vivo cancer diagnosis.

    6. A Supramolecular Approach to Enzyme Immobilization in Micro-Channels (pages 3531–3537)

      Arántzazu González-Campo, Bilge Eker, Han J. G. E. Gardeniers, Jurriaan Huskens and Pascal Jonkheijm

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200565

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      A supramolecular enzymatic platform is generated in a microchip based on β-cyclodextrin monolayers. Following an in-situ self-assembly protocol, a phosphatase is site-specifically bound to the channel surface. The catalytic activity is monitored by means of a dephosphorylation reaction using fluorescence as read-out. The specificity constant kcat/KM for immobilized alkaline phosphatase in the channel is comparable to known literature values in other environments due to the favorable homogeneous orientation of the enzymes on this supramolecular platform.

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