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Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 23

December 7, 2012

Volume 8, Issue 23

Pages 3541–3697

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Fluorescence Imaging: Lipid-PEG-Folate Encapsulated Nanoparticles with Aggregation Induced Emission Characteristics: Cellular Uptake Mechanism and Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging (Small 23/2012) (page 3541)

      Junlong Geng, Kai Li, Dan Ding, Xinhai Zhang, Wei Qin, Jianzhao Liu, Ben Zhong Tang and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290130

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      On page 3655, B. Liu and co-workers develop a one-step procedure to produce twophoton absorption nanoprobes with bright red/near-infrared fluorescence. The nanoprobes are created by encapsulating luminogens with aggregation-induced emission characteristics into a folate-functionalized lipid–PEG polymer matrix. The nanoprobes, which show good biocompatibility, are internalised into cancer cells and easily detected at a depth of 400 μm, a promising result for in vitro and in vivo imaging and diagnosis.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Organic Light-Emitting Diodes: Silicon Nanocrystal OLEDs: Effect of Organic Capping Group on Performance (Small 23/2012) (page 3542)

      Melanie L. Mastronardi, Eric J. Henderson, Daniel P. Puzzo, Yilu Chang, Zhi Bin Wang, Michael G. Helander, Junho Jeong, Nazir P. Kherani, Zhenghong Lu and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290131

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      Pictured is an abstract graphic of a light emitting diode (LED) in which the electroluminescent layer comprises allylbenzene-capped silicon nanocrystals. The use of short aromatic ligands and size-selective precipitation purification methods by G. A. Ozin and co-workers on page 3647 result in superior packing density, enhanced charge transport, and an improved photoluminescence absolute quantum yield of the silicon nanocrystals in the active layer of the LED—a step towards ‘greener’ quantum dot devices.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Small 23/2012)

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290132

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 23/2012) (pages 3543–3548)

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290126

  5. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum: Nanodiamond as a Vector for siRNA Delivery to Ewing Sarcoma Cells (page 3549)

      Anna Alhaddad, Marie-Pierre Adam, Jacques Botsoa, Géraldine Dantelle, Sandrine Perruchas, Thierry Gacoin, Christelle Mansuy, Solange Lavielle, Claude Malvy, François Treussart and Jean-Rémi Bertrand

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290127

      This article corrects:

      Nanodiamond as a Vector for siRNA Delivery to Ewing Sarcoma Cells

      Vol. 7, Issue 21, 3087–3095, Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2011

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Nanostructured Metal-Free Electrochemical Catalysts for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction (pages 3550–3566)

      Yao Zheng, Yan Jiao, Mietek Jaroniec, Yonggang Jin and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200861

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      As the new generation ORR electrocatalysts, several recently developed metal-free catalysts reveal reduced cost, enhanced stability, and competitive catalytic activity as compared to Pt-based catalysts. This article provides an overview of recent advances in N-carbon, g-C3N4, and N-graphene three main classes of metal-free ORR catalysts. Some perspectives on future developments in this exciting research field are also highlighted to further promote the R&D of fuel cell technology.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Polymer Brushes: High-Resolution, Large-Area, Serial Fabrication of 3D Polymer Brush Structures by Parallel Dip-Pen Nanodisplacement Lithography (Small 23/2012) (page 3567)

      Xuechang Zhou, Zhilu Liu, Zhuang Xie, Xuqing Liu and Zijian Zheng

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290128

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      Large-area, serial fabrication of 3D polymer structures via parallel dippen nanodisplacement lithography (p-DNL) is demonstrated by Z. Zheng and co-workers on page 3568. p-DNL is a scanning probe-based lithography method that utilizes an array of atomic force microscopy tips to simultaneously displace the inert self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of a Au substrate with initiator-bearing thiol molecules pre-inked on the tips. By employing p-DNL, 2D patterns of initiator SAMs of rationally designed lateral spacings are readily fabricated in parallel over millimeter scales, and 3D polymer structures are fabricated from such 2D templates owing to different feature densities. This work holds great promise for the engineering of functional structures of high resolution and flexibility over large areas.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. High-Resolution, Large-Area, Serial Fabrication of 3D Polymer Brush Structures by Parallel Dip-Pen Nanodisplacement Lithography (pages 3568–3572)

      Xuechang Zhou, Zhilu Liu, Zhuang Xie, Xuqing Liu and Zijian Zheng

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201544

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      Parallel dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography (p-DNL) is used for high resolution, serial fabrication of 3D structures of polymer brushes over millimeter length scales. With p-DNL, 2D initiator templates consisting of arrays of nanolines and nanodots with rationally designed lateral spacings are fabricated in parallel via a locally tip-induced nanodisplacement process, from which highly defined 3D polymer structures are grown via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    2. Protein–Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery (pages 3573–3578)

      Jun Ge, Evgenios Neofytou, Jiandu Lei, Ramin E. Beygui and Richard N. Zare

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200889

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      Amphiphilic bovine serum albumin-poly(methyl methacrylate) conjugate forms nanoparticles with the uniform size of ∼100 nm by self-assembling. Loaded with the hydrophobic anti-tumor drug camptothecin, the nanoparticle efficiently delivers drugs into cancer cells, and thus inhibits ∼79% of tumor growth in animals compared with free drug.

    3. Synthesis of Hetero-Polymer Functionalized Nanocarriers by Combining Surface-Initiated ATRP and RAFT Polymerization (pages 3579–3583)

      Xin Huang, Nicole Hauptmann, Dietmar Appelhans, Petr Formanek, Simon Frank, Stefan Kaskel, Achim Temme and Brigitte Voit

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201397

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      Smart nanocarriers are created based on a bi-functional hetero-initiator for RAFT and ATRP technique, bi-functionalizing mesoporous silica nanoparticles with two polymer types. The pH-dependent behavior of PDEAEMA as the gatekeeper polymer is verified by electrokinetic measurements and a controlled release behavior is demonstrated using doxorubicin as the drug.

    4. Pulsatile Drug Release from PLGA Hollow Microspheres by Controlling the Permeability of Their Walls with a Magnetic Field (pages 3584–3588)

      Wei-Lun Chiang, Cherng-Jyh Ke, Zi-Xian Liao, San-Yuan Chen, Fu-Rong Chen, Chun-Ying Tsai, Younan Xia and Hsing-Wen Sung

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201743

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      Pulsatile release: When a high-frequency magnetic field is applied, heat will be generated by coupling to the iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in the shells of PLGA hollow microspheres. As the temperature approaches the Tg of PLGA, the polymer chains become more mobile, subsequently increasing the free volume of PLGA matrix and significantly enhancing the diffusion of drug molecules.

    5. Colorimetric Protein Sensing Using Catalytically Amplified Sensor Arrays (pages 3589–3592)

      Xiaoning Li, Fang Wen, Brian Creran, Youngdo Jeong, Xinrong Zhang and Vincent M. Rotello

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201549

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      Catalytically active iron oxide nanoparticles are used as recognition elements and signal amplifiers for the array-based colorimetric sensing of proteins. Interactions between cationic monolayers on the Fe3O4 NPs and analyte proteins differentially modulates the peroxidase-like activity of Fe3O4 NPs, affording catalytically amplified colorimetric signal patterns that enable the detection and identification of proteins at 50 nM.

    6. Small Molecule Signals that Direct the Route of a Molecular Cargo (pages 3593–3597)

      Richard A. Muscat, Jonathan Bath and Andrew J. Turberfield

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201055

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      The route taken by a DNA cargo on a branched track can be controlled by the small molecule adenosine using a pair of aptamers that reciprocally block and unblock branches of the track in response to adenosine binding.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Strain Sensors: Enhancing the Humidity Sensitivity of Ga2O3/SnO2 Core/Shell Microribbon by Applying Mechanical Strain and Its Application as a Flexible Strain Sensor (Small 23/2012) (page 3598)

      Kewei Liu, Makoto Sakurai and Masakazu Aono

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290129

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      Single β-Ga2O3/amorphous SnO2 core/shell microribbon-based sensors are fabricated on page 3599 on a flexible substrate. In future life and health science fields, this sensor array can be used to detect the relative humidity of air at room temperature. Sensitivity increases linearly with strain, and can therefore be enhanced by the application of tensile strain (by bending the substrate). This strain-induced enhancement originates from the increase in the effective surface area where water molecules are adsorbed. This strain dependence of humidity sensitivity can be used to monitor the external strain. The strain sensing of the microribbon device under various amounts of mechanical loading show excellent reliability and reproducibility with a gauge factor of -41. These findings pave the way for new flexible strain and multifunctional sensors.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Corrigendum
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Enhancing the Humidity Sensitivity of Ga2O3/SnO2 Core/Shell Microribbon by Applying Mechanical Strain and Its Application as a Flexible Strain Sensor (pages 3599–3604)

      Kewei Liu, Makoto Sakurai and Masakazu Aono

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201028

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      Tensile strain enhances the humidity sensitivity of a single β-Ga2O3/amorphous SnO2 core/shell microribbon on a flexible substrate. Based on this property, a novel flexible sensor is realized, which can detect both humidity and strain with rapid response and high gauge factor at room temperature.

    2. Detection of Circulating Cancer Cells Using Electrocatalytic Gold Nanoparticles (pages 3605–3612)

      Marisa Maltez-da Costa, Alfredo de la Escosura-Muñiz, Carme Nogués, Lleonard Barrios, Elena Ibáñez and Arben Merkoçi

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201205

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      A novel electrochemical strategy to detect and quantify circulating tumor cells (CTCs) based on the selective labeling with electrocatalytic nanoparticles is achieved. The proposed sensor is a rapid and simple detection device that uses specific antibody/AuNP conjugates to recognize tumor cells in suspension followed by fast electrochemical detection in a user friendly platform.

    3. Visualizing the Growth and Dynamics of Liquid-Ordered Domains During Lipid Bilayer Folding in a Microfluidic Chip (pages 3613–3619)

      Eric L. Kendall, Chenren Shao and Don L. DeVoe

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200831

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      Using a novel lipid bubble injection technique, a microfluidic adaptation of Montal–Mueller bilayer folding is achieved in a thermoplastic chip supporting simultaneous optical and electrical monitoring and fluidic access to each membrane leaflet. The dynamic process of folding an asymmetric bilayer from two distinct lipid monolayersisprobed. The real-time emergence, movement, and coalescence of lipid microdomains is also investigated.

    4. Synthesis of Manganese Ferrite/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications (pages 3620–3630)

      Erwin Peng, Eugene Shi Guang Choo, Prashant Chandrasekharan, Chang-Tong Yang, Jun Ding, Kai-Hsiang Chuang and Jun Min Xue

      Version of Record online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201427

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      Manganese ferrite-decorated graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared by a simple mini-emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. Such a process involves hydrophobic manganese ferrite nanocrystals and oleylamine-modified graphene oxide. The as-synthesized water soluble magnetic nanocomposites still retain the original manganese ferrite superparamagnetic properties, and therefore the composite is suitable for various biomedical applications.

    5. Negatively Charged Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit Alzheimer's Amyloid-β Fibrillization, Induce Fibril Dissociation, and Mitigate Neurotoxicity (pages 3631–3639)

      Yi-Hung Liao, Yu-Jen Chang, Yuji Yoshiike, Yun-Chorng Chang and Yun-Ru Chen

      Version of Record online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201068

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      Negatively charged bare and carboxyl-conjugated gold nanoparticles, but not positively charged amine-conjugated gold nanoparticles, inhibit Alzheimer's amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrillization. The negatively charged gold nanoparticles induce formation of spherical oligomers and short fibrils, whereas the amine- conjugated gold nanoparticles do not influence Aβ fibril morphology. Addition of negatively charged gold nanoparticles along with Aβ results in reduction of Aβ-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells.

    6. Nanoscale Magnetic Characterization of Tunneling Magnetoresistance Spin Valve Head by Electron Holography (pages 3640–3646)

      Hyun Soon Park, Kei Hirata, Keiichi Yanagisawa, Yoichi Ishida, Tsuyoshi Matsuda, Daisuke Shindo and Akira Tonomura

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201365

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      Nanostructured magnetic materials play an important role in increasing miniaturized devices. For the studies of their magnetic properties and behaviors, nanoscale imaging of magnetic field is indispensible. Here, using electron holography, the magnetization distribution of a TMR spin valve head of commercial design is investigated without and with a magnetic field applied. Characterized is the magnetic flux distribution in complex hetero-nanostructures by averaging the phase images and separating their component magnetic vectors and electric potentials.

    7. Silicon Nanocrystal OLEDs: Effect of Organic Capping Group on Performance (pages 3647–3654)

      Melanie L. Mastronardi, Eric J. Henderson, Daniel P. Puzzo, Yilu Chang, Zhi Bin Wang, Michael G. Helander, Junho Jeong, Nazir P. Kherani, Zhenghong Lu and Geoffrey A. Ozin

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201242

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      Highly luminescent, colloidally-stable silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) are incorporated into a visible wavelength organic light-emitting diode (OLED). Using allylbenzene capping ligands and size- selection methods, superior packing density, charge transport and photoluminescence absolute quantum yields are obtained for the ncSi active layer, paving the way for surface chemistry and size-selection methods to have a positive impact on the performance of ncSi optoelectronic devices.

    8. Lipid-PEG-Folate Encapsulated Nanoparticles with Aggregation Induced Emission Characteristics: Cellular Uptake Mechanism and Two-Photon Fluorescence Imaging (pages 3655–3663)

      Junlong Geng, Kai Li, Dan Ding, Xinhai Zhang, Wei Qin, Jianzhao Liu, Ben Zhong Tang and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200814

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      Folic acid functionalized two-photon absorbing nanoparticles with aggregation induced emission characteristics are fabricated in a one-step procedure using a mixture of lipid-PEG-folate and lipid-PEG as the matrix. The obtained fluorescent nanoparticles show good biocompatibility and a large two photon absorption cross-section with far-red/near infrared fluorescence signature, which is ideal for live cell and animal imaging.

    9. Vapor-Phase Hydrothermal Transformation of HTiOF3 Intermediates into {001} Faceted Anatase Single-Crystalline Nanosheets (pages 3664–3673)

      Porun Liu, Yun Wang, Haimin Zhang, Taicheng An, Huagui Yang, Zhiyong Tang, Weiping Cai and Huijun Zhao

      Version of Record online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200971

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      A one-pot hydrofluoric acid vapor-phase hydrothermal (HF-VPH) method is developed to directly grow anatase nanosheets with 98.2% exposed photocatalytically reactive {001} facets via a two-stage formation mechanism. The first stage produces HTiOF3 crystals (new intermediate) that are transformed into anatase sheets in the second stage. The unique reaction environment is used to control the growth of the nanosheets.

    10. One Step Synthesis of Gold-Loaded Radial Mesoporous Silica Nanospheres and Supported Lipid Bilayer Functionalization: Towards Bio-Multifunctional Sensors (pages 3674–3682)

      Remi Veneziano, Gaelle Derrien, Sisareuth Tan, Alain Brisson, Jean-Marie Devoisselle, Joel Chopineau and Clarence Charnay

      Version of Record online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200758

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      Gold functionalized radial mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Au-MsNP) are achieved by a one step procedure fully compatible with basic conditions required for the preparation of silica nanospheres. Au-MsNP particles are then coated with phospholipid bilayers in order to design an advanced biofunctional platform with the gold metallic nanoparticles responsible for a plasmonic activity relevant for biosensing.

    11. A New Approach to Assess Gold Nanoparticle Uptake by Mammalian Cells: Combining Optical Dark-Field and Transmission Electron Microscopy (pages 3683–3690)

      Christina Rosman, Sebastien Pierrat, Andreas Henkel, Marco Tarantola, David Schneider, Eva Sunnick, Andreas Janshoff and Carsten Sönnichsen

      Version of Record online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200853

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      Optical dark-field light microscopy (DF) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) offer the possibility to visualize gold nanoparticles inside cells. Herein, this viewable information is used to develop a technique for nanoparticle uptake quantification purely based on microscopy, which at the same time gives deeper insight into nanoparticle–cell interaction.

    12. Biotemplated Synthesis of Hollow Double-Layered Core/Shell Titania/Silica Nanotubes under Ambient Conditions (pages 3691–3697)

      Dong Li, Bijo Mathew and Chuanbin Mao

      Version of Record online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200421

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      Double-layered core/shell titania/silica nanotubes are fabricated using bacterial flagella as templates in aqueous solution under ambient conditions. The thickness of either the titania or silica layers is tunable by varying the concentration of the precursor solutions. After calcination, the inner titania layer is transformed into a nanocrystalline phase and dispersed close to the central tunnel of the nanotubes.

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