Small

Cover image for Vol. 8 Issue 7

April 10, 2012

Volume 8, Issue 7

Pages 953–961

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Multilayer Printing: Multifunctional Lipid Multilayer Stamping (Small 7/2012) (page 953)

      Omkar A. Nafday, Troy W. Lowry and Steven Lenhert

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290043

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image illustrates the process of lipid multilayer stamping, a scalable way to form nanostructured lipid multilayer arrays on surfaces. Different lipid mixtures are arrayed onto a topographically structured stamp, which is then used to transfer the lipids onto a surface. An important characteristic of this process is that it allows control of the lipid multilayer thickness between about 5 and 200 nm, which is a crucial size range for the optical and encapsulation properties necessary for applications in biological sensing and in vitro drug delivery systems. This method combines the lateral patterning capabilities and scalability of microcontact printing with the topographical control of nanoimprint lithography and the multimaterial integration aspects of dip-pen nanolithography to create nanostructured lipid multilayer arrays. For more information, please read the Full Paper “Multifunctional Lipid Multilayer Stamping” by S. Lenhert and co-workers on page 1021. Cover illustration by Kevin John.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Graphene: The Removal of Single Layers from Multi-layer Graphene by Low-Energy Electron Stimulation (Small 7/2012) (page 954)

      Jason D. Jones, Rakesh K. Shah, Guido F. Verbeck and Jose M. Perez

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290044

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The cover image illustrates the mechanism of removing single atomic layers from exfoliated multi-layer graphenes using electrons attracted from a cold remote He plasma. The electron-induced stimulation of basal plane carbon atoms followed by their dissociation results in the evenly distributed removal of carbon atoms, resulting in thinning. Blue, pink, and red spheres indicate carbon atoms from the bottom three atomic layers while yellow spheres indicate incident electrons originating from the plasma. Left and right columns correspond to false-color AFM images and their virtual atomic representations, respectively. This scalable process of reducing the number of layers for multi-layer graphenes may have significant applications for device fabrication processes where the thickness is critical–such as transparent conducting windows. For more information please read the Full Paper entitled “The Removal of Single Layers from Multi-layer Graphene by Low-Energy Electron Stimulation” by J. D. Jones, R. K. Shah, G. F. Verbeck, and J. M. Perez,* beginning on page 1066. The authors are grateful to Philip Ecton for his contribution to this cover image.

  3. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Masthead: (Small 7/2012)

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290045

  4. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Contents: (Small 7/2012) (pages 955–961)

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290042

  5. Concepts

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Air-Grid Surface Patterning Provided by Superhydrophobic Surfaces (pages 962–965)

      Li Chen, Gao Yang and Shutao Wang

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102345

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      With a little air, one can make a huge impact! Surface patterning is one of the most fundamental techniques in modern times. Recently air was employed as the separating barrier for surface patterning using superhydrophobic surfaces. This new concept has promising potential for flexible, high-throughput, and high-resolution micropatterning, and it is expected to further expand the applications of superhydrophobic surfaces.

  6. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Large-Area Vapor-Phase Growth and Characterization of MoS2 Atomic Layers on a SiO2 Substrate (pages 966–971)

      Yongjie Zhan, Zheng Liu, Sina Najmaei, Pulickel M. Ajayan and Jun Lou

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102654

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Atomic-layered MoS2 is synthesized directly on SiO2 substrates by a scalable chemical vapor deposition method. The large-scale synthesis of an atomic-layered semiconductor directly on a dielectric layer paves the way for many facile device fabrication possibilities, expanding the important family of useful mono- or few-layer materials that possess exceptional properties, such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN).

    2. Hierarchical Structural Nanopore Arrays Fabricated by Pre-patterning Aluminum using Nanosphere Lithography (pages 972–976)

      Xinnan Wang, Shuping Xu, Ming Cong, Haibo Li, Yuejiao Gu and Weiqing Xu

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102274

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A highly ordered and hierarchical structural nanopore array is fabricated via anodizing a pre-patterned aluminum foil under an optimized voltage. A pre-patterned hexagonal nanoindentation array on an aluminum substrate is prepared via the nanosphere lithography method. This pattern leads to an elaborate nanochannel structure with seven nanopores in each nanoindentation after anodization treatment. The structure achieved in our study is new, interesting, and likely to be applied in photonic devices.

    3. DNA-Length-Dependent Fluorescence Signaling on Graphene Oxide Surface (pages 977–983)

      Po-Jung Jimmy Huang and Juewen Liu

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102156

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fluorescence energy transfer to graphene oxide is studied using covalently linked DNA probes ranging from 4 to 70 base pairs. The characteristic distance and mechanism of energy transfer are reported.

    4. Design and Self-Assembly of a Leucine-Enkephalin Analogue in Different Nanostructures: Application of Nanovesicles (pages 984–990)

      Pradyot Koley, Anindita Gayen, Michael G. B. Drew, Chaitali Mukhopadhyay and Animesh Pramanik

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101685

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An opioid (leucine-enkephalin) conformational analogue forms diverse nanostructures such as vesicles, tubes, and organogels through self-assembly. The nanovesicles encapsulate the natural hydrophobic drug curcumin and allow the controlled release through cation-generated porogens in membrane mimetic solvent.

    5. Patterned Close-Packed Nanoparticle Arrays with Controllable Dimensions and Precise Locations (pages 991–996)

      Jianhui Liao, Xinxing Li, Ying Wang, Chaoying Zhang, Jinling Sun, Chao Duan, Qing Chen and Lianmao Peng

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102038

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Patterned close-packed nanoparticle arrays are fabricated using lithography and self-assembly. Microcontact printing is used to selectively transfer ordered nanoparticle monolayers, which are self-assembled at the air/water interface, onto relief structures, which are defined lithographically. The morphology and position of the nanoparticle arrays are determined by the relief structures, while the internal order of the arrays is achieved through the self-assembly process and is maintained during the transfer.

    6. Preparation of Neutron-Activatable Holmium Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer Metastases (pages 997–1000)

      Anthony J. Di Pasqua, James E. Huckle, Jin-Ki Kim, Younjee Chung, Andrew Z. Wang, Michael Jay and Xiuling Lu

      Version of Record online: 2 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102488

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanoparticles containing stable holmium (165Ho) are prepared by nanotemplate engineering and subsequently irradiated in a neutron flux to yield 166Ho, a beta-emitting radiotherapeutic isotope. After intraperitoneal injection to mice bearing SKOV-3 ovarian tumors, significant tumor accumulation of the 166Ho-nanoparticles is observed by SPECT imaging indicating the potential of these neutron activatable nanoparticles for internal radiation therapy of ovarian cancer metastases.

    7. Entrapment of Protein in Nanotubes Formed by a Nanochannel and Ion-Channel Hybrid Structure of Anodic Alumina (pages 1001–1005)

      Wei Chen, Bo Jin, Yu-Lin Hu, Yu Lu and Xing-Hua Xia

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102117

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The nanochannel (in a porous layer) and ion-channel (in a barrier layer) hybrid structure of anodic alumina is used as a protein-trapping device. The transmembrane potential drives the electromigration of the charged proteins (FITC-labeled) into the nanochannels, but electromigration across the barrier layer is impossible due to the size-exclusion effect. As a result, the proteins can be continuously trapped in the nanochannels.

    8. Graphene Sheets Stabilized on Genetically Engineered M13 Viral Templates as Conducting Frameworks for Hybrid Energy-Storage Materials (pages 1006–1011)

      Dahyun Oh, Xiangnan Dang, Hyunjung Yi, Mark A. Allen, Kang Xu, Yun Jung Lee and Angela M. Belcher

      Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102036

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Utilization of the material-specific peptide–substrate interactions of M13 virus broadens colloidal stability window of graphene. The homogeneous distribution of graphene is maintained in weak acids and increased ionic strengths by complexing with virus. This graphene/virus conducting template is utilized in the synthesis of energy-storage materials to increase the conductivity of the composite electrode. Successful formation of the hybrid biological template is demonstrated by the mineralization of bismuth oxyfluoride as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, with increased loading and improved electronic conductivity.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Gold Nanorods: High-Yield Assembly of Soluble and Stable Gold Nanorod Pairs for High-Temperature Plasmonics (Small 7/2012) (page 1012)

      Dhriti Nepal, Kyoungweon Park and Richard A. Vaia

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201290041

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Colloidal approaches to discrete plasmonic architectures offer numerous advantages with respect to lithography; however, scale-up, purity, and yield has been challenging. Reversibly controlling surface interactions throughout aqueous assembly affords methods that address these challenges. The false-color image illustrates the crude product of soluble, compositionally discrete Au nanorod (50 nm × 20 nm) assemblies. Their stability affords post-assembly processing–including separation of discrete structures (e.g., Au nanorod pairs)–and silica encapsulation, where the latter exhibits thermal stability in excess of 700 °C.

  8. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. High-Yield Assembly of Soluble and Stable Gold Nanorod Pairs for High-Temperature Plasmonics (pages 1013–1020)

      Dhriti Nepal, Kyoungweon Park and Richard A. Vaia

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102152

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Soluble, stable, and compositionally discrete gold nanorod dimers are synthesized in high-yield by inducing—then arresting—flocculation, using bifunctional NRs and reversible modulation of solvent quality to deplete and reassemble an electrostatic stabilization layer. The high solubility and stability of the assembly enable subsequent purification, chemical modification, and thermal stability of the plasmonic properties at temperatures in excess of 700 °C.

    2. Multifunctional Lipid Multilayer Stamping (pages 1021–1028)

      Omkar A. Nafday, Troy W. Lowry and Steven Lenhert

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102096

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Nanostructured lipid multilayers are formed by a process that combines the lateral patterning capabilities and scalability of microcontact printing with the topographical control of nanoimprint lithography, and the multimaterial integration aspects of dip-pen nanolithography. This method is scalable and able to make functional optical nanostructures out of lipids that cannot currently be made by other methods.

    3. Comparing Intracellular Stability and Targeting of Sulfobetaine Quantum Dots with Other Surface Chemistries in Live Cells (pages 1029–1037)

      Eleonora Muro, Alexandra Fragola, Thomas Pons, Nicolas Lequeux, Andriani Ioannou, Paris Skourides and Benoit Dubertret

      Version of Record online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101787

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Quantum dots (QDs) solubilized with the zwitterionic ligand dihydrolipoic acid-sulfobetaine present excellent in vivo stability when introduced into cultured cells and embryos. This intracellular stability is much higher than with other QD surface chemistries. When conjugated to streptavidin, these zwitterionic QDs can label an intracellular target with great specificity, higher than commercial streptavidin QDs.

    4. A Strong Electronic Coupling between Graphene Nanosheets and Layered Titanate Nanoplates: A Soft-Chemical Route to Highly Porous Nanocomposites with Improved Photocatalytic Activity (pages 1038–1048)

      In Young Kim, Jang Mee Lee, Tae Woo Kim, Hyo Na Kim, Hyoung-il Kim, Wonyong Choi and Seong-Ju Hwang

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101703

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Strongly coupled nanocomposites of layered titanate and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) are synthesized by self-assembly involving RGO nanosheets and TiO2 nanosols and the following phase transformation of titania. A strong electronic coupling between the two nanospecies remarkably enhances visible light absorption. The hybridization with RGO improves the photocatalytic activity of the layered titanate for the visible-induced generation of photocurrent and the photodegradation of organic molecules.

  9. Communication

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Influence of the Shape of Nanostructured Metal Surfaces on Adsorption of Single Peptide Molecules in Aqueous Solution (pages 1049–1059)

      Jie Feng, Joseph M. Slocik, Mehmet Sarikaya, Rajesh R. Naik, Barry L. Farmer and Hendrik Heinz

      Version of Record online: 10 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102066

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Peptide selection by shaped metal surfaces is shown to be controlled by the size of surface features and the pattern of epitaxial sites. This relationship is described by the surface potential and facilitates the design of attractive peptide sequences for a given surface topography using computational approaches.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. Low-Field Magnetoresistance Effect in Core–Shell Structured La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 Nanoparticles (pages 1060–1065)

      Yang Wang and Hong Jin Fan

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102070

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Core–shell structured La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 nanoparticles are synthesized for the first time. The natural noncrystalline shell serves as a good spin-polarized tunneling barrier. Such a structure provides an effective approach for improvement of the low-field magnetoresistance (MR) effect. Compared with the La0.7Sr0.3CoO3 bulk and non-core–shell nanoparticles, the core–shell nanoparticles exhibit enhanced MR.

    2. The Removal of Single Layers from Multi-layer Graphene by Low-Energy Electron Stimulation (pages 1066–1072)

      Jason D. Jones, Rakesh K. Shah, Guido F. Verbeck and Jose M. Perez

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102350

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The removal of single atomic layers from multi-layer graphene by electron bombardment from a cold He plasma is reported. The evenly distributed removal of carbon atoms is proposed to occur due to electron excitation followed by the dissociation of atoms from the graphene-basal plane. This simple technique could be used as a novel approach for the patterned fabrication of thin-film transparent conducting electrodes from multi-layer graphenes.

    3. Tuning Electron Transport in Graphene-Based Field-Effect Devices using Block Co-polymers (pages 1073–1080)

      Shirui Guo, Maziar Ghazinejad, Xiangdong Qin, Huaxing Sun, Wei Wang, Francisco Zaera, Mihrimah Ozkan and Cengiz S. Ozkan

      Version of Record online: 14 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101611

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      By employing spatially controlled plasma-assisted CF4 doping, control of the Dirac point shift of a graphene-based field-effect transistor (GFET) covered with a polycrystalline PS-P4VP block co-polymer (BCP) [poly(styrene-b-4-vinylpyridine)] having a cylindrical morphology is possible. By changing the chemical component of the microdomain (P4VP) and the major domain (PS) with the CF4 plasma technique, the doping effect is demonstrated.

    4. Intracellular Protein Delivery and Gene Transfection by Electroporation Using a Microneedle Electrode Array (pages 1081–1091)

      Seong-O Choi, Yeu-Chun Kim, Jeong Woo Lee, Jung-Hwan Park, Mark R. Prausnitz and Mark G. Allen

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101747

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A microneedle electrode array is designed for targeted treatment of skin and other tissue surfaces by electroporation. Electrical functionality on microneedles is realized by a metal-transfer micromolding method. The microneedle electrode array is able to transport macromolecules, such as plasmid DNA, into human prostate cancer cells by electroporation at relatively low voltages.

    5. Synthesis of Monodisperse, Covalently Cross-Linked, Degradable “Smart” Microgels Using Microfluidics (pages 1092–1098)

      Leah R. B. Kesselman, Siawash Shinwary, P. Ravi Selvaganapathy and Todd Hoare

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201102113

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Microgels with “smart”, environmentally responsive swelling properties are synthesized using a novel microfluidics chip to simultaneously mix and emulsify hydrazide and aldehyde-functionalized carbohydrates to form a hydrazone-cross-linked microgel network. The device can continuously generate microgels over at least 30 h with uniform sizes and homogeneous internal morphologies.

    6. Magnetic-Nanoparticle-Doped Carbogenic Nanocomposite: An Effective Magnetic Resonance/Fluorescence Multimodal Imaging Probe (pages 1099–1109)

      Sachchidanand Srivastava, Rishi Awasthi, Deepak Tripathi, Mohit K. Rai, Vikas Agarwal, Vinita Agrawal, Namdeo S. Gajbhiye and Rakesh K. Gupta

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101863

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      An (iron oxide)-doped carbogenic nanocomposite (IO-CNC) has wavelength-tunable fluorescence properties and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. The material shows no apparent cytotoxicity and is biocompatible. In vivo magnetic resonance (MR) studies show both T1 and T2* contrast behavior of the nanocomposite. Fluorescence imaging indicates selective uptake of IO-CNC by macrophages in spleen.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Magnetic-Nanoparticle-Doped Carbogenic Nanocomposite: An Effective Magnetic Resonance/Fluorescence Multimodal Imaging Probe

      Vol. 8, Issue 7, 961, Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012

    7. Exfoliation and Reassembly of Cobalt Oxide Nanosheets into a Reversible Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (pages 1110–1116)

      Owen C. Compton, Ali Abouimrane, Zhi An, Marc J. Palmeri, L. Catherine Brinson, Khalil Amine and SonBinh T. Nguyen

      Version of Record online: 8 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201101131

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      HCoO2 powder is successfully exfoliated in water to yield solution-processable aqueous dispersions of [CoO2] nanosheets, which are reassembled into self-supporting thin films. Ion exchange with lithium generates Li1-x Hx CoO2 thin films that can be used as reversible cathodes with excellent cyclability and discharge capacities approaching that of low-temperature-prepared LiCoO2.

  11. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Masthead
    5. Contents
    6. Concepts
    7. Communications
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Full Papers
    10. Communication
    11. Full Papers
    12. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Magnetic-Nanoparticle-Doped Carbogenic Nanocomposite: An Effective Magnetic Resonance/Fluorescence Multimodal Imaging Probe (page 961)

      Sachchidanand Srivastava, Rishi Awasthi, Deepak Tripathi, Mohit K. Rai, Vikas Agarwal, Vinita Agrawal, Namdeo S. Gajbhiye and Rakesh K. Gupta

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200447

      This article corrects:

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