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Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 1

January 14, 2013

Volume 9, Issue 1

Pages 1–160

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Paper
    12. Communication
    13. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Nanotopological Surfaces: Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces for Study of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity (Small 1/2013) (page 1)

      Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun and Jianping Fu

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370001

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      The cover shows a scanning electron microscopy image of adhesive cells on a nanotopographic surface. Nanoscale roughness can be precisely controlled and spatially patterned on glass surfaces with a microfabrication method using photolithography and reactive ion etching. This technique, described on page 81, is used by J. Fu and co-workers to understand adhesion-dependent cell mechanosensitivity to nanotopological cues. Nanoscale topological features provide a potent regulatory signal over a diverse range of NIH/3T3 fibroblast behaviors, including cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The topological sensing of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts includes feedback regulation and mechanical-biochemical integration.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Paper
    12. Communication
    13. Full Papers
    1. Graphene Foams: Superhydrophobic Graphene Foams (Small 1/2013) (page 2)

      Eklavya Singh, Zongping Chen, Farzad Houshmand, Wencai Ren, Yoav Peles, Hui-Ming Cheng and Nikhil Koratkar

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370002

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      A water droplet impacting a super-hydrophobic graphene foam surface spreads into a pancake shape, then retracts and fully rebounds off the surface. In spite of its microporous structure there is no indication of any significant droplet pinning or penetration into the graphene foam during the droplet impact. Such superhydrophobic graphene foams, as described by H.-M. Cheng, N. Koratkar, and co-workers on page 75, show potential in a variety of applications ranging from anti-sticking and self-cleaning to anti-corrosion and low-friction coatings.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
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    11. Full Paper
    12. Communication
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    1. Nanofluidics: Convective Delivery of Electroactive Species to Annular Nanoband Electrodes Embedded in Nanocapillary-Array Membranes (Small 1/2013) (page 164)

      Larry R. Gibson II, Sean P. Branagan and Paul W. Bohn

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370003

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      The image illustrates the electrochemical conversion of an electroactive species (red to green) within a single cylindrical nanochannel. In this work, a small electrical voltage is applied between a pair of annular nanoband electrodes, which drives both the electrochemical reaction and electro-osmotic flow. This tight coupling of reactivity and the convective flow rate significantly enhances the mass transportlimited electrochemical current. P. W. Bohn and co-workers demonstrate on page 90 that an array containing several hundred of these nanoreactors creates a unique high-throughput device that can outperform a comparable microband electrode/microchannel structure.

  4. Masthead

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    12. Communication
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    1. Masthead: (Small 1/2013)

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370004

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Paper
    12. Communication
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    1. Contents: (Small 1/2013) (pages 3–8)

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370005

  6. Reviews

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    9. Communications
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    12. Communication
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    1. Microfluidics for Manipulating Cells (pages 9–21)

      Xuan Mu, Wenfu Zheng, Jiashu Sun, Wei Zhang and Xingyu Jiang

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200996

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      Microfluidics possesses scale effects and other attractive properties, demonstrating great advantages in manipulating and analyzing cells. It demonstrates huge capability and potential to expedite both fundamental biology studies and clinical applications. This review presents current achievements and challenges as well as future directions, with focus on cell and microenvironment patterning, cell screening, and single-cell analysis.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Corrigendum: Microfluidics for Manipulating Cells

      Vol. 9, Issue 7, 969, Article first published online: 2 APR 2013

    2. Nitric Oxide Donors for Cardiovascular Implant Applications (pages 22–35)

      Noora Naghavi, Achala de Mel, Omid Sadeghi Alavijeh, Brian G. Cousins and Alexander M. Seifalian

      Article first published online: 8 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200458

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      Small-diameter bypass grafts occlude in the absence of NO, resulting in platelet adhesion, smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and migration from the site of anastomosis, causing repeat episodes of thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia leading to graft failure. The presence of NO-eluting micro- or nanoparticles within the vascular graft provides an environment similar to the natural vessel by inhibiting thrombus formation and SMC proliferation to prevent graft failure.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Paper
    12. Communication
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    1. TiO2 Nanotubes: Selective Removal of the Outer Shells of Anodic TiO2 Nanotubes (Small 1/2013) (page 36)

      Hui Li, Jian-Wen Cheng, Shiwei Shu, Jie Zhang, Lingxia Zheng, Chun Kwan Tsang, Hua Cheng, Fengxia Liang, Shuit-Tong Lee and Yang Yang Li

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370006

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      The image shows a facile electrochemical method described in detail on page 37 by Y. Y. Li and co-workers. The method enables selective removal of the outer walls of anodic TiO2 nanotubes by leaving the as-anodized nanotubes in the same electrolyte and applying an electric field parallel to the anodic film for several minutes. The betterseparated single-walled TiO2 nanotubes thus obtained show significantly improved photocatalytic efficiency compared with their non-etched counterparts.

  8. Communications

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    1. Selective Removal of the Outer Shells of Anodic TiO2 Nanotubes (pages 37–44)

      Hui Li, Jian-Wen Cheng, Shiwei Shu, Jie Zhang, Lingxia Zheng, Chun Kwan Tsang, Hua Cheng, Fengxia Liang, Shuit-Tong Lee and Yang Yang Li

      Article first published online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201874

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      A facile electrochemical method to selectively remove the outer walls of anodic TiO2 nanotubes by leaving the as-anodized nanotubes in the same electrolyte and applying an electric field parallel to the anodic film for several minutes is reported. The better-separated single-walled TiO2 nanotubes thus obtained show significantly improved photocatalytic efficiency compared with their non-etched counterparts.

    2. Large-Area, Electronically Monodisperse, Aligned Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Thin Films Fabricated by Evaporation-Driven Self-Assembly (pages 45–51)

      Tejas A. Shastry, Jung-Woo T. Seo, Josue J. Lopez, Heather N. Arnold, Jacob Z. Kelter, Vinod K. Sangwan, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Tobin J. Marks and Mark C. Hersam

      Article first published online: 17 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201398

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      By varying the evaporation conditions and the nanotube and surfactant concentrations, large-area, aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films are fabricated from electronically monodisperse SWCNT solutions by evaporation-driven self-assembly with precise control over the thin film growth geometry. Tunability is possible from 0.5 μm stripes to continuous thin films. The resulting SWCNT thin films possess highly anisotropic electrical and optical properties that are well suited for transparent conductor applications.

    3. In Situ Monitoring Alzheimer's Disease β-Amyloid Aggregation and Screening of Aβ Inhibitors Using a Perylene Probe (pages 52–55)

      Meng Li, Chuanqi Zhao, Xinjian Yang, Jinsong Ren, Can Xu and Xiaogang Qu

      Article first published online: 14 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201543

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      A cationic perylene tetracarboxylic acid diimide derivative (1) is employed as a probe for in situ monitoring of Aβ aggregation and screening Aβ inhibitors. The assay is based on the fluorescence change through the aggregation of compound 1 following Aβ assembly. Importantly, this probe, compared with the well known amyloid-staining compound thioflavin T (ThT), is more sensitive to Aβ oligomer, which is highly toxic and plays a crucial role in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    4. Harnessing Thermal Expansion Mismatch to Form Hollow Nanoparticles (pages 56–60)

      Ilan Jen-La Plante and Taleb Mokari

      Article first published online: 2 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202471

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      Nano popcorn: a new formation mechanism for the synthesis of hollow metal oxide nanoparticles through a melt fracture mechanism. The hollow nanoparticles are formed via brittle fracture following the generation of tensile stresses arising due to liquid-phase thermal expansion of a low melting point core metal. The progress of this physical process can be monitored using in situ transmission electron microscopy for a model system of indium/indium oxide.

    5. Simple Photosystem II Water Oxidation Centre Analogues in Visible Light Oxygen and H+ Generation (pages 61–66)

      Yi-Yeoun Kim, David Williams, Fiona C. Meldrum and Dominic Walsh

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201451

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      Calcium manganese oxide nanoparticles for application in water oxidation are synthesized by combination with a carboxylated biopolymer stabilizing agent to form very simple but effective analogues of the photosynthetic PSII oxygen evolving complex. The relative efficiency of these materials for production of O2 and protons under visible light-promoted reactions is evaluated and prolonged reaction lifetimes are observed.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Paper
    12. Communication
    13. Full Papers
    1. Nanoprisms: Gold Nanoprisms as Optoacoustic Signal Nanoamplifiers for In Vivo Bioimaging of Gastrointestinal Cancers (Small 1/2013) (page 67)

      Chenchen Bao, Nicolas Beziere, Pablo del Pino, Beatriz Pelaz, Giovani Estrada, Furong Tian, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Jesus M. de la Fuente and Daxiang Cui

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370007

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      On page 68, PEGylated gold nanoprisms are designed and prepared by J. M. de la Fuente, D. Cui, and co-workers, with the aim to study the feasibility of using them as a novel contrast agent for the hybrid technique of optoacoustic imaging. The nanoprisms are imaged at different scales using different imaging modalities. They are confirmed as biocompatible, and selected colon cancer HT-29 cells are used as research targets. Shown here is an in silico electron tomographic reconstruction of such gold nanostructures, which show promise for application in biomedical imaging, drug delivery, and photothermal therapy.

  10. Full Paper

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    1. Gold Nanoprisms as Optoacoustic Signal Nanoamplifiers for In Vivo Bioimaging of Gastrointestinal Cancers (pages 68–74)

      Chenchen Bao, Nicolas Beziere, Pablo del Pino, Beatriz Pelaz, Giovani Estrada, Furong Tian, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Jesus M. de la Fuente and Daxiang Cui

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201779

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      After excitation by light, a photoabsorber can emit ultrasound waves, which are in turn detected by a sound transducer. In this study, selected colon cancer HT-29 cells are research targets. PEGylated gold nanoprisms are designed and prepared with the aim to study the feasibility of using them as a novel contrast agent for the hybrid technique of optoacoustic imaging.

  11. Communication

    1. Top of page
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    12. Communication
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    1. Superhydrophobic Graphene Foams (pages 75–80)

      Eklavya Singh, Zongping Chen, Farzad Houshmand, Wencai Ren, Yoav Peles, Hui-Ming Cheng and Nikhil Koratkar

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201176

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      A new class of water-repellant graphene foam structure displaying stable superhydrophobic behavior under both static as well as dynamic conditions is presented. The high speed camera image shows a water droplet impacting and successfully rebounding off the graphene foam surface.

  12. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Reviews
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Paper
    12. Communication
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    1. Microfabricated Nanotopological Surfaces for Study of Adhesion-Dependent Cell Mechanosensitivity (pages 81–89)

      Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Sun and Jianping Fu

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201098

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      A simple method for precise control and spatial patterning of local nanoroughness on glass surfaces is reported. Nanoroughness is a potent physical signal in the cell microenvironment to regulate cell functions, including cell morphology, adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Nanotopographic sensing by cells might involve integrin-mediated adhesion signaling and cytoskeletal contractility.

    2. Convective Delivery of Electroactive Species to Annular Nanoband Electrodes Embedded in Nanocapillary-Array Membranes (pages 90–97)

      Larry R. Gibson II, Sean P. Branagan and Paul W. Bohn

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200237

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      Enhanced molecular transport is tightly coupled, via electroosmotic flow, to an electron-transfer reaction within an array of cylindrical nanopores that provide high-efficiency electrochemical conversions. Electro-osmosis is established between an embedded annular nanoband electrode (EANE) and a quasi-reference electrode (QRE).

    3. Flexible CoAl LDH@PEDOT Core/Shell Nanoplatelet Array for High-Performance Energy Storage (pages 98–106)

      Jingbin Han, Yibo Dou, Jingwen Zhao, Min Wei, David G. Evans and Xue Duan

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201336

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      A CoAl-layered double hydroxide (LDH)@poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) core/shell nanoplatelet array (NPA) is fabricated on a flexible substrate. The array exhibits greatly enhanced pseudocapacitative behavior, including high specific capacitance and energy density, a good rate capability, and remarkable cycling performance.

    4. Light-Governed Capillary Flow in Microfluidic Systems (pages 107–114)

      Li Jiang and David Erickson

      Article first published online: 27 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201778

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      Light-governed flow actuation and valving is achieved through UV grafting of thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) on a mixed carbon black-polydimethylsiloxane surface. By projecting light onto the chip, switchable hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions are created that guide flow. This technique could, in principle, be operated by sunlight, providing both the simple architecture and advanced functionality needed in point-of-care devices for resource-limited environments.

    5. Carbon Nanotubes as Plant Growth Regulators: Effects on Tomato Growth, Reproductive System, and Soil Microbial Community (pages 115–123)

      Mariya V. Khodakovskaya, Bong-Soo Kim, Jong Nam Kim, Mohammad Alimohammadi, Enkeleda Dervishi, Thikra Mustafa and Carl E. Cernigla

      Article first published online: 28 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201225

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      Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can affect plant phenotype. Tomato plants grown on soil supplemented with CNTs produce two times more flowers and fruit than plants grown in regular soil. Comparative metagenomic analysis of microbial communities of CNT-treated soils reveals that the diversity and richness of microbial communities is not affected by CNTs, while the abundance of each bacterial group is influenced by treatment of CNTs.

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      Polymersomes Containing a Hydrogel Network for High Stability and Controlled Release (pages 124–131)

      Shin-Hyun Kim, Jin Woong Kim, Do-Hoon Kim, Sang-Hoon Han and David A. Weitz

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201709

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      Polymersomes containing hydrogel cores are prepared by a microfluidic double-emulsion approach. The hydrogel network within the polymersomes facilitates sustained release of the encapsulated materials and increases the stability of the polymersomes through formation of a scaffold to support the bilayer. In addition, this approach provides a facile method to make monodisperse hydrogel particles directly dispersed in water.

    7. Effect of the Nanodiamond Host on a Nitrogen-Vacancy Color-Centre Emission State (pages 132–139)

      Carlo Bradac, Torsten Gaebel, Chris. I. Pakes, Jana M. Say, Andrei V. Zvyagin and James R. Rabeau

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201200574

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      The emission state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in nanodiamonds (NDs) can be manipulated by controlling the size, the surface moieties of the crystal host, and the bandgap structure of the adjacent dielectric environment. These factors also explain the observed luminescence intermittency (“blinking”) of the NV centre in terms of tunnelling of its electron(s) to acceptor site(s) located in the substrate.

    8. Synthesis of Few-Layer MoS2 Nanosheet-Coated TiO2 Nanobelt Heterostructures for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities (pages 140–147)

      Weijia Zhou, Zongyou Yin, Yaping Du, Xiao Huang, Zhiyuan Zeng, Zhanxi Fan, Hong Liu, Jiyang Wang and Hua Zhang

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201161

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      MoS2 nanosheet-coated TiO2 nanobelt heterostructures with a 3D hierarchical configuration are prepared via a hydrothermal reaction. TiO2 nanobelts as the synthetic template inhibit the growth of MoS2 crystals, resulting in few-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The as-prepared TiO2@MoS2 heterostructure shows high photocatalytic hydrogen production, a strong adsorption ability, and a high performance in photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes.

    9. Robust and Aligned Carbon Nanotube/Titania Core/Shell Films for Flexible TCO-Free Photoelectrodes (pages 148–155)

      Jiangtao Di, Zhenzhong Yong, Zhaojun Yao, Xiangyang Liu, Xiaojuan Shen, Baoquan Sun, Zhigang Zhao, Huixin He and Qingwen Li

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201168

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      A flexible and conducting heterostructure film with aligned carbon nanotubes wrapped in a continuous TiO2 coating is reported. Enhanced photoconversion efficiency is observed in the film compared with TiO2 nanoparticle electrodes fabricated on transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films. The film shows high structural stability and can generate a stable photocurrent even after being bent hundreds of times.

    10. Electrical Detection of Spin Precession in Freely Suspended Graphene Spin Valves on Cross-Linked Poly(methyl methacrylate) (pages 156–160)

      Ingmar Neumann, Joris Van de Vondel, German Bridoux, Marius V. Costache, Francesc Alzina, Clivia M. Sotomayor Torres and Sergio O. Valenzuela

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201194

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      Electrical detection of spin precession in freely suspended graphene spin valves. The devices are fabricated with a single electron-beam-resist poly(methyl methacrylate) process that minimizes both the fabrication steps and the number of (aggressive) chemicals used, reducing contamination and increasing the yield of the high-quality devices. The method is compatible with almost any contacting material. As-grown devices can present mobilities exceeding 104 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature.

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