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Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 13

July 8, 2013

Volume 9, Issue 13

Pages 2201–2367

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
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      Microfabrication: Simultaneous Microfabrication and Tuning of the Permselective Properties in Microporous Polymers Using X-ray Lithography (Small 13/2013) (page 2201)

      Sang Hoon Han, Cara M. Doherty, Benedetta Marmiroli, Hye Jin Jo, Dario Buso, Alessandro Patelli, Piero Schiavuta, Plinio Innocenzi, Young Moo Lee, Aaron W. Thornton, Anita J. Hill and Paolo Falcaro

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370072

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      Combining exceptional porous polymers with patterning techniques would enable the fabrication of a new generation of devices with superior molecular size-selective features. On page 2277, S. H. Han, P. Falcaro, and co-workers propose a microfabrication protocol based on X-ray lithography. Remarkably, the irradiation process enhances the perm-selective properties. With this protocol, it is possible to apply thermally rearranged polymer to deliver gas molecules, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, within miniaturized devices.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
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      Nanostructures: Hierarchical Metal/Semiconductor Nanostructure for Efficient Water Splitting (Small 13/2013) (page 2202)

      Pradheep Thiyagarajan, Hyo-Jin Ahn, Jung-Soo Lee, Jong-Chul Yoon and Ji-Hyun Jang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370073

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      Hierarchical ZnO nanostructures decorated with gold nanopariticles are fabricated by J.-H. Jang and co-workers. The nanostructures are used for solar-based water splitting. The results shown on page 2341 denote the possibility of enhancing light absorption properties via an efficient photon-trapping effect. A combination of properly designed nanostructures and surface plasmon resonance improves the performance of photocatalytic hydrogen generation.

  3. Back Cover

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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
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      Biomineralization: Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Biomimetic Mineralo-Protein Nanoparticles Formed Spontaneously in Biological Fluids (Small 13/2013) (page 2372)

      Hsin-Hsin Peng, Cheng-Yeu Wu, David Young, Jan Martel, Andrew Young, David M. Ojcius, Yu-Hsiu Lee and John D. Young

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370074

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      The properties of biological mineralo-protein nanoparticles that form spontaneously in human body fluids are described by J. D. Young and co-workers on page 2297. Concentrations of serum and precipitating ions near physiological levels produce small biomimetic nanoparticles that grow steadily in size but retain a similar protein profile irrespective of size. These biological mineral particles are phagocytosed by immune cells and they activate pro-inflammatory responses in a size-dependent manner.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Small 13/2013)

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370075

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
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      Contents: (Small 13/2013) (pages 2203–2209)

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370076

  6. Review

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    7. Review
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    1. Functional DNA Nanostructures for Photonic and Biomedical Applications (pages 2210–2222)

      Zhen-Gang Wang, Chen Song and Baoquan Ding

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300141

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      DNA nanostructures, especially DNA origami, are intriguing due to their structral programmability, precise spatial addressability, biocompatibility, etc. They are not only employed to build interesting plasmonic nanoarchitectures, but also act as drug vehicles for cancer therapy, and serve as visualized sensors. The power of DNA nanostructures may result in unprecedented improvements in the fields of nanophotonics and nanomedicine.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
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      Yolk-Shell Materials: One-Pot Synthesis of Yolk–Shell Materials with Single, Binary, Ternary, Quaternary, and Quinary Systems (Small 13/2013) (page 2223)

      Young Jun Hong, Mun Yeong Son, Byung Kyu Park and Yun Chan Kang

      Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370077

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      Yolk-shell materials with single binary, ternary, quaternary, and quinary systems are systematically synthesized on page 2224 using scalable spray pyrolysis. This process is highly efficient, allows high throughput, comprises a single-step reaction, and is a continuous process that yields a homogeneous composition and enables facile control of the mean size. The components of the yolk–shell powders are well distributed in the shells and cores, even in the quinary system. The formation of intermediate carbon–metal-oxide composite powders with spherical shapes and dense structures inside the hot-wall reactor is a key step.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. One-Pot Synthesis of Yolk–Shell Materials with Single, Binary, Ternary, Quaternary, and Quinary Systems (pages 2224–2227)

      Young Jun Hong, Mun Yeong Son, Byung Kyu Park and Yun Chan Kang

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202840

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      A facile, one-pot method of systematically synthesizing yolk–shell materials with complex compositions is proposed. The spray pyrolysis process for obtaining yolk–shell materials is advantageous because it is highly efficient, allows high throughput, comprises a single-step reaction, and is a continuous process that yields homogeneous composition and enables facile control of the mean size.

    2. Heated Proteins are Still Active in a Functionalized Nanoporous Support (pages 2228–2232)

      Baowei Chen, Wen Qi, Xiaolin Li, Chenghong Lei and Jun Liu

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202409

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      Even under heated conditions, the nearly native conformation and activity of a protein can be hoarded in a functionalized nanoporous support via non-covalent interaction. Surprisingly, the protein released from the heated protein–nanoporous composite can maintain its nearly native conformation and activity, while free proteins are permanently denatured under the same treatment.

    3. SnO2 Tube-in-Tube Nanostructures: Cu@C Nanocable Templated Synthesis and Their Mutual Interferences between Heavy Metal Ions Revealed by Stripping Voltammetry (pages 2233–2239)

      Xing Chen, Zhong-Gang Liu, Zhi-Qiang Zhao, Jin-Huai Liu and Xing-Jiu Huang

      Article first published online: 31 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202673

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      SnO2 tube-in-tube nanostructures are synthesized using Cu@C nanocables as effective sacrificial templates. It is revealed by stripping voltammetry that SnO2 tube-in-tube nanostructures show excellent performances in the determination of heavy metal ions, which might be related to the extraordinary adsorbing capacities of the hollow structure to metal ions, i.e., metal ions could diffuse into the interior of tubular structure.

    4. Ultraviolet Irradiation-Controlled Memory Effect in Graphene Field-Effect Transistors (pages 2240–2244)

      Jie Meng, Han-Chun Wu, Jing-Jing Chen, Fang Lin, Ya-Qing Bie, Igor V. Shvets, Da-Peng Yu and Zhi-Min Liao

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202947

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      Control of graphene memory devices using photons, via control of the charge-transfer process, is demonstrated by employing gate-voltage pulses to program/erase the memory elements. The hysteresis in the conductance-gate voltage-dependence of graphene field-effect transistors on a SiO2 substrate can be greatly enlarged by ultraviolet irradiation in both air and vacuum. An enhanced charge transfer between graphene and its surroundings, induced by ultraviolet illumination, is proposed.

    5. Production of High-Purity Single-Chirality Carbon Nanotube Hybrids by Selective Polymer Exchange (pages 2245–2249)

      Samuel D. Stranks, Anton M. R. Baker, Jack A. Alexander-Webber, Beate Dirks and Robin J. Nicholas

      Article first published online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202434

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      A scalable method to coat monochiral (7,5) semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes with a monolayer coating of a range of technologically useful polymers such as poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(9,9′-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) is presented. Optical spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements show that the semiconducting tube purity (>99%) obtained from the selective wrapping of nanotubes by polymers such as poly(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO) can be transferred to these other nanotube–polymer combinations by polymer exchange.

    6. Tunable and Broadband Plasmonic Absorption via Dispersible Nanoantennas with Sub-10 nm Gaps (pages 2250–2254)

      Bryan F. Mangelson, Daniel J. Park, Jessie C. Ku, Kyle D. Osberg, George C. Schatz and Chad A. Mirkin

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202787

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      Plasmonic nanoparticles have traditionally been associated with relatively narrow absorption profiles. But, for many of the most exciting potential applications for these particles, such as solar energy applications, broadband absorption is desirable. By utilizing on-wire lithography, nanostructures which absorb light through the visible and near-IR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum can be synthesized.

    7. Geometry-Induced Dislocations in Coaxial Heterostructural Nanotubes (pages 2255–2259)

      Aram Yoon, Jun Young Park, Jong-Myeong Jeon, Yigil Cho, Jun Beom Park, Gyu-Chul Yi, Kyu Hwan Oh, Heung Nam Han and Miyoung Kim

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202051

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      Highly localized dislocations in GaN/ZnO hetero-nanostructures are generated from the residual strain field by lattice mismatches at two interfaces: between the substrate and hetero-nanostructures, and between the ZnO core and GaN shell. The local strain field is measured using tranmission electron microscopy, and the relationship between the nanostructure morphology and the highly localized dislocations is analyzed by a finite element method.

    8. Gold Nanotip Array for Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Sensing and Spectroscopic Monitoring (pages 2260–2265)

      Yueyue Jiang, Fanben Meng, Dianpeng Qi, Pingqiang Cai, Zongyou Yin, Fangwei Shao, Hua Zhang, Freddy Boey and Xiaodong Chen

      Article first published online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202620

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      A gold nanotip array platform with a combination of ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing and spectroscopic monitoring capability is reported. Adenosine triphosphate is detected down to 1 pM according to the impedance changes in response to aptamer-specific binding. Furthermore, the local molecular information can be monitored at the individual plasmonic nanotips, and hence provide the capability for a better understanding of complex biological processes.

    9. Tailoring Colloidal Photonic Crystals with Wide Viewing Angles (pages 2266–2271)

      Hongcheng Gu, Yuanjin Zhao, Yao Cheng, Zhuoying Xie, Fei Rong, Jiaqi Li, Baoping Wang, Degang Fu and Zhongze Gu

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203179

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      Photonic crystal materials are developed from colloidal crystal fibers or beads. As the fibers have cylindrical symmetry, the fiber-composed PhCs show anisotropic angle independence. By contrast, the bead-composed PhCs display angle-independent structural colors because of the spherical symmetry of their bead elements.

    10. Single-Vesicle Patterning of Uniform, Giant Polymersomes into Microarrays (pages 2272–2276)

      Neha P. Kamat, Steven J. Henry, Daeyeon Lee and Daniel A. Hammer

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202627

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      Giant, cell-sized polymersomes are functionalized and patterned at the single vesicle level. Microfluidic methods are employed to generate uniform diameter vesicles with high loading efficiencies and microcontact printing is used to generate patterns of adhesive ligand. A simple sensory capability is demonstrated with the immobilized array of vesicles.

    11. Simultaneous Microfabrication and Tuning of the Permselective Properties in Microporous Polymers Using X-ray Lithography (pages 2277–2282)

      Sang Hoon Han, Cara M. Doherty, Benedetta Marmiroli, Hye Jin Jo, Dario Buso, Alessandro Patelli, Piero Schiavuta, Plinio Innocenzi, Young Moo Lee, Aaron W. Thornton, Anita J. Hill and Paolo Falcaro

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202735

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      Microchannels are fabricated using a photosensitive polymer to which microporosity is tuned with different X-ray doses. Using hard X-ray irradiation, the micropattern is positioned with various geometries in a multi-level, three-dimensional structure, while controlling the pore size and transport properties of small molecules. This highly reliable fabrication process has potential for use in microfluidic devices with enhanced transport properties through microchannels.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    1. Nonvolatile Analog Memory Transistor Based on Carbon Nanotubes and C60 Molecules (pages 2283–2287)

      Byungjin Cho, Kyunghyun Kim, Chia-Ling Chen, Alex Ming Shen, Quyen Truong and Yong Chen

      Article first published online: 6 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202593

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      A nonvolatile analog memory transistor is demonstrated by integrating C60 molecules as charge storage molecules in the transistor gate, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the transistor channel. The currents through the CNT channel can be tuned quantitatively and then preserved to analog values by controlling the number of electrons trapped in the C60 molecules.

    2. Tailor-Made Micro-Object Optical Sensor Based on Mesoporous Pellets for Visual Monitoring and Removal of Toxic Metal Ions from Aqueous Media (pages 2288–2296)

      Sherif A. El-Safty, M. A. Shenashen and A. Shahat

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202407

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      A simple, micro-object optical sensor is engineered based on mesoporous aluminosilica pellets with an adsorbed dressing receptor. This tailor-made optical sensor permits ultra-fast (≤60 s), specific, pH-dependent visualization and removal of ultra-trace concentrations (∼10−11 mol dm−3) from aqueous media. Pellet-based micro-object sensing devices can be expected to be important for use in portable and remote sensing systems, especially for household use, where instrumental methods are prohibitively expensive.

    3. Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Biomimetic Mineralo-Protein Nanoparticles Formed Spontaneously in Biological Fluids (pages 2297–2307)

      Hsin-Hsin Peng, Cheng-Yeu Wu, David Young, Jan Martel, Andrew Young, David M. Ojcius, Yu-Hsiu Lee and John D. Young

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202270

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      The properties of biological mineralo-protein nanoparticles that form spontaneously in human body fluids are described. Concentrations of serum and precipitating ions near physiological levels produce small biomimetic nanoparticles that grow steadily in size but that retain a similar protein profile irrespective of size. These biological mineral particles are phagocytosed by immune cells and they activate pro-inflammatory responses in a size-dependent manner.

    4. DNA-Directed Gold Nanodimers with Tunable Sizes and Interparticle Distances and Their Surface Plasmonic Properties (pages 2308–2315)

      Xiang Lan, Zhong Chen, Bi-Ju Liu, Bin Ren, Joel Henzie and Qiangbin Wang

      Article first published online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202503

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      Au nanodimers with tunable sizes and interparticle distances are prepared using a DNA self-assembly strategy through a one-step gel electrophoresis. The size- and distance-dependent plasmon coupling of ensembles of single, isolated dimers in solution are investigated experimentally and theoretically. A quantitative understanding of the intrinsic dependence of plasmon properties of metallic nanodimers on the size and interparticle distance will benefit future investigations and the exploitation of near-field plasmonic properties.

    5. Exploring the Interplay Between Ligand Derivatisation and Cation Type in the Assembly of Hybrid Polyoxometalate Mn-Andersons (pages 2316–2324)

      Mali H. Rosnes, Chiara Musumeci, Carine Yvon, Andrew Macdonell, Chullikkattil P. Pradeep, Camillo Sartorio, De-Liang Long, Bruno Pignataro and Leroy Cronin

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202510

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      A thorough investigation of nine hybrid Mn-Anderson polyoxometalate self-assembly architectures, both in crystal structures and on surfaces, is carried out. The clusters are obtained with various cations, which influence their self-assembly at interfaces, resulting in structures such as hexagonal nanocrystals, nanofibers, and other supramolecular forms. Using hybrid POMs as building blocks serves as a toolbox for future self-assembly investigations, where a series of variables can be tuned to provide well-defined complex structures.

    6. Continuous Coaxial Electrohydrodynamic Atomization System for Water-Stable Wrapping of Magnetic Nanoparticles (pages 2325–2330)

      Sang-Yoon Kim, Jaemoon Yang, Bongjune Kim, Jungmin Park, Jin-Suck Suh, Yong-Min Huh, Seungjoo Haam and Jungho Hwang

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201553

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      A cone-jet mode of electrospraying is applied in an electrohydrodynamic atomization system with coaxial nozzle for the continuous fabrication of water-stable magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). The magnetic resonance imaging potential of MNPs coated by polysorbate 80 is confirmed by in vivo imaging of a gastric cancer xenograft mouse model.

    7. Bifunctional Graphene/γ-Fe2O3 Hybrid Aerogels with Double Nanocrystalline Networks for Enzyme Immobilization (pages 2331–2340)

      Liang Chen, Bin Wei, Xuetong Zhang and Chun Li

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202923

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      Graphene/γ-Fe2O3 hybrid aerogels with conducting (favorable to electron transfer) and magnetic (favorable to product separation) bicontinuous networks are fabricated for the first time and used to immobilize β-glucuronidase for the biocatalytic transformation of glycyrrhizin into glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide or glycyrrhetinic acid, with high biocatalytic activity and definite repeatability.

    8. Hierarchical Metal/Semiconductor Nanostructure for Efficient Water Splitting (pages 2341–2347)

      Pradheep Thiyagarajan, Hyo-Jin Ahn, Jung-Soo Lee, Jong-Chul Yoon and Ji-Hyun Jang

      Article first published online: 6 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202756

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      A hierarchically patterned metal/semiconductor nanostructure is fabricated via interference lithography for plasmon-enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting in the visible region of light. Compared with unpatterned Au NPs/ZnO NWs, the hierarchically patterned structures demonstrate higher and wider absorption bands leading to increased surface enhanced Raman scattering and surface plasmon-enhanced water splitting.

    9. Tuning the Stability of Graphene Layers by Phthalocyanine-Based oPPV Oligomers Towards Photo- and Redoxactive Materials (pages 2348–2357)

      Linda Brinkhaus, Georgios Katsukis, Jenny Malig, Rubén D. Costa, Miguel Garcia-Iglesias, Purificación Vázquez, Tomás Torres and Dirk M. Guldi

      Article first published online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202427

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      Photoactive graphene hybrids: p-type oligo-para-phenylene vinylene zinc phthalocyanine oligomers exfoliate graphite, interact electronically with wet-chemically exfoliated graphite via charge transfer, and produce photocurrent upon illumination.

    10. Surface-Mediated Nucleic Acid Delivery by Lipoplexes Prepared in Microwell Arrays (pages 2358–2367)

      Yun Wu, Megan Cavanaugh Terp, Kwang Joo Kwak, Daniel Gallego-Perez, Serge P. Nana-Sinkam and L. James Lee

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202258

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      Uniform lipoplexes containing nucleic acids are prepared in a microwell array by discontinuous dewetting in a facile and well controlled manner. The microwell array-mediated delivery of lipoplexes containing nucleic acids is more efficient than a conventional transfection method, and thus significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy at much lower effective doses of therapeutic reagents. Microwell arrays are also a very flexible platform that can be used to deliver multifunctional lipoplexes for applications in theranostic medicine.

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