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Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 15

August 12, 2013

Volume 9, Issue 15

Pages 2477–2648

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Nanovesicles: Vesicle-Mediated Growth of Tubular Branches and Centimeter-Long Microtubes from a Single Molecule (Small 15/2013) (page 2477)

      Abdennour Abbas, Andrew Brimer, Limei Tian, D. André d'Avignon, Abdulrahman Shahul Hameed, Jagadese J. Vittal and Srikanth Singamaneni

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370084

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The spontaneous and reversible assembly of a new class of non-amphiphilic vesicle based on p-aminophenyl disulfide in a water/ethanol mixture is reported by S. Singamaneni and co-workers. On page 2611, a real-time view of their hierarchical transition reveals the rapid growth of nanostructures into vesicles, and vesicle walk and fusion on the sides and tips of the branches, leading to the formation of centimeterlong microtubes. The process is initiated and maintained by the convergent effects of cooperative hydrogen bonding, self-complementary primary amine groups, and the molecular nature of the solutions.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Lab-on-Chip: Acute On-Chip HIV Detection Through Label-Free Electrical Sensing of Viral Nano-Lysate (Small 15/2013) (page 2478)

      Hadi Shafiee, Muntasir Jahangir, Fatih Inci, ShuQi Wang, Remington B. M. Willenbrecht, Francoise F. Giguel, Athe M. N. Tsibris, Daniel R. Kuritzkes and Utkan Demirci

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370085

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      On page 2553, U. Demirci and co-workers address the need for clinical HIV-I detection at the acute stage, where antibodies are present in very low concentrations. Their fast and extremely affordable portable diagnostic tool allows on-chip virus detection without the need for any labeling steps. Through impedance analysis, the device can sense the unique electrical signature of the viral nano-lysates. This means that the tool is also highly selective, could be easily extended for use in detecting other infectious diseases, and could even be adapted to detect multiple diseases at the same time.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      DNA Detection: A Molecular Beacon-Based Signal-Off Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Strategy for Highly Sensitive, Reproducible, and Multiplexed DNA Detection (Small 15/2013) (page 2652)

      Xinpan Wei, Shao Su, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiangxu Jiang, Yiling Zhong, Yuanyuan Su, Chunhai Fan, Shuit-Tong Lee and Yao He

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370086

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A molecular beacon-based signal-off SERS strategy is developed by Y. He and co-workers on page 2493, who employ stem–loop oligonucleotides as novel capture and reporter probes. This signal-off strategy exhibits excellent sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and adequate multiplexing capacity, opening up exciting opportunities towards practical SERS-relevant sensing applications. The cover image shows that DNA strands are readily detected via observing an effective signal switch from an ‘on’ (left) to an ‘off’ (right) state.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
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    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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      Masthead: (Small 15/2013)

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370087

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
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  6. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
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      Corrigendum: Free Radical Reactions in Two Dimensions: A Case Study on Photochlorination of Graphene (page 2485)

      L. Zhou, L. Zhou, M. Yang, D. Wu, L. Liao, K. Yan, Q. Xie, Z. Liu, H. Peng and Z. Liu

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201390002

      This article corrects:

      Free Radical Reactions in Two Dimensions: A Case Study on Photochlorination of Graphene

      Vol. 9, Issue 8, 1388–1396, Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2013

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Polymer Particles: Biomimetic Methodology to Produce Polymeric Multilayered Particles for Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications (Small 15/2013) (page 2486)

      Ana Catarina Lima, Catarina A. Custódio, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo and João F. Mano

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370089

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      Multicompartmentalized particles are envisioned to offer the simultaneous release of various bioactive agents with different kinetics and to be able to encapsulate cells in order to fulfill therapeutic demands. Inspired by the rolling of water droplets on lotus leafs, J. F. Mano and co-workers present a biomimetic methodology on page 2487 that is based on superhydrophobic surfaces in order to construct multilayered polymeric systems, adding sequential layers such that molecules or cells may be separately confined in compartments with high efficiency.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Biomimetic Methodology to Produce Polymeric Multilayered Particles for Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications (pages 2487–2492)

      Ana Catarina Lima, Catarina A. Custódio, Carmen Alvarez-Lorenzo and João F. Mano

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202147

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      The production of multi-compartmented particles for biomedical and biotechnological applications is challenging and the existing methods usually involve wet and aggressive conditions that compromise the encapsulation efficiency of bioactive agents and the viability of cells. Biomimetic superhydrophobic surfaces allow construction of concentric multilayered polymeric systems, adding sequential layers where molecules or cells may be separately confined in compartments with high efficiency.

    2. A Molecular Beacon-Based Signal-Off Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Strategy for Highly Sensitive, Reproducible, and Multiplexed DNA Detection (pages 2493–2499)

      Xinpan Wei, Shao Su, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiangxu Jiang, Yiling Zhong, Yuanyuan Su, Chunhai Fan, Shuit-Tong Lee and Yao He

      Version of Record online: 29 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202914

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      Stem-loop oligonucleotides tagged with organic dyes are employed as capture and reporter probes in a molecular beacon-based signal-off surface- enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) strategy. DNA strands are immobilized on a gold nanoparticle-decorated silicon nanowire array (AuNPs@SiNWAr). DNA with a concentration down to ≈10 fM is detected under irradiation from a low-power laser, which is better than or comparable to that detected by signal-on SERS methods. The signal-off strategy allows identification of single-base mismatches and detection of multiplexed DNA.

    3. A Simple Route to Prepare Monodisperse Au NP-Decorated, Dye-doped, Superparamagnetic Nanocomposites for Optical, MR, and CT Trimodal Imaging (pages 2500–2508)

      Wenjie Dong, Yongsheng Li, Dechao Niu, Zhi Ma, Xiaohang Liu, Jinlou Gu, Wenru Zhao, Yuanyi Zheng and Jianlin Shi

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202649

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      Monodisperse and uniform AuNP-decorated, dye-doped, superparamagnetic nanocomposites (Fe3O4@dye-hybrid@Au) are fabricated by using a simple method in which the Au NP formation and their attachment onto the core surface via S–Au covalent bonds proceeds almost simultaneously in a one-pot synthesis. The as-synthesized nanocomposites can simultaneously enhance the contrast effects for MR, CT, and cellular-sensitive optical imaging.

    4. Combining the Marangoni Effect and the pH-Responsive Superhydrophobicity–Superhydrophilicity Transition to Biomimic the Locomotion Process of the Beetles of Genus Stenus (pages 2509–2514)

      Meng Xiao, Mengjiao Cheng, Yajun Zhang and Feng Shi

      Version of Record online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203105

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      A functional device to mimic the beetles of the genus Stenus is fabricated. A superhydrophobic hull is employed to replace the body of the beetles, with an attached reservoir to store low-surface-energy compounds to mimic the beetle's pygidial gland, and a pH-responsive mesh acts as its gland end, whose locomotion from static to mobile can respond to the pH value transformation.

    5. Lyophilic Nonwettable Surface Based on an Oil/Water/Air/Solid Four-Phase System (pages 2515–2519)

      Jun Gao, Xi Yao, Yong Zhao and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300109

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      Lyophilic but not sticky! A lyophilic yet nonwettable surface seems self-contradictory, however, a nanostructured super-lyorepellent surface is used to reveal that a lyophilic nonwettable state is theoretically feasible in an oil/water/air/solid four-phase system. This finding may throw light on multiphase interface behavior.

    6. Evaporation-Induced Coating of Hydrous Ruthenium Oxide on Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles to Develop High-Performance Supercapacitors (pages 2520–2526)

      Hou-Sheng Huang, Kuo-Hsin Chang, Norihiro Suzuki, Yusuke Yamauchi, Chi-Chang Hu and Kevin C.-W. Wu

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202786

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      An efficient evaporation-induced coating method combining microwave-assisted hydrothermal transformation and annealing is developed to fabricate an ideal electrode material from composites with a layer of hydrous RuO2 on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), for a high-performance supercapacitor. Total and RuO2-based specific capacitances are as high as 1125 and 2000 F g−1, respectively.

    7. Biomimetic Synthesis of Fluorogenic Quantum Dots for Ultrasensitive Label-Free Detection of Protease Activities (pages 2527–2531)

      Xuewen He and Nan Ma

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202570

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      A biomimetic quantum dot synthesis-based strategy for ultrasensitive label-free detection of protease activities is reported. A dithiol peptide substrate can be activated by the protease through cleavage to form monothiol peptides, which then triggers QD growth and generates a photoluminescence signal readout. As low as 0.8 nM trypsin can be detected directly in buffer and serum and 4 pM trypsin can be detected via trypsinogen amplification with high signal to background ratios.

    8. A Simple Method for Producing Colloidal Palladium Nanocrystals: Alternating Voltage-Induced Electrochemical Synthesis (pages 2532–2536)

      Jacqueline E. Cloud, Kevin McCann, K. Alokya P. Perera and Yongan Yang

      Version of Record online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202470

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      Alternating voltage-induced electrochemical synthesis (AVIES) produces well-dispersed, size-controlled, single-crystalline, colloidal palladium nanocrystals (Pd-NCs). An alternating voltage is applied to two Pd wires inserted in an electrolyte solution containing capping ligands. Pd-NCs are directly ejected from the Pd electrodes through cathodic reduction of the PdO intermediates. The obtained Pd-NCs are soluble in either polar or non-polar solvents, depending on the selected capping ligands.

    9. A Novel Graphene Oxide-Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor for Immunoassay (pages 2537–2540)

      Hua Zhang, Ying Sun, Shang Gao, Jia Zhang, Hanqi Zhang and Daqian Song

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202958

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      Graphene oxide (GO) is used as a support for binding with proteins. A GO-based wavelength modulation surface plasmon resonance biosensor shows high sensitivity and selectivity for detection of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). When IgG is coupled with gold nanorods (AuNRs), the size increase results in a refractive index change.

    10. Ordered Mesoporous β-MgMoO4 Thin Films for Lithium-Ion Battery Applications (pages 2541–2544)

      Jan Haetge, Christian Suchomski and Torsten Brezesinski

      Version of Record online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202585

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      Ordered mesoporous β-MgMoO4 thin film electrodes with uniform pores averaging 19 nm in diameter are prepared through polymer templating of inorganic salt precursors. The unique combination of open mesopore cavities with nanocrystalline walls provides a beneficial microstructure for lithium-ion battery applications.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Nanotube Arrays: Joining Copper Oxide Nanotube Arrays Driven by the Nanoscale Kirkendall Effect (Small 15/2013) (page 2545)

      Shu Rong Chun, Wardhana Aji Sasangka, Mei Zhen Ng, Qing Liu, Anyan Du, Jie Zhu, Chee Mang Ng, Zhi Qiang Liu, Sing Yang Chiam and Chee Lip Gan

      Version of Record online: 6 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370090

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two stacks of nanotube arrays are joined together, driven by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. The background images show elemental mapping of copper and oxygen. The contrast of colors shown in the maps represents the intensity of the signals. Such mapping analysis reveals that the interface of the joined nanotubes is copper oxide. On page 2546, C. L. Gan and co-workers demonstrate that the transformation from Cu nanowire arrays into copper oxide nanotube arrays can be coupled with the joining of the stacked chips in a single step process. By controlling the environment, temperature, and duration, joined Cu2O or CuO nanotube stacked chips can be achieved, which serve as a platform for the further development of stacked nanostructured devices.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Joining Copper Oxide Nanotube Arrays Driven by the Nanoscale Kirkendall Effect (pages 2546–2552)

      Shu Rong Chun, Wardhana Aji Sasangka, Mei Zhen Ng, Qing Liu, Anyan Du, Jie Zhu, Chee Mang Ng, Zhi Qiang Liu, Sing Yang Chiam and Chee Lip Gan

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202533

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      A Cu nanowire array is transformed into a Cu oxide nanotube array via the nanoscale Kirkendall effect after annealing at 200 °C for 60 min. Coupled with an applied load, this transformation can be used to join two nanostructure array chips in a single processing step. This approach enables the integration of Cu oxide nanotube arrays into a stacked device.

    2. Acute On-Chip HIV Detection Through Label-Free Electrical Sensing of Viral Nano-Lysate (pages 2553–2563)

      Hadi Shafiee, Muntasir Jahangir, Fatih Inci, ShuQi Wang, Remington B. M. Willenbrecht, Francoise F. Giguel, Athe M. N. Tsibris, Daniel R. Kuritzkes and Utkan Demirci

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202195

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      There is an unmet clinical need to detect HIV-1 at acute infection stage where current antibody based point-of-care (POC) technologies are not effective due to the low concentration of antibodies. To overcome this clinical diagnostic barrier, a simple, fast, and affordable diagnostic tool is developed that enables HIV-1 detection during the acute stage of the disease using the unique electrical signature of viral nano-lysates.

    3. Decoupled Control of Carbon Nanotube Forest Density and Diameter by Continuous-Feed Convective Assembly of Catalyst Particles (pages 2564–2575)

      Erik S. Polsen, Mostafa Bedewy and A. John Hart

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202878

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      Continuous-feed evaporative self-assembly is used to create nanoparticle arrays for carbon nanotube (CNT) film growth. This versatile method enables specification of the CNT film morphology, and wide-range tuning of the diameter and density of CNT forests. The present results exceed the performance limits of thin-film catalyst dewetting, and the process is compatible with roll-to-roll manufacturing on flexible substrates.

    4. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles in Macrophages (pages 2576–2584)

      Anna Pratsinis, Pablo Hervella, Jean-Christophe Leroux, Sotiris E. Pratsinis and Georgios A. Sotiriou

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202120

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      The cytotoxicity of nanosilver against macrophages is investigated using precisely size-tuned nanosilver supported on nanostructured silica. Small (<10 nm) nanosilver releases a large fraction of its mass as Ag+ ions when compared to large nanosilver (>10 nm). Therefore, the toxicity of small nanosilver is mostly mediated by the released Ag+ ions. However, as the nanosilver size increases, direct silver nanoparticle–cell interactions dominate the toxicity.

    5. Thermal and Electrical Conduction in Ultrathin Metallic Films: 7 nm down to Sub-Nanometer Thickness (pages 2585–2594)

      Huan Lin, Shen Xu, Xinwei Wang and Ning Mei

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202877

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      This work reports the first-time measurement of thermal and electrical conduction of ultra-thin metallic films down to 0.6 nm thickness. Significant reductions of more than 80% for electrical and 50% for thermal conductivities are observed. The ultra-thin film's Lorenz number deviates from the bulk value significantly, with an almost 200% increase. Very strong electron reflection (>90%) at grain boundaries is obtained.

    6. Carbon Nanotubes Multifunctionalized by Rolling Circle Amplification and Their Application for Highly Sensitive Detection of Cancer Markers (pages 2595–2601)

      Bin Zhao, Juan Yan, Dongfang Wang, Zhilei Ge, Shijiang He, Dannong He, Shiping Song and Chunhai Fan

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202957

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      Combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using DNA rolling circle amplification, the binding ability of proteins, hybridization, the replication ability of DNA, and the catalytical ability of enzymes are all integrated onto a single carbon nanotube. In this system, a large number of signal labels are then allowed to bind to an individual carbon nanotube, resulting in amplified signals. The signaling system shows superior performance in the detection of cancer markers in biological fluids.

    7. Enhanced Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Nanocomposites by Mixing Noncovalently Functionalized Boron Nitride Nanoflakes (pages 2602–2610)

      Dongju Lee, Sung Ho Song, Jaewon Hwang, Sung Hwan Jin, Kwang Hyun Park, Bo Hyun Kim, Soon Hyung Hong and Seokwoo Jeon

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203214

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      The influence of surface modifications on the mechanical properties of epoxy-hexagonal boron nitride nanoflake (BNNF) nanocomposites is investigated. The BNNFs chemically surface modified by noncovalent functionalization are prohibited from stacking and aggregation, resulted in homogeneous dispersions in the epoxy matrix with strong interfacial interactions. The incorporation of noncovalently functionalized BNNFs into epoxy resin yields outstanding strength and toughness at low BNNF loadings.

    8. Vesicle-Mediated Growth of Tubular Branches and Centimeter-Long Microtubes from a Single Molecule (pages 2611–2618)

      Abdennour Abbas, Andrew Brimer, Limei Tian, D. André d'Avignon, Abdulrahman Shahul Hameed, Jagadese J. Vittal and Srikanth Singamaneni

      Version of Record online: 16 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202509

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      The addition of p-aminothiophenol to water/ethanol mixture leads to a spontaneous and reversible formation of nanovesicles. The nanostructures rapidly grow into micrometric vesicles and fuse to yield macroscale tubular branches. Real-time microscopic visualization reveals vesicle walk and fusion on the sides and tips of the branches, leading to the formation of centimeter-long microtubes. This growth mechanism demonstrates the dynamic role of vesicles in rapid and hierarchical transition from molecules to macroscopic morphologies.

    9. Cyclodextrin Insulation Prevents Static Quenching of Conjugated Polymer Fluorescence at the Single Molecule Level (pages 2619–2627)

      Daniel Thomsson, Rafael Camacho, Yuxi Tian, Dheerendra Yadav, Giuseppe Sforazzini, Harry L. Anderson and Ivan G. Scheblykin

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203272

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      What makes some organic macromolecules and particles brighter fluorophores than others? How can one avoid the so called ‘dark matter’ formation in conjugated polymers which limits their fluorescence ability? This study at the single-molecule level gives an answer.

    10. The Role of Surface Chemistry on the Toxicity of Ag Nanoparticles (pages 2628–2638)

      Yujie Xiong, Mark Brunson, Juyoung Huh, Aaron Huang, Adam Coster, Kristy Wendt, Justin Fay and Dong Qin

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202476

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      The role of surface chemistry on the toxicity of Ag nanoparticles is investigated using Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast as a platform for evaluation. It is revealed that capping agents, surface facets, and sample stability—the three experimental parameters that are inherent from the wet-chemical synthesis of Ag nanoparticles—have a strong impact on toxicity evaluation.

    11. Development of Polymeric Nanoprobes with Improved Lifetime Dynamic Range and Stability for Intracellular Oxygen Sensing (pages 2639–2648)

      Heng Liu, Hui Yang, Xian Hao, Haijiao Xu, Yi Lv, Debao Xiao, Hongda Wang and Zhiyuan Tian

      Version of Record online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203127

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      Core-shell-type oxygen nanosensors with optimized formats are developed. They are characterized by their relatively small diameter (<50 nm), biocompatible and protective shells, covalent-attachment-imparted leak-free construction, improved lifetime dynamic range (up to 44 μs), and excellent storage stability and photostability. Their facile cell uptake and ability to sense intracellular oxygen are confirmed.

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