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Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 17

September 9, 2013

Volume 9, Issue 17

Pages 2829–3000

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    11. Communication
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      DNA Release: Sharpening the Thermal Release of DNA from Nanoparticles: Towards a Sequential Release Strategy (Small 17/2013) (page 2829)

      Julián A. Díaz and Julianne M. Gibbs-Davis

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370098

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two branched DNA structures with different stabilities are hybridized with DNA-modified gold nanoparticles. As J. A. Díaz and J. M. Gibbs-Davis report on page 2862, in contrast to linear DNA, these branched DNA structures dissociate over a narrow temperature window. Consequently, the less stable structure can be liberated from the surface of the gold nanoparticles, without dissociating the more stable branched DNA. With further heating this second structure can then be dissociated. Achieving such sharp thermal dissociation behavior of DNA from the surface of nanoparticles may find use in photothermal therapy or other applications where the sequential release of multiple DNA agents is required.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Hydrogen Generation: Plasmonic ZnO/Ag Embedded Structures as Collecting Layers for Photogenerating Electrons in Solar Hydrogen Generation Photoelectrodes (Small 17/2013) (page 2830)

      Hao Ming Chen, Chih Kai Chen, Ming Lun Tseng, Pin Chieh Wu, Chia Min Chang, Liang-Chien Cheng, Hsin Wei Huang, Ting Shan Chan, Ding-Wei Huang, Ru-Shi Liu and Din Ping Tsai

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370099

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      A new fs-laser fabrication technique is applied to generate patternable plasmonic nanostructures, in which both localized surface plasmon resonance in metal nanoparticles and plasmon polaritons propagating at the metal/semiconductor interface are available for improving the capture of sunlight and collecting of charge carriers. As reported by R. S. Liu, D. P. Tsai, and co-workers on page 2926, plasmoninduced effects simultaneously enhance the photoresponse, by both improving optical absorbance and facilitating the separation of charge carriers. This strategy can be used to improve the effectiveness of embedded plasmonic nanostructures in hydrogen generation.

  3. Back Cover

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      Nanotube Arrays: Bioinspired Patterning with Extreme Wettability Contrast on TiO2 Nanotube Array Surface: A Versatile Platform for Biomedical Applications (Small 17/2013) (page 3004)

      Yuekun Lai, Longxiang Lin, Fei Pan, Jianying Huang, Ran Song, Yongxia Huang, Changjian Lin, Harald Fuchs and Lifeng Chi

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370100

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The construction of erasable and rewritable superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic patterns on novel TiO2 nanotube arrays is described by Y. K. Lai, C. J. Lin, L. F. Chi, and co-workers on page 2945. The patterned superhydrophobic surface is an excellent 2D scaffold for site-selective cell adhesion and reversible protein absorption, and acts as a template to deposit or grow well-defined 3D spatially functional biomaterials (e.g., CaP, Ag, biological molecules, and drugs). Furthermore, the functional composite patterning allows specificity for SERS sensors, antibacterial agents, targeted drug delivery and cell bioassays.

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      Masthead: (Small 17/2013)

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370101

  5. Contents

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  6. Frontispiece

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      Hollow Nanostructures: Highly Ordered Hollow Oxide Nanostructures: The Kirkendall Effect at the Nanoscale (Small 17/2013) (page 2837)

      Abdel-Aziz El Mel, Marie Buffière, Pierre-Yves Tessier, Stephanos Konstantinidis, Wei Xu, Ke Du, Ishan Wathuthanthri, Chang-Hwan Choi, Carla Bittencourt and Rony Snyders

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370103

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      Highly-ordered ultralong copper oxide nanotubes are fabricated by a simple two-step strategy involving the growth of copper nanowires on nanopatterned template substrates by magnetron sputtering followed by thermal annealing in air. As reported by A. A. El Mel and co-workers on page 2838, upon annealing, the nanoscale Kirkendall leads to the transformation of the solid nanostructures into hollow ones. This route is not only limited to 1D nanostructures, but can also be applied to different shapes including 0D nanodots.

  7. Communications

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    1. Highly Ordered Hollow Oxide Nanostructures: The Kirkendall Effect at the Nanoscale (pages 2838–2843)

      Abdel-Aziz El Mel, Marie Buffière, Pierre-Yves Tessier, Stephanos Konstantinidis, Wei Xu, Ke Du, Ishan Wathuthanthri, Chang-Hwan Choi, Carla Bittencourt and Rony Snyders

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202824

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      Highly ordered ultra-long oxide nanotubes are fabricated by a simple two-step strategy involving the growth of copper nanowires on nanopatterned template substrates by magnetron sputtering, followed by thermal annealing in air. The formation of such tubular nanostructures is explained according to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect. The concept of this new fabrication route is also extendable to create periodic zero-dimensional hollow nanostructures.

    2. Pattern Recognition Analysis of Proteins Using DNA-Decorated Catalytic Gold Nanoparticles (pages 2844–2849)

      Xiafeng Yang, Jiang Li, Hao Pei, Di Li, Yun Zhao, Jimin Gao, Jianxin Lu, Jiye Shi, Chunhai Fan and Qing Huang

      Version of Record online: 27 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202772

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      A label-free protein analysis strategy is based on patterns of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) growth. AuNPs pretreated with different oligonucleotides are challenged with various proteins. After Au reduction, the colorimetric patterns are processed with linear discriminant analysis. This method discriminates different proteins, or one protein of different concentrations, in mixed samples or even serum and urine.

  8. Frontispiece

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      Polymer Brushes: Liquid-Mediated Three-Dimensional Scanning Probe Nanosculpting (Small 17/2013) (page 2850)

      Tiansheng Gan, Xuechang Zhou, Chunfeng Ma, Xuqing Liu, Zhuang Xie, Guangzhao Zhang and Zijian Zheng

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370104

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      Liquid-mediated Scanning Probe Nanosculpting (LSPN) is developed to fabricate 3D topographic structures of polymer brushes by X. C. Zhou, G. Z. Zhang, Z. J. Zheng, and co-workers on Page 2851. LSPN makes use of a liquid solvent, to assist the AFM tip “sculpting” of polymer brushes that are fully solvated in the liquid solvent. With this method, complex structures of polymer brushes, such as 2D arrays, 3D gradients, and arbitrary 3D structures can be fabricated with sub-10 nm resolution and 50 nm half-pitch. This work holds great promise for the top-down engineering of functional topographic structures on a surface towards many chemical and biological applications.

  9. Full Paper

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    1. Liquid-Mediated Three-Dimensional Scanning Probe Nanosculpting (pages 2851–2856)

      Tiansheng Gan, Xuechang Zhou, Chunfeng Ma, Xuqing Liu, Zhuang Xie, Guangzhao Zhang and Zijian Zheng

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300238

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      3D functional polymer brushes are fabricated by liquid-mediated scanning probe nanosculpting (LSPN). Surface-tethered functional polymer brushes, which are immersed in their good solvent, are mechanically cleaved away from the substrate by the AFM tip at high forces, and immediately imaged in situ with the same AFM tip at low applied forces.

  10. Communication

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    1. Raman Spectroscopy Study of Lattice Vibration and Crystallographic Orientation of Monolayer MoS2 under Uniaxial Strain (pages 2857–2861)

      Yanlong Wang, Chunxiao Cong, Caiyu Qiu and Ting Yu

      Version of Record online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202876

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      The false-color (3D type) image of the intensity of the Raman spectra of monolayer MoS2 versus both peak positions and polar angles is plotted. It shows that the strongest E2g1+ and E2g1− peaks appear at different angles, reflected as the alternation of the maxima of the intensity within the frequency range of the E2g1 mode, which is the consequence of the crystallographic orientation relevant to the strain direction as predicted by theoretical analysis.

  11. Full Papers

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    1. Sharpening the Thermal Release of DNA from Nanoparticles: Towards a Sequential Release Strategy (pages 2862–2871)

      Julián A. Díaz and Julianne M. Gibbs-Davis

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202278

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      Branched DNA structures lead to sharp melting behavior when hybridized to DNA-modified gold nanoparticles. Using a mixture of branched DNA with different stabilities, sequential thermal release from a single nanoparticle can be achieved. Unlike linear DNA, the branched DNA exhibits much greater thermal discrimination, so no overlap in the release profile is observed.

    2. Monolayer Graphene Film on ZnO Nanorod Array for High-Performance Schottky Junction Ultraviolet Photodetectors (pages 2872–2879)

      Biao Nie, Ji-Gang Hu, Lin-Bao Luo, Chao Xie, Long-Hui Zeng, Peng Lv, Fang-Ze Li, Jian-Sheng Jie, Mei Feng, Chun-Yan Wu, Yong-Qiang Yu and Shu-Hong Yu

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203188

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      A new Schottky junction ultraviolet photodetector is fabricated by coating a free-standing ZnO nanorod array with a monolayer graphene film. This special structure is able to trap UV light within ZnO nanorods, and exhibits high sensitivity to UV light irradiation with good reproducibility and fast response time.

    3. Surfactant-Free Sub-2 nm Ultrathin Triangular Gold Nanoframes (pages 2880–2886)

      Mohammad Mehdi Shahjamali, Michel Bosman, Shaowen Cao, Xiao Huang, Xiehong Cao, Hua Zhang, Stevin Snellius Pramana and Can Xue

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300200

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      Ultrathin triangular gold nanoframes with ridge thickness down to 1.8 nm have been synthesized in high yield by using a silver nanoprism as a sacrificial template. The ridges of the nanoframes are surfactant-free and enable a catalytic activity in 4-nitrophenol reduction superior to that of thin nanoframes made by galvanic replacement.

    4. Efficient Welding of Silver Nanowire Networks without Post-Processing (pages 2887–2894)

      Jaemin Lee, Inhwa Lee, Taek-Soo Kim and Jung-Yong Lee

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203142

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      Solvent washing and spraying of silver nanowires decrease the sheet resistance of silver nanowire networks dramatically. The newly suggested methods eliminate post treatments such as annealing and pressing, which have been considered essential processes to reduce the sheet resistance and obtain ITO-comparable transparent electrodes.

    5. S-layer Coated Emulsomes as Potential Nanocarriers (pages 2895–2904)

      Mehmet H. Ucisik, Seta Küpcü, Monika Debreczeny, Bernhard Schuster and Uwe B. Sleytr

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203116

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      The present study introduces a biomimetic approach that utilizes one of the most precise self–organizing systems in nature, i.e. crystalline bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins, to design a novel multi-functional nanocarrier based on emulsomes. Emulsomes, composed of a solid fat core and a phospholipid shell, offer a high loading capacity for lipophilic agents. Beyond illustrating the potentials of emulsomes as a nanocarrier, this study is the first one showing the ability of S-layer (fusion) proteins to modify the surface of emulsomes resembling a virus envelope.

    6. Direct Laser-Patterned Micro-Supercapacitors from Paintable MoS2 Films (pages 2905–2910)

      Liujun Cao, Shubin Yang, Wei Gao, Zheng Liu, Yongji Gong, Lulu Ma, Gang Shi, Sidong Lei, Yunhuai Zhang, Shengtao Zhang, Robert Vajtai and Pulickel M. Ajayan

      Version of Record online: 16 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203164

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      A new approach for large-scale fabrication of 2D MoS2 film-based micro-supercapacitors is developed via a simple spray painting of MoS2 nanosheets and subsequent laser patterning of the deposited film. The optimized MoS2-based micro-supercapacitor exhibits excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage, with a high area capacitance of 8 mF cm−2 and excellent cyclic performance, superior to state of the art carbon-based micro-supercapacitors.

    7. Ultrathin Calcium Silicate Hydrate Nanosheets with Large Specific Surface Areas: Synthesis, Crystallization, Layered Self-Assembly and Applications as Excellent Adsorbents for Drug, Protein, and Metal Ions (pages 2911–2925)

      Jin Wu, Ying-Jie Zhu and Feng Chen

      Version of Record online: 15 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300097

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      A simple and low-cost reaction-rate-controlled solution synthesis of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of ∼2.8 nm and with a large specific surface area is reported. The CSH ultrathin nanosheets are excellent adsorbents for protein, drug, and metal ions and, thus, are promising for applications in biomedical fields and waste water treatment.

    8. Plasmonic ZnO/Ag Embedded Structures as Collecting Layers for Photogenerating Electrons in Solar Hydrogen Generation Photoelectrodes (pages 2926–2936)

      Hao Ming Chen, Chih Kai Chen, Ming Lun Tseng, Pin Chieh Wu, Chia Min Chang, Liang-Chien Cheng, Hsin Wei Huang, Ting Shan Chan, Ding-Wei Huang, Ru-Shi Liu and Din Ping Tsai

      Version of Record online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202547

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      A new fabrication strategy in which Ag plasmonics are embedded in the interface between ZnO nanorods and a conducting substrate is experimentally demonstrated using a femtosecond (fs)-laser-induced ZnO/Ag plasmonic photoelectrode. This fs-laser technique can be applied to generate patternable plasmonic nanostructures for improving their effectiveness in hydrogen generation.

    9. NIR Photoresponsive Crosslinked Upconverting Nanocarriers Toward Selective Intracellular Drug Release (pages 2937–2944)

      Yanmei Yang, Bhaarathy Velmurugan, Xiaogang Liu and Bengang Xing

      Version of Record online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201765

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      A NIR-controllable drug nanocarrier based on silica-coated upconverting nanoparticles is presented. Upon functionalization of the photoactive nanocarrier with folic acid, selective cell imaging and targeted drug delivery can be easily achieved in tumor cells with overexpression of folate receptor.

    10. Bioinspired Patterning with Extreme Wettability Contrast on TiO2 Nanotube Array Surface: A Versatile Platform for Biomedical Applications (pages 2945–2953)

      Yuekun Lai, Longxiang Lin, Fei Pan, Jianying Huang, Ran Song, Yongxia Huang, Changjian Lin, Harald Fuchs and Lifeng Chi

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300187

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Fabrication of erasable and rewritable superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic patterns on a TiO2 nanotube array surface is described. The patterned superhydrophobic surface is an excellent 2D scaffold for site-selective cell adhesion and reversible protein absorption, and acts as a template to deposit or grow well-defined 3D spatially functional biomaterials (e.g., CaP, Ag, biological molecules, and drugs), and has potential for use in SERS, antibacterial activity, and targeted drug delivery for high-sensitivity cancer cell bioassays.

    11. Isothermal Hybridization Kinetics of DNA Assembly of Two-Dimensional DNA Origami (pages 2954–2959)

      Jie Song, Zhao Zhang, Shuai Zhang, Lei Liu, Qiang Li, Erqing Xie, Kurt Vesterager Gothelf, Flemming Besenbacher and Mingdong Dong

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202861

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      Direct investigation of the kinetics of multistrand DNA hybridization events on DNA origami nanopores under the defined isothermal conditions is performed via thermally controlled atomic force microscopy in combination with nanomechanical spectroscopy, with forces controlled in the pico Newton range.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Isothermal Hybridization Kinetics of DNA Assembly of Two-Dimensional DNA Origami

      Vol. 10, Issue 4, 630, Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2014

    12. High-Performance Partially Aligned Semiconductive Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Transistors Achieved with a Parallel Technique (pages 2960–2969)

      Yilei Wang, Suresh Kumar Raman Pillai and Mary B. Chan-Park

      Version of Record online: 26 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203178

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      The solution-based immersion-cum-shake method is a novel parallel procedure to achieve partially aligned nanotube networks with controlled areal density. By immersing an aminosilane-treated wafer into a nanotube solution on a rotary shaker, the nanotubes are partially aligned onto the wafer surface. After electrode deposition and isolation, high-performance field-effect transistors with partially aligned single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) networks are achieved.

    13. Photosystem I (PSI)/Photosystem II (PSII)-Based Photo-Bioelectrochemical Cells Revealing Directional Generation of Photocurrents (pages 2970–2978)

      Omer Yehezkeli, Ran Tel-Vered, Dorit Michaeli, Rachel Nechushtai and Itamar Willner

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300051

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      Effective photocurrents are observed upon illumination of a nano-engineered layer-by-layer assembly of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) in the presence of two redox polymers and in the absence of any sacrificial donor.

    14. Surface Assembly and Plasmonic Properties in Strongly Coupled Segmented Gold Nanorods (pages 2979–2990)

      Maneesh K. Gupta, Tobias König, Rachel Near, Dhriti Nepal, Lawrence F. Drummy, Sushmita Biswas, Swati Naik, Richard A. Vaia, Mostafa A. El-Sayed and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300248

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      Segmented nanorods fabricated through template-assisted methods are tethered to a pre-functionalized substrate with excellent uniformity over large areas. After embedding the rods, sacrificial nickel segments are selectively etched, leaving strongly coupled segmented gold nanorods with gaps between rods of between 2 and 40 nm. Hyper-spectral imaging measures Rayleigh scattering spectra from individual and coupled nanorod elements, and polarized hyper-spectral measurements provide direct observation of the anisotropic plasmonic resonance modes in individual and coupled nanorods.

    15. Fluorescent Magnetic Fe3O4/Rare Earth Colloidal Nanoparticles for Dual-Modality Imaging (pages 2991–3000)

      Haie Zhu, Yalei Shang, Wenhao Wang, Yingjie Zhou, Penghui Li, Kai Yan, Shuilin Wu, Kelvin W. K. Yeung, Zushun Xu, Haibo Xu and Paul K. Chu

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300126

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      Fluorescent magnetic colloidal nanoparticles (FMCNPs) containing Eu(AA)3Phen are synthesized by seed emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization, with Eu3+ covalently bonded in the polymer chain. The FMCNPs with excellent luminescence and superparamagnetic properties could be used as multimodal magnetic resonance/optical imaging probes, as demonstrated by in vitro, in vivo MRI experiments and confocal scanning laser microscopy imaging.

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