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Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 18

September 23, 2013

Volume 9, Issue 18

Pages 3005–3182

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Cancer Diagnostics: A Trachea-Inspired Bifurcated Microfilter Capturing Viable Circulating Tumor Cells via Altered Biophysical Properties as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy (Small 18/2013) (page 3005)

      Minseok S. Kim, Jinhoon Kim, Wonho Lee, Sang-Joon Cho, Jin-Mi Oh, June-Young Lee, Sanghyun Baek, Yeon Jeong Kim, Tae Seok Sim, Hun Joo Lee, Goo-Eun Jung, Seung-Il Kim, Jong-Myeon Park, Jin Ho Oh, Ogan Gurel, Soo Suk Lee and Jeong-Gun Lee

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370105

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In isolating circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which exist in extremely low concentrations in the blood, current methods have been limited by a trade-off between recovery rate and purity. To overcome this challenge, M. S. Kim, S. S. Lee, J.-G. Lee, and co-workers present on page 3103 a sized-based filtration method that combines two strategies: (1) using specific binding of solid microbeads conjugated with anti-EpCAM antibodies to enhance the discrimination of CTCs from other blood constituents (mainly white blood cells) along with (2) a novel bio-inspired bifurcated microfilter that minimizes fluidic stresses on these cells, once captured. The method approaches maximal recovery rate and purity, while allowing viable CTCs to be isolated, enabling not only their enumeration but also further molecular and cellular evaluation.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Pharmacokinetics: Nanoparticle Accumulation in Angiogenic Tissues: Towards Predictable Pharmacokinetics (Small 18/2013) (page 3006)

      Kristin Yaehne, Amy Tekrony, Aisling Clancy, Yiota Gregoriou, John Walker, Kwin Dean, Trinh Nguyen, Amber Doiron, Kristina Rinker, Xiao Yu Jiang, Sarah Childs and David Cramb

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370106

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      D. Cramb* and co-workers report on page 3118 that nanoparticles circulating in angiogenic tissue partition into surrounding tissues through fenestrations in the blood vessel walls, depending on the nanoparticle properties. The dependence of the portioning rate on nanoparticle size suggests that the mechanism is largely controlled by geometry and that the angiogenic blood vessels function like a size exclusion filter. This work provides insight into the mechanism of nanoparticle deposition into angiogenic tissues while also presenting a new biological model that can accelerate our understanding of nanoparticle toxicity and tumor targeting.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Nanostructures: Amorphous Ni(OH)2 Nanoboxes: Fast Fabrication and Enhanced Sensing for Glucose (Small 18/2013) (page 3184)

      Jianwei Nai, Shuqian Wang, Yang Bai and Lin Guo

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370107

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      Inspired by Pearson's hard and soft acid-base (HSAB) principle, uniform amorphous Ni(OH)2 nanoboxes with intact shell structures and various sizes are fabricated by L. Guo and co-workers on page 3147. The selection of S2O32 as the coordinating etchant toward the Cu2O templates as well the optimization the reaction conditions, such as the solvent system and the use of a surfactant, are crucial for the formation of well-defined and high-quality Ni(OH)2 nanoboxes. Ni(OH)2 nanoboxes demonstrate an improved electrochemical sensing ability for glucose. The advantages of high sensitivity, low detection limit, wide detection range and long-term storage stability of the biosensor, which might due to their amorphous and hollow-structure features, make these nanoboxes promising in analytical applications.

  4. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: (Small 18/2013)

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370108

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Contents: (Small 18/2013) (pages 3007–3013)

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370109

  6. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. One-Dimensional Nano-Interconnection Formation (pages 3014–3029)

      Jianlong Ji, Zhaoying Zhou, Xing Yang, Wendong Zhang, Shengbo Sang and Pengwei Li

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201318

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      Techniques used for interconnection formation, which is crucial for nanodevice performance, are categorized into two types. The two-step method is constituted by assembly and pinning processes, while the one-step method is a direct formation process of nano-interconnections. In both methods, contact resistances are compared and the electrodeposition approach is emphasized.

  7. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Charge Transfer: Oxygen-Assisted Charge Transfer Between ZnO Quantum Dots and Graphene (Small 18/2013) (page 3030)

      Wenhao Guo, Shuigang Xu, Zefei Wu, Ning Wang, M. M. T. Loy and Shengwang Du

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370110

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      An efficient charge transfer between ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and graphene by decorating ZnO QDs on top of graphene is reported on page 3031 by S. Du and co-workers. The photon-generated electronhole pairs inside ZnO QDs split, with the holes discharging the oxygen ions absorbed on the surface of QDs. The unpaired electron are transferred to graphene and recirculate between the source and drain electrodes. The electrical response of the device to UV light is largely enhanced, and photoconductive gains up to 107 can be obtained.

  8. Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Oxygen-Assisted Charge Transfer Between ZnO Quantum Dots and Graphene (pages 3031–3036)

      Wenhao Guo, Shuigang Xu, Zefei Wu, Ning Wang, M. M. T. Loy and Shengwang Du

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202855

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      Efficient charge transfer between ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and graphene is demonstrated by decorating ZnO QDs on top of graphene, with the assistance of oxygen molecules from the air. The electrical response of the device to UV light is greatly enhanced, and a photoconductive gain of up to 107 can be obtained.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Corrigendum: Oxygen-Assisted Charge Transfer Between ZnO Quantum Dots and Graphene

      Vol. 9, Issue 23, 3914, Article first published online: 3 DEC 2013

    2. Facile Colloidal Lithography on Rough and Non-planar Surfaces for Asymmetric Patterning (pages 3037–3042)

      Samuel A. Pendergraph, Jin Young Park, Nicholas R. Hendricks, Alfred J. Crosby and Kenneth R. Carter

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202821

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      Free-standing colloidal arrays can be easily transferred to supported fibers. These films conform and provide the template to have consistent submicrometer and nanometer features transferred to the periphery of rough, 7 μm diameter fibers. This technique is adjustable to a number of fiber surfaces and colloidal template sizes.

    3. Vapor-Phase Hydrothermal Growth of Novel Segmentally Configured Nanotubular Crystal Structure (pages 3043–3050)

      Porun Liu, Haimin Zhang, Hongwei Liu, Yun Wang, Taicheng An, Weiping Cai, Huagui Yang, Xiangdong Yao, Guangshan Zhu, Robyn Webb and Huijun Zhao

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300058

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      A new form of nanotubular crystal structure is directly grown by a vapor-phase hydrothermal method via an epitaxial orientated crystal growth mechanism. The as-prepared nanotubes possess a unique multi-tunnel core-shell layered nanotubular structure with droplet shaped polygonal periphery and segmental crystal configuration. They are dimension-tunable and demonstrate superior ion exchange properties in terms of exchange rate and ion accommodating capacity.

    4. Photoswitchable Particles for On-Demand Degradation and Triggered Release (pages 3051–3057)

      Tae-Hong Park, Thomas W. Eyster, Joshua M. Lumley, Sangyeul Hwang, Kyung Jin Lee, Asish Misra, Sahar Rahmani and Joerg Lahann

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201921

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      On-demand degradable polymer particles are fabricated via electrospraying of a solution of acetal-protected dextran that further includes 2-(4-methoxystyryl)-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine as a photoacid generator. The illumination of UV light gives rise to photoacid and activates the catalytic deprotection of hydroxyl groups of dextran, leading to controlled dissolution of the microparticles in water.

    5. Plow and Ridge Nanofabrication (pages 3058–3062)

      Wooyoung Shim, Keith A. Brown, Xiaozhu Zhou, Boris Rasin, Xing Liao, Abrin L. Schmucker and Chad A. Mirkin

      Article first published online: 20 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203014

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      Traditionally, scanning probe lithography tools are limited in resolution by the radius of curvature of the tip used. Herein, an approach is described for patterning the ridge of piled-up polymer that naturally occurs when a scanning probe is pressed against a soft surface. The use of this phenomenon to transfer patterns to hard materials with 20 nm resolution is demonstrated.

    6. Fine Tuning of the Structure of Pt–Cu Alloy Nanocrystals by Glycine-Mediated Sequential Reduction Kinetics (pages 3063–3069)

      Zhicheng Zhang, Yong Yang, Farhat Nosheen, Pengpeng Wang, Jingchao Zhang, Jing Zhuang and Xun Wang

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203200

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      Uniform Pt−Cu alloy nanocrystals in the shape of dendrite, yolk-cage, and box structures are prepared via a facile wet-chemical reduction route in which glycine is demonstrated to alter the reduction kinetics of metal cations, critical to the morphology of the obtained product. These alloy nanocrystals exhibit superior specific activity and stability in the electro-oxidation of methanol.

    7. Pericytes, Stem-Cell-Like Cells, but not Mesenchymal Stem Cells are Recruited to Support Microvascular Tube Stabilization (pages 3070–3075)

      Omar F. Zouani, Yifeng Lei and Marie-Christine Durrieu

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300124

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      An experimental model is introduced for the induction of endothelial cell (EC) tubulogenesis after 24 h of incubation on micropatterned polymer surfaces. Pericytes or mesenchymal stem cells are added separately to this system to evaluate their effect on tubular stabilization. In the absence of additional cells, the tubular structures are lost after 36 h. Addition of only pericytes, however, stabilizes the EC vasculogenic tubes.

    8. Cell-Laden Hydrogels in Integrated Microfluidic Devices for Long-Term Cell Culture and Tubulogenesis Assays (pages 3076–3081)

      Nathan P. Gabrielson, Amit V. Desai, Bhushan Mahadik, Marie-Claude Hofmann, Paul J. A. Kenis and Brendan A. C. Harley

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203030

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      A hydrogel biochip combining microfluidic mixing and orthogonal supplementation strategies is developed and validated to allow facile generation of libraries of optically transparent 3D culture microenvironments. Live, on-chip tracing of embryonic stem cell differentiation and endothelial cell tubulogenesis confirms that the platform can be used to both create communities of discrete 3D microenvironments as well as to locally monitor subsequent divergent responses at both single cell and multi-cell scales.

    9. Rolling Circle Amplification-Based DNA Origami Nanostructrures for Intracellular Delivery of Immunostimulatory Drugs (pages 3082–3087)

      Xiangyuan Ouyang, Jiang Li, Huajie Liu, Bin Zhao, Juan Yan, Yinzhou Ma, Shoujun Xiao, Shiping Song, Qing Huang, Jie Chao and Chunhai Fan

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300458

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      Several single-stranded scaffold DNA, obtained from rolling circle amplification (RCA), are folded by different staples to form DNA nanoribbons. These DNA nanoribbons are rigid, simple to design, and cost-effective drug carriers, which are readily internalized by mammalian cells and show enhanced immunostimulatory activity.

    10. Regulation of an Enzyme Cascade Reaction by a DNA Machine (pages 3088–3091)

      Ling Xin, Chao Zhou, Zhongqiang Yang and Dongsheng Liu

      Article first published online: 24 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300019

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      A strategy for the regulation of enzyme cascade reaction efficiency by a DNA machine in vitro is presented. Two cascade enzymes (GOx and HRP) are attached to the DNA machine, and the enzyme cascade reaction shows much higher efficiency when the two enzymes are brought closer by the DNA machine than when they are distant.

  9. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Fluorescence Imaging: Bright Far-Red/Near-Infrared Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Bioimaging (Small 18/2013) (page 3092)

      Dan Ding, Jie Liu, Guangxue Feng, Kai Li, Yong Hu and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370111

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      B. Liu and co-workers report on page 3093 a new strategy to realize bight farred/near-infrared (FR/NIR) fluorescent conjugated polymer (CP) nanoparticles (NPs) through polymer design and matrix encapsulation. The obtained NPs have 27% quantum yield in aqueous media with improved thermal-/photo-stabilities and larger Stokes shift as compared to commercially available quantum dots (Qdot 655) and organic dyes (Alexa Fluor 555 and Rhodamine 6G). In vivo studies of the NPs on a hepatoma H22 tumorbearing mouse model reveal that they could serve as an efficient and safe FR/NIR fluorescent probe for targeted in vivo fluorescence imaging and cancer in a high contrast and specific manner.

  10. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Review
    8. Frontispiece
    9. Communications
    10. Frontispiece
    11. Full Papers
    1. Bright Far-Red/Near-Infrared Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for In Vivo Bioimaging (pages 3093–3102)

      Dan Ding, Jie Liu, Guangxue Feng, Kai Li, Yong Hu and Bin Liu

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300171

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      Bright far-red/near-infrared conjugated polymer nanoparticles with surface folate ligand and 27% quantum yield in aqueous media are synthesized via a one-step lipid-PEG-folate formulation. The obtained nanoparticles show good thermal/photostabilities and a large Stoke's shift, which compare favorably with commercially available quantum dots (Qdot 655) and organic dyes (Alexa Fluor 555 and Rhodamine 6G), making them a safe and efficient FR/NIR fluorescent probe for targeted in vivo fluorescence imaging and cancer detection in a high contrast and specific manner.

    2. A Trachea-Inspired Bifurcated Microfilter Capturing Viable Circulating Tumor Cells via Altered Biophysical Properties as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy (pages 3103–3110)

      Minseok S. Kim, Jinhoon Kim, Wonho Lee, Sang-Joon Cho, Jin-Mi Oh, June-Young Lee, Sanghyun Baek, Yeon Jeong Kim, Tae Seok Sim, Hun Joo Lee, Goo-Eun Jung, Seung-Il Kim, Jong-Myeon Park, Jin Ho Oh, Ogan Gurel, Soo Suk Lee and Jeong-Gun Lee

      Article first published online: 7 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202317

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      A microfluidic filter system captures circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and distinguishes them from white blood cells (WBCs). It demonstrates maximal recovery rate and purity as determined by biophysical analysis and simulation of fluid–structure interactions. The simulation results are used to optimize the microfluidic filter gap and geometry.

    3. Robust Synthesis of Gold Cubic Nanoframes through a Combination of Galvanic Replacement, Gold Deposition, and Silver Dealloying (pages 3111–3117)

      Dehui Wan, Xiaohu Xia, Yucai Wang and Younan Xia

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203233

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      Cubic nanoframes of Au are synthesized by integrating galvanic replacement with deposition of Au and dealloying of Ag. The as-prepared cubic nanoframes exhibit tunable localized surface plasmon resonance peaks in the near-infrared region, but with much lower Ag content as compared with the conventional Au–Ag nanocages.

    4. Nanoparticle Accumulation in Angiogenic Tissues: Towards Predictable Pharmacokinetics (pages 3118–3127)

      Kristin Yaehne, Amy Tekrony, Aisling Clancy, Yiota Gregoriou, John Walker, Kwin Dean, Trinh Nguyen, Amber Doiron, Kristina Rinker, Xiao Yu Jiang, Sarah Childs and David Cramb

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201201848

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      Nanoparticles circulating in angiogenic blood vessels will partition into surrounding tissues through fenestrations in the blood vessel walls. This partitioning depends on nanoparticle properties such as surface charge and size. The size dependence of partitioning rates found here suggests that the mechanism is largely controlled by geometry. Thus, the angiogenic blood vessels function like a size exclusion filter.

    5. Cell Surface Engineering with Edible Protein Nanoshells (pages 3128–3137)

      Irina Drachuk, Olga Shchepelina, Svetlana Harbaugh, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane, Morley Stone and Vladimir V. Tsukruk

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202992

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      Biodegradable silk protein nanoshells are assembled on the surfaces of S. cerevisiae yeast cells. Initially acting as the protective coatings, it is suggested that silk shells are gradually digested by the cells without compromising their GFP-labeled activity.

    6. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Act as a Self-Adjuvant for Ovalbumin Model Antigen in Mice (pages 3138–3146)

      Donna Mahony, Antonino S. Cavallaro, Frances Stahr, Timothy J. Mahony, Shi Zhang Qiao and Neena Mitter

      Article first published online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300012

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      Amino-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles have a high adsorption capacity for ovalbumin. Ovalbumin-bound nanoparticles are used as a delivery system in mice to test their efficacy. Immunization results in both cell-mediated and humoral immunity. The nanoparticles not only act as a protein carrier but also as an effective adjuvant. These results establish mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a viable vaccine delivery vehicle.

    7. Amorphous Ni(OH)2 Nanoboxes: Fast Fabrication and Enhanced Sensing for Glucose (pages 3147–3152)

      Jianwei Nai, Shuqian Wang, Yang Bai and Lin Guo

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203076

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      Uniform amorphous Ni(OH)2 nanoboxes with intact shell structures and various sizes are quickly fabricated by deliberately selecting S2O32− as the coordinating etchant toward Cu2O templates and optimizing the reaction conditions. Ni(OH)2 nanoboxes also demonstrate an enhanced electrochemical sensing ability for glucose, with excellent sensitivity, selectivity, and good long-term stability.

    8. Hydrothermal Growth of TiO2 Nanorod Arrays and In Situ Conversion to Nanotube Arrays for Highly Efficient Quantum Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells (pages 3153–3160)

      Hui Huang, Lei Pan, Chiew Keat Lim, Hua Gong, Jun Guo, Man Siu Tse and Ooi Kiang Tan

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203205

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      TiO2 nanorod (NR) arrays are hydrothermally grown on FTO substrate, and can be converted to nanotubes (NTs) by selective hydrothermal etching of the (001) core and remaining the inert sidewall of (110) face. After conversion from NRs to NTs, the CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells almost double in energy conversion efficiency.

    9. An Assessment of the Impact of SiO2 Nanoparticles of Different Sizes on the Rest/Wake Behavior and the Developmental Profile of Zebrafish Larvae (pages 3161–3168)

      Ji-Yang Xue, Xiang Li, Ming-Zhu Sun, Ya-Ping Wang, Ming Wu, Chun-Yang Zhang, Ya-Nan Wang, Bo Liu, Yao-Shu Zhang, Xin Zhao and Xi-Zeng Feng

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300430

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      Locomotor activity assays linking rest/wake behavioral profiles are used to investigate the neurotoxicity of SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). In addition, developmental toxicological endpoints including mortality, LC50, malformation, and cartilaginous deformity are assessed. The results indicate a concentration-dependent increase in behavioral neurotoxicity and developmental toxicity among larvae treated with the SiO2 nanoparticles of 15 nm and 50 nm, with 15 nm NPs having a greater neurotoxic effect than 50 nm NPs. In terms of larval development, the 50 nm NPs are more toxic.

    10. High Density Unaggregated Au Nanoparticles on ZnO Nanorod Arrays Function as Efficient and Recyclable Photocatalysts for Environmental Purification (pages 3169–3182)

      Tung-Han Yang, Li-De Huang, Yeu-Wei Harn, Chun-Cheng Lin, Jan-Kai Chang, Chih-I. Wu and Jenn-Ming Wu

      Article first published online: 5 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300424

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      The chemically conjugated hybrid system, composed of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) and single-crystal ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNA), shows spiked club-like morphology and possesses several advantages, such as large-scale production, high fabrication efficiency, long durability, and ease of separation from reaction solution for environmental purification. Higher photodegradation rates of organic pollutants indicate that the ZNA-AuNPs are candidates for the next-generation photocatalysts, replacing the conventional slurry photocatalysts.

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