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Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 21

November 11, 2013

Volume 9, Issue 21

Pages 3545–3721

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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    10. Full Papers
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      Carbon Nanotubes: Nanohinge-Induced Plasticity of Helical Carbon Nanotubes (Small 21/2013) (page 3545)

      Jianyang Wu, Shijo Nagao, Jianying He and Zhiliang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370127

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      Shaping a brittle CNT into a coiled nanospring by introducing well-designed defects causes nanohinge formations in the plastic deformation under tension, and achieves ultra-high gravimetric toughness up to 5000 J/g, exceeding that of the state-ofthe-art CNT composites. On page 3561, Z. L. Zhang and co-workers report that the high toughness arises from the distributed partial fractures of tensed brittle CNT nanosprings, and the mechanisms involved in initiating and arresting fractures form the nanohinge structure due to the specific defect arrangement. In addition to the unique structural, mechanical, electrical, thermal, and magnetic properties of CNT materials, the extreme toughness of nanosprings will greatly compliment CNT device development in the future, for example, for multifunctional energy applications and nanoscale electromechanical or electromagnetic systems.

  2. Inside Front Cover

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
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      Drug Delivery: Transdermal Delivery Devices: Fabrication, Mechanics and Drug Release from Silk (Small 21/2013) (page 3546)

      Waseem K. Raja, Scott MacCorkle, Izzuddin M. Diwan, Abdurrahman Abdurrob, Jessica Lu, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto and David L. Kaplan

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370128

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      A high aspect ratio microneedle biomedical device fabricated from aqueous silk protein solution using micromolding techniques is reported by D. L. Kaplan and co-workers on page 3704. The device is formed under ambient conditions, which allows the inclusion of sensitive pharmaceuticals or other bioactive compounds during fabrication with the retention of function of these active compounds post fabrication. The properties of the microneedles are tailorable based on the morphology of the needles and the post fabrication processing of the devices. The devices are biocompatible and also fully degradable in vivo due to proteolysis.

  3. Back Cover

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
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    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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      DNA Origami: DNA Origami Directed Large-Scale Fabrication of Nanostructures Resembling Room Temperature Single-Electron Transistors (Small 21/2013) (page 3724)

      Zhong Chen, Xiang Lan and Qiangbin Wang

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370129

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      Large-scale fabrication of room-temperature single-electron transistors core nanostructures in an unprecedented yield is achieved by using DNA self-assembly strategy, in which three gold nanorods (13 nm × 38 nm) are precisely positioned on the DNA origami surface as source, drain, and gate electrodes, with the distance between the source and drain electrodes smaller than 10 nm. As reported on page 3567 by Q. Wang and co-workers, a gold nanoparticle (4.5 nm) can be located in the center of the source and drain electrodes as Coulomb island. This delicate nanostructure cannot be achieved using state-of-art nanofabrication techniques.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Small 21/2013)

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370130

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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      Contents: (Small 21/2013) (pages 3547–3552)

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370131

  6. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
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      Antimicrobial Resistance: Induced Adaptation of Bacillus sp. to Antimicrobial Nanosilver (Small 21/2013) (page 3553)

      Cindy Gunawan, Wey Yang Teoh, Christopher P. Marquis and Rose Amal

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370132

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      The near ubiquitously-occurring Bacillus sp. are found to adapt to the antimicrobial activity of nanosilver. Upon prolonged exposure to various levels of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, the bacteria develop stable resistance in the forms of nanosilver tolerance and enhanced extent of growth. As reported by W. Y. Teoh, R. Amal, and co-workers on page 3554, the induced adaptation results in ultimate domination of the nanosilverresistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver is continuously applied.

  7. Communications

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    1. Induced Adaptation of Bacillus sp. to Antimicrobial Nanosilver (pages 3554–3560)

      Cindy Gunawan, Wey Yang Teoh, Christopher P. Marquis and Rose Amal

      Version of Record online: 29 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300761

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      The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied.

    2. Nanohinge-Induced Plasticity of Helical Carbon Nanotubes (pages 3561–3566)

      Jianyang Wu, Shijo Nagao, Jianying He and Zhiliang Zhang

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202830

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      Helical carbon nanotubes with intentionally incorporated non-hexagonal defects have unexpectedly high toughness and plasticity, in addition to the well-recognized extreme elasticity. The obtained toughness approaches 5000 J g−1 with decreasing spring radius. The high toughness originates from the plastic nanohinge formation as a result of distributed partial fractures. A strong spring size effect, contradictory to the continuum solution, is precisely described by an atomistic bond-breaking model.

    3. DNA Origami Directed Large-Scale Fabrication of Nanostructures Resembling Room Temperature Single-Electron Transistors (pages 3567–3571)

      Zhong Chen, Xiang Lan and Qiangbin Wang

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300640

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      Room temperature single-electron transistor core nanostructures are fabricated on a large scale with DNA origami as a template with an unprecedented yield. The accuracy of DNA origami enables precise positioning of a Coulomb island in the center of a 10 nm gap between the source and the drain electrodes, which can not be realized by using state-of-the-art nanofabrication techniques.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
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      Hydrogels: Advanced Subcompartmentalized Microreactors: Polymer Hydrogel Carriers Encapsulating Polymer Capsules and Liposomes (Small 21/2013) (page 3572)

      Leticia Hosta-Rigau, Olga Shimoni, Brigitte Städler and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201370133

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      A microreactor containing subcompartments of two different compositions, such as polymer hydrogel capsules and liposomes, is presented by F. Caruso and co-workers on page 3573 as an artificial cell mimic or therapeutic delivery system. Control over the spatial positioning of the both components within the microreactor, together with selective and spatially-dependent degradation of subcompartments, is achieved. The functionality of enzyme loaded within the liposomal compartments is preserved, as demonstrated by in situ enzymatic reactions.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Frontispiece
    8. Communications
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Advanced Subcompartmentalized Microreactors: Polymer Hydrogel Carriers Encapsulating Polymer Capsules and Liposomes (pages 3573–3583)

      Leticia Hosta-Rigau, Olga Shimoni, Brigitte Städler and Frank Caruso

      Version of Record online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300125

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      The assembly of a polymer capsule microreactor containing subcompartments of different composition, polymeric capsules and liposomes, is reported. Control over the position of the subcompartments is demonstrated, the polymeric subunits are selectively degraded, and cargo functionality is preserved within the liposomal subunits, as demonstrated through enzymatic reactions.

    2. Diameter and Density Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Forests by Modulating Ostwald Ripening through Decoupling the Catalyst Formation and Growth Processes (pages 3584–3592)

      Shunsuke Sakurai, Masayasu Inaguma, Don N. Futaba, Motoo Yumura and Kenji Hata

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300223

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      A continuous and wide range control of the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) forests is demonstrated by decoupling the catalyst formation and SWNT growth processes. The diameter and density are inversely correlated, where low/high density forests would consist of large/small diameter SWNTs, which is proposed as a general rule. The model for the catalyst formation process shows that the dominant mechanism is Ostwald ripening.

    3. Graphene Nanomesh Promises Extremely Efficient In Vivo Photothermal Therapy (pages 3593–3601)

      Omid Akhavan and Elham Ghaderi

      Version of Record online: 26 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203106

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      Reduced graphene oxide nanomesh (rGONM) functionalized by polyethylene glycol (PEG), arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD)-based peptide, and cyanine 7 (Cy7) is utilized for in vivo tumor targeting and fluorescence imaging of human glioblastoma tumors in mice. Simultaneous application of an ultralow concentration of injected rGO-based composite and an ultralow near-infrared (NIR) laser power provide tumor ablation with 100% efficiency.

    4. Perforated Bicontinuous Cubic Phases with pH-Responsive Topological Channel Interconnectivity (pages 3602–3609)

      Alexandru Zabara, Renata Negrini, Ozana Onaca-Fischer and Raffaele Mezzenga

      Version of Record online: 16 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300348

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      The presence of OmpF membrane proteins at the bilayers of a bicontinuous cubic phase provides unique topological interconnectivities among the two distinct sets of water channels, enabling molecular active gating between them. This newly designed perforated cubic phase attains transport properties well beyond those of the standard mesophase, allowing faster, sustained release of bioactive target molecules.

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      Ammonium and Guanidinium Dendron–Carbon Nanotubes by Amidation and Click Chemistry and their Use for siRNA Delivery (pages 3610–3619)

      Alessia Battigelli, Julie Tzu-Wen Wang, Julie Russier, Tatiana Da Ros, Kostas Kostarelos, Khuloud T. Al-Jamal, Maurizio Prato and Alberto Bianco

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300264

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      Carbon nanotubes functionalized by amidation or click chemistry with dendrons of different generations possessing ammonium or guanidinium groups are synthesized and complexed to siRNA. The assessment of the cell uptake capacity, the low cytotoxicity, and the ability of these cationic conjugates to silence genes shows them to be promising carriers for genetic material.

    6. Fabrication of Highly Stretchable Conductors via Morphological Control of Carbon Nanotube Network (pages 3620–3629)

      Lin Lin, Siyao Liu, Sirui Fu, Shuangmei Zhang, Hua Deng and Qiang Fu

      Version of Record online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202306

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      High-performance, stretchable conductors can be fabricated through a simple and efficient method using a combination of pre-straining and subsequent thermal annealing. It is observed that straining can induce orientation and relaxation, and that annealing can trigger bulking of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Through such procedures, conductive polymer composites based on elastomers containing 20 wt% MWNTs can achieve a conductivity of 1000 S m–1 and a strechability of 200%.

    7. Detection of Single DNA Molecule Hybridization on a Surface by Atomic Force Microscopy (pages 3630–3638)

      David Pastré, Vandana Joshi, Patrick A. Curmi and Loic Hamon

      Version of Record online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300546

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      Hybridization between complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules loosely adsorbed on a mica surface is achieved by fine-tuning the composition of the hybridization buffer. The detection of single-molecule DNA hybridization events is performed by measuring the contour length of DNA in atomic force microscopy images.

    8. Membrane Perturbation by Carbon Nanotube Insertion: Pathways to Internalization (pages 3639–3646)

      Mickaël Lelimousin and Mark S. P. Sansom

      Version of Record online: 18 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202640

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      Insertion of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into lipid membranes is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The size and type of CNT determines the bilayer perturbation. Single-walled CNTs insert via a two-step mechanism with formation of a transient water pore followed by a persistent inverted micelle. The latter stage suggests a possible mode of drug encapsulation for delivery into cells.

    9. Acid Active Receptor-Specific Peptide Ligand for In Vivo Tumor-Targeted Delivery (pages 3647–3658)

      Liang Han, Yubo Guo, Haojun Ma, Xi He, Yuyang Kuang, Ning Zhang, Ed Lim, Wenjiang Zhou and Chen Jiang

      Version of Record online: 5 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300279

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      To reduce or even avoid the uptake of receptor-mediated transport systems by healthy cells due to expression of receptors on normal cells, and to keep the tumor-targeting delivery efficiency, emphasis is placed on combining other tumor properties with overexpressed receptors. The design of nanoparticles (NPs) that bind with receptors only after entering the tumor acidic environment is considered. In neutral conditions, targeting ligands are shielded and internalization is not induced.

    10. Liposomal Encapsulation of a Near-Infrared Fluorophore Enhances Fluorescence Quenching and Reliable Whole Body Optical Imaging Upon Activation In Vivo (pages 3659–3669)

      Felista L. Tansi, Ronny Rüger, Markus Rabenhold, Frank Steiniger, Alfred Fahr, Werner A. Kaiser and Ingrid Hilger

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203211

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      Liposomes encapsulated with high concentrations of a near IR fluorescent dye reveal high fluorescence quenching. These non-targeted PEGylated fluorescence-activatable liposomes lead to the release of the dye and an increase in fluorescence. In zymosan-induced edema models, the liposomes are taken up by monocytes and macrophages, which migrate to the sites of inflammation and, upon activation, enhance prolonged and reliable in vivo near IR fluorescence imaging.

    11. High-Performance Vertical Organic Transistors (pages 3670–3677)

      Hans Kleemann, Alrun A. Günther, Karl Leo and Björn Lüssem

      Version of Record online: 2 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202321

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      A novel architecture for high performance vertical organic transistors is presented. Using C60 and pentacene, an n- and p-type transistor operation in these devices possessing a channel length of <100 μm is obtained. High transconductance values combined with the advantage of photolithographic integration will allow them to surpass the performance restrictions of planar transistor concepts.

    12. Photosensitizer–Gold Nanorod Composite for Targeted Multimodal Therapy (pages 3678–3684)

      Jian Wang, Mingxu You, Guizhi Zhu, Mohammed Ibrahim Shukoor, Zhuo Chen, Zilong Zhao, Meghan B. Altman, Quan Yuan, Zhi Zhu, Yan Chen, Cheng Zhi Huang and Weihong Tan

      Version of Record online: 10 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202155

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      A DNA inter-strand replacement strategy for therapeutic activity is successfully designed for multimodal therapy. Chlorin e6 (Ce6) photosensitizer molecules are used for photodynamic therapy, while aptamer-AuNRs, are used for selective binding to target cancer cells and for photothermal therapy with near infrared laser irradiation. The design was effective in killing target CEM cells, without harming non-target Ramos cells.

    13. Real-Time Activity Bioassay of Single Osteoclasts Using a Silicon Nanocrystal-Impregnated Artificial Matrix (pages 3685–3692)

      Naif H. Alsharif, Said A. Farha Al-Said, Mark A. Birch, Benjamin R. Horrocks and Harish K. Datta

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201203184

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      Osteoclasts are the cells which resorb bone and are important in disease states such as osteoporosis. A real-time assay for the activty of single osteoclasts is presented. The assay utilizes luminescent silicon quantum dots in a hydroxyapatite matrix; resorption of the matrix by the cell releases the dots, which are rapidly internalized and detected by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    14. Graphene-Like MoS2/Graphene Composites: Cationic Surfactant-Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis and Electrochemical Reversible Storage of Lithium (pages 3693–3703)

      Guochuang Huang, Tao Chen, Weixiang Chen, Zhen Wang, Kun Chang, Lin Ma, Feihe Huang, Dongyun Chen and Jim Yang Lee

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300415

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      Graphene-like (GL-) MoS2/graphene composites are prepared by a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted hydrothermal process and following heat treatment. In the case of 0.01–0.02 mol L−1 CTAB, the GL-MoS2 in the composites displays a few-layer structure with an interlayer spacing of 0.63–0.64 nm and the composites exhibit a high capacity of 940–1020 mAh g−1 with excellent cycle stability and high-rate capability for electrochemically reversible Li+ storage.

    15. Transdermal Delivery Devices: Fabrication, Mechanics and Drug Release from Silk (pages 3704–3713)

      Waseem K. Raja, Scott MacCorkle, Izzuddin M. Diwan, Abdurrahman Abdurrob, Jessica Lu, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto and David L. Kaplan

      Version of Record online: 8 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201202075

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      Silk is micromolded to form a high aspect ratio biomedical device for transdermal drug delivery. The device is fabricated under ambient conditions from aqueous silk solution with the ability to deliver drug into human cadaver skin. The drug release kinetics and mechanical strength of the device can be tailored for specific applications.

    16. Intertwined Nanocarbon and Manganese Oxide Hybrid Foam for High-Energy Supercapacitors (pages 3714–3721)

      Wei Wang, Shirui Guo, Krassimir N. Bozhilov, Dong Yan, Mihrimah Ozkan and Cengiz S. Ozkan

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300326

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      An intertwined nanocarbon and manganese oxide hybrid foam is synthesized via coating MnO2 nanowires onto a graphene-carbon nanotube foam (GM foam). The resulting nanoarchitecture is a monographical graphene foam conformally covered with an intertwined, densely packed nanotube/MnO2 nanocomposite network (GMM foam). Symmetrical electrochemical capacitors based on GMM foam electrodes indicate exceptional electrochemical performance with an extended operational voltage window of 1.6 V, a high specific capacitance of 1108.79 F g−1 and a power density of 799.84 kW kg−1.

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