This paper presents two case studies that cover the re-engineering and further evolution of adopting service-oriented architecture (SOA) in the industry. The goal of both case studies is to identify the benefits and drawbacks of realizing SOA in large organizations. This is done to obtain a better perspective on the real, rather than the assumed, benefits of SOA in practice. Based on these findings and the lessons learned, directions for further research are proposed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.