Prostate cancer represents the most common nonskin malignancy encountered in men, and the excellent long-term survival achieved in the majority of patients has allowed more attention to be given to the side effects associated with its treatment. Erectile function is one of the main concerns of patients when considering treatment options for prostate cancer. Not surprisingly, post-treatment sexual function is closely related to outcome satisfaction and has long-lasting effects on quality of life. Radical prostatectomy is currently the most commonly employed therapy for prostate cancer. Conflicting rates of erectile dysfunction have been reported after surgery, owing not only to different surgical techniques but also because of dissimilar patient populations and definitions. Providing accurate information to individual patients in regards to their chances of recuperating the ability to have intercourse after treatment is important not only because it allows patients to make informed decisions but also because it has the potential to reduce treatment dissatisfaction. This article mainly focuses on discussing predictors of erectile function after radical prostatectomy. Patient factors, surgical aspects, including comparisons between open, laparoscopic, and robotic approaches, and postoperative management issues that impact sexual outcomes are evaluated. Prediction models combining multiple factors are described. The definition and chronology of erectile function recovery and impact of sexual function on quality of life after surgery are also discussed. Teloken PE and Mulhall JP. Erectile function following prostate cancer treatment: Factors predicting recovery. Sex Med Rev 2013;1:91–103.