This paper surveys the research on power management techniques for high-performance systems. These include both commercial high-performance clusters and scientific high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Power consumption has rapidly risen to an intolerable scale. This results in both high operating costs and high failure rates so it is now a major cause for concern. It has imposed new challenges to the development of high-performance systems. In this paper, we first review the basic mechanisms that underlie power management techniques. Then we survey two fundamental techniques for power management: metrics and profiling. After that, we review the research for the two major types of high-performance systems: commercial clusters and supercomputers. Based on this, we discuss the new opportunities and problems presented by the recent adoption of virtualization techniques, and again we present the most recent research on this. Finally, we summarize and discuss the future research directions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.