• drain sink;
  • fluid flow;
  • ladle;
  • numerical simulation;
  • pilot-plant experiment;
  • teeming


The ladle teeming process was investigated by 2D axis-symmetrical mathematical models and a pilot-plant experiment. Different turbulence models, including the low Reynolds number kε model and the realizable kε model both with an enhanced wall treatment (EWT) and a standard wall function (SWF), were used to simulate this process. All of these turbulence model predictions generally agreed well with the experimental results. The velocity distributions in the nozzle were also predicted by these turbulence models. At the late stage of the teeming process, the drain sink flow phenomenon was studied. The combination of an inclined ladle bottom and a gradually expanding nozzle was found to be an effective way to alleviate a drain sink flow.