• process metallurgy;
  • steelmaking & casting

Demands for the infrastructure and transportation in the world keep increasing with matching production of steels of higher strength and better ductility. They are produced largely with BF-BOF/EAF-LF/RH-CC systems as the main stay. Optimization of the system is mandatory to stably maximize premium yield of steels at higher productivity, while keeping the CO2 emission, waste evolution, raw material/energy consumption, and production cost at their minimum. Problems inherent to the unit processes involved are addressed. Integration of the processes into an optimized system is discussed with emphasis placed on hot metal pretreatment, productivity, and process versus quality issues for the sustainable near future of steel industry.