• inclusion composition;
  • inclusion control;
  • ladle treatment;
  • process simulation model

Steel cleanliness strongly affects the properties of the products. There is an ever increasing requirement of strict control of inclusion composition and amount during ladle treatment. A comprehensive model for inclusion development in gas stirred ladles developed by the authors is validated in the industrial ladle treatment processes. It can be used for the process simulation and optimization. The important factors, like stirring intensity, reaction between steel and slag as well as refractory material, and the conditions needed for separation and floatation of non-metallic inclusions are taken into account. FactSage and SimuSage packages are employed as the thermodynamics database and simulation tools, respectively. The evolution of steel and slag composition along with the amount and composition of inclusions during the ladle treatment are calculated and compared with results from the industrial process. The comparison between model predictions and actual plant data shows good agreement as well for 210 t heats as for 30 t heats and different steel grades. The present model is a useful tool for simulation and optimization of ladle metallurgical treatments in industry.