Online Visualization during Open Die Forging and Optimization of Pass Schedules**


  • This paper is based on a presentation at the 28the ASK Umformtechnik symposium on 7th and 8th March 2013 in Aachen, Germany.


By using fast calculation models, the equivalent strain, temperature, and average austenitic grain size in the center of an ingot can be determined. When used in an online process monitor by coupling with a measuring system, these models are fast enough to visualize the current state of an ingot during forging. Based on a model forging process, the use of the program is demonstrated. Comparing results from metallography of the forged billet with the calculated grain size, a good agreement could be achieved (deviation of 6–24%). Even before the forging process, the presented automatic pass schedule optimization can be applied. Through this, a process could be optimized concerning a high homogeneous equivalent strain and a low number of strokes. As result of the optimization, an increasing grain size and temperature could be observed. Thus it could be useful to change other process parameters, like lowering the furnace temperature.