steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 83 Issue 4

April 2012

Volume 83, Issue 4

Pages 301–403

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Full Papers
    1. steel research int. 4/2012

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201290006

      Cover Photo: The cover represents magnifications of the stress-strain curve at 9_10_5 s_1 at different strain levels. Further details can be found in the article by Pascal J. Jacques on page 385

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Full Papers
    1. steel research int. 4/2012 (pages 301–305)

      Version of Record online: 4 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201290007

  3. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Full Papers
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editorial (page 306)

      Prof. Young-Kook Lee

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200020

  4. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Editorial
    5. Full Papers
    1. Mechanical Properties of (20–30)Mn12Cr(0.56–0.7)CN Corrosion Resistant Austenitic TWIP Steels (pages 307–314)

      Lais Mújica Roncery, Sebastian Weber and Werner Theisen

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100316

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      New Fe–Cr–Mn–C–N TWIP steels developed from thermodynamic calculations exhibit great mechanical properties, such as high strength (1800 MPa UTS), deformability (80–100% elongation), toughness (300 J ISO-V), high impact wear resistance, and corrosion resistance by passivation in aqueous acidic media. This work examines the microstructure, stacking fault energy, and dynamic strain aging to understand the tensile behavior and toughness of these materials.

    2. Work Hardening Behavior of Ultrafine Grained Duplex Medium-Mn Steels Processed by ART-Annealing (pages 316–321)

      Rongmin Sun, Wenhuan Xu, Cunyu Wang, Jie Shi, Han Dong and Wenquan Cao

      Version of Record online: 16 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100317

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      The ultrafine grained duplex steels were fabricated by austenite reverted transformation annealing of the medium manganese steels after quenching or cold rolling. During ART-annealing process, both the quenched and cold rolled structures transformed into ultrafine grained duplex structures with large fractioned austenite. So, the ultrafine grained austenite–ferrite duplex Mn-TRIP steels have an excellent combination of strength and ductility.

    3. Quenching and Partitioning of CMnSi Steels Containing Elevated Manganese Levels (pages 322–327)

      Emmanuel De Moor, John G. Speer, David K. Matlock, Jai-Hyun Kwak and Seung-Bok Lee

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100318

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      Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) is receiving increased attention as a potential processing route to develop “Third Generation” advanced high strength steel (AHSS) properties. The Q&P response of laboratory-processed CMnSi alloys with 3 or 5 wt% manganese is investigated. Attractive properties were generated with tensile strength/total elongation combinations such as 1500 MPa and 17%.

    4. Flow Stress and Critical Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior of Cu–Fe16Mn0.6C High Manganese TWIP Steel (pages 328–333)

      Liang Gaofei, Lin Changqing and Fang Yuan

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100319

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      The true stress–strain curve of Cu–Fe16Mn0.6C TWIP steel was studied with a compression test on Thermecmastor-Z thermal simulator at a temperature range of 850–1150°C and strain rate range of 0.03–30 s−1. The influence of deformation temperature and strain rate on high-temperature flow stress and critical recrystallization behavior of the TWIP steel was investigated.

    5. Effect of V on Hot Deformation Characteristics of TWIP Steels (pages 334–339)

      Francisco Reyes, Jessica Calvo, José María Cabrera and Ignacio Mejía

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100320

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      Twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steels exhibit a good combination of tensile strength and ductility. However, due to the high amounts of Mn and/or other alloying and microalloying elements, TWIP steels are difficult to hot work. In this work, the effect of the temperature and strain rate, on the flow strength and recrystallization characteristics is evaluated for a plane and a V-microalloyed TWIP steel.

    6. Flow Curve and Failure Modeling for High-Mn Steels on a Microstructural Scale (pages 340–345)

      Raphael Twardowski, David Steinmetz and Ulrich Prahl

      Version of Record online: 25 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100321

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      In the present work a microstructural model based on representative volume elements (RVE) is proposed for high-manganese steels with TWIP effect. The polycrystalline structure is generated by spatial discretization of the RVE in three-dimensional Voronoi tessellations. For the hardening behavior a constitutive material model is used based on the evolution of dislocation and twin density.

    7. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure Evolution During Deformation of Fe–Mn–C TWIP Steel (pages 346–351)

      Mi Zhenli, Tang Di, Zhao Aimin and Jiang Haitao

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100322

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      The true stress–strain curve from tension tests exhibited repeated serrations and its strain-hardening rate is constantly changing. Twin-related PLC effect exists in the Fe–Mn–C TWIP steel, because there were different deformation mechanisms at different deformation stages. Twins firstly appeared in the high strain areas during tensile deformation process, and twin boundaries blocked dislocation slip, which lead to piling up of dislocations.

    8. Weldability Evaluation and Microstructure Analysis of Resistance-Spot-Welded High-Mn Steel in Automotive Application (pages 352–357)

      Dulal Chandra Saha, Sangho Han, Kwang Geun Chin, Ildong Choi and Yeong-Do Park

      Version of Record online: 15 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100324

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      This manuscript describes the spot weldability of high-Mn steel. The fusion zone is containing dendritic and interdendritic microstructure, and lower hardness values. The welded structure is highly susceptible to liquation cracking in sheet direction, cracking tendency increased with weld current. And liquation cracks have insignificant effect on weld strength in static cross-tensile test.

    9. Enhancement of Pearlite Nucleation by Deformation of Austenite Matrix in an Fe–12Mn–0.8C Alloy (pages 358–362)

      Tadashi Furuhara, Naritoshi Kimura and Tadashi Maki

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100305

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      The effect of plastic deformation of austenite on the nucleation of pearlite was investigated in an high-manganese, high-carbon steel. Slight warm deformation of austenite promotes the intragranular nucleation of pearlite at annealing twins and inclusions. Slight cold rolling of austenite results in formation of deformation twins of which intersections are preferential nucleation sites in subsequent pearlite transformation.

    10. Study of the Combined TWIP/TRIP Effect in a High Mn Steel During Cold Rolling (pages 363–367)

      Kirk Anguah Ofei, Lie Zhao and Jilt Sietsma

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100306

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      A combined TWIP/TRIP effect has been observed in a cold rolled high Mn steel. Magnetic measurements show increasing ferromagnetic behaviour with equivalent strain during cold rolling. A strong texture is developed during cold rolling and the phase transformation has been related to changes occurring in the texture components as well as to the profiles of XRD peaks at different strain levels.

    11. Orientation Dependence of Martensitic Transformation in High Mn TRIP/TWIP Steels (pages 368–373)

      Ping Yang, Tong-Yan Liu, Fa-Yun Lu and Li Meng

      Version of Record online: 13 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100307

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      Orientation dependence was shown using EBSD technique to influence the transformation kinetics, variant selection, the sizes, and orientations of new grains in high manganese TRIP steels. This phenomenon is ascribed to the influence of Schmid factor and strain accommodation in different deformation conditions. Thus deformation can be used to acquire a totally different structure to that of thermally induced martensite.

    12. Effect of Grain Size and Grain Orientation on Dislocations Structure in Tensile Strained TWIP Steel During Initial Stages of Deformation (pages 374–378)

      Ghasem Dini and Rintaro Ueji

      Version of Record online: 19 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100308

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      During past decade, the mechanical properties and microstructural evolutions of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steels have been investigated in detail. However, there are some unclear concepts or unanswered questions on the work hardening behavior of TWIP steel, especially at the initial stages of deformation. So, in this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been utilized to answer to some of these questions.

    13. In Situ Characterization of Deformation Behavior of Austenitic High Manganese Steels (pages 379–384)

      Sascha Hoffmann, Wolfgang Bleck and Banu Berme

      Version of Record online: 27 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100311

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      “The mechanical properties of high manganese steels are linked to their hardening mechanisms and their intrinsic behavior during deformation. The characterization of mechanical properties is influenced by the localization of plastic flow and the effect of this localization on the material. Depending on grain size, temperature, and extrinsic strain rate localization of strain, adiabatic heating, and hardening vary in spatial and temporal extent.”

    14. Multiscale Characterization of the Work Hardening Mechanisms in Fe–Mn Based TWIP Steels (pages 385–390)

      Krystel Renard, Hosni Idrissi, Dominique Schryvers and Pascal J. Jacques

      Version of Record online: 22 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100312

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      The Fe–20 wt%Mn–1.2 wt%C and Fe–28 wt%Mn–3.5 wt%Al–2.8 wt%Si TWIP steels were investigated in tension and show marked differences in mechanical behavior. The Fe–Mn–C grade exhibits the best properties, together with a Portevin–Le Châtelier effect. Supplementary hardening could come from this effect. Furthermore, TEM analyses show that twins in the Fe–Mn–C steel are thinner and without dislocation activity, which could lead to a composite effect and increase the work hardening.

    15. Selective Oxidation of TWIP Steel During Continuous Annealing (pages 391–397)

      Lawrence Cho and Bruno C. De Cooman

      Version of Record online: 15 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100296

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      Oxides formed in TWIP steel during annealing are investigated using HR-TEM. The results indicate that MnO formation during recrystallization annealing of TWIP steel may best be addressed by flash coating pre-deposition or by using of gas atmospheres with extremely low dew points.

    16. Oxidation of Fe–18%Mn–0.6%C Steels in Air and a N2–CO2–O2 Mixed Gas Atmosphere at 1273–1473 K (pages 398–403)

      Dong Bok Lee and Il-Ryong Sohn

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100323

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      The austenitic Fe–18 wt% Mn–0.6 wt% C steel was oxidized at 1273–1473 K for up to 2 h in air or in an 85%N2–10%CO2–5%O2 gas mixture. The structure and morphology of the formed oxide scales were almost the same. The oxides formed were Fe2O3, FeO, and MnFe2O4. In the subscale, Mn-rich internal oxide precipitates formed locally.