steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 84 Issue 10

October 2013

Volume 84, Issue 10

Pages 929–1065

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Full Papers
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      steel research int. 10/2013 (page 929)

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201370101

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      Cover Caption:

      The cover shows a top view of burden distribution in experiment and simulation for the eight pellet rings of the program described in the manuscript by Yaowei Yu and Henrik Saxén on page 1018

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    2. Cover Picture
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    1. steel research int. 10/2013 (page 930)

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201370102

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
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    1. steel research int. 10/2013 (pages 931–934)

      Article first published online: 4 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201370103

  4. Review

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    1. Driving Force and Logic of Development of Advanced High Strength Steels for Automotive Applications (pages 937–947)

      Olivier Bouaziz, Hatem Zurob and Mingxin Huang

      Article first published online: 11 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200288

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      The development of Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) began with the aim of improving passenger safety and weight-saving. The image shows the automative parts (in red) that are made of AHSS.

  5. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Review
    6. Full Papers
    1. Function Representation for the Strain Field during the Steel Forging and Its Application on the Deformation of Void Defects (pages 948–955)

      Kun Chen, Kejia Liu, Huifen Chen and Yitao Yang

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200272

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      A novel method for description of the strain field distributions during the steel forging is proposed in the present study, i.e., the function representation for the strain field, which combined experimental analysis and mathematical function analysis, as shown in the figure. Then the method is applied to calculate the deformation of internal void defects and to predict its closure during the practical process.fx1

    2. Advanced Methods for Assessing the Melt-Specific Creep Rupture Behavior of P91 Steel for Power Plants (pages 956–965)

      Olga Frolova and Karl Maile

      Article first published online: 3 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200273

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      The emphasis of this study is to determinate the position of the specific melts in the scatter band of creep rupture data as well as to assess/predict time-to-rupture for the given steel under consideration of all relevant technical data available and to find out an optimum of the creep rupture strength.fx1

    3. Effect of Inclusions and Precipitates on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Mn-Alloyed Austenitic Stainless Steels (pages 966–974)

      Heikki Pulkkinen, Suvi Papula, Olga Todoshchenko, Juho Talonen and Hannu Hänninen

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200305

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      Inclusions and precipitates in Mn-alloyed austenitic stainless steels are characterized and their effect on hydrogen trapping examined with thermal desorption spectroscopy. In an experimental Nb-alloyed stainless steel large number of small precipitates (e.g., NbC, MbN, Nb(C,N)) exist, but they have no beneficial effect on resistance against delayed cracking. Modifications for the manufacturing process are suggested to obtain better hydrogen trapping properties.

    4. XRD In Situ Observation of Carbothermic Reduction of Magnetite Powder in Microwave Electric and Magnetic Fields (pages 975–981)

      Nils Sabelström, Miyuki Hayashi, Yuki Yokoyama, Takashi Watanabe and Kazuhiro Nagata

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200307

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      Microwave energy is expected to be a heat source for high temperature process aiming at CO2 reduction and energy conservation owing to the possibility of volumetric and selective heating. In order to examine the applicability of microwave heating to ironmaking, a basic research was conducted with respect to the heating mechanism of raw and product materials of ironmaking as well as the carbothermic reduction mechanism of iron oxide using a single mode microwave furnace combined with X-ray diffraction analysis.

    5. Avoidance of Calibrating Errors with Viscosity Measurements of Metallurgical Slags (pages 982–990)

      Hans-Peter Heller, Michael Hötzel, Bernd Lychatz and Nicole Haustein

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200276

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      Based on known calibration problems with high-temperature measurements, the viscosity was calculated directly without calibration. This is possible with an air-bearing rheometer and exact absolute torque measurement via the electrical parameters of the drive and via movement parameters and geometry. This technique meets the desired requirements in view of measuring accuracy and reproducibility.fx1

    6. Optimization in Rolling and Cooling Process of Line Pipe Steels (pages 991–998)

      Pradeep Agarwal, Rameshwar Sah, Raj Gopalan Madhusudhan, Sambandam Manjini and Ashish Chandra

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200274

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      Optimized microstructure and mechanical properties are the key requirements for line pipe steels. The validation of phase transformation in line pipe steel bases on plant based trials. Variable rolling parameters effect on the final mechanical properties of steel.fx1

    7. A Mathematical Model of the Solid Flow Behavior in a Real Dimension Blast Furnace: Effects of the Solid Volume Fraction on the Velocity Profile (pages 999–1010)

      Reza Safavi Nick, Anders Tilliander, Lage T. I. Jonsson and Pär G. Jönsson

      Article first published online: 12 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200283

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      It is shown that the particle velocity increases in the upper part of the furnace up to the tuyeres level with a decrease in the packing density from 0.74 to 0.71 and 0.68 while all other parameters were keptconstant. The shrinkage in the size of the particles is not applied to the model. However it is plausible to say that an increase in the packing density of the bed decreases the velocity magnitude. This, in turn, increases the resident time of the particles.fx1

    8. Temperature Distribution of Electroslag Casting with Liquid Metal Using Current Conductive Ring (pages 1011–1017)

      Yanwu Dong, Zhouhua Jiang, Lev Medovar, Ganna Stovpchenko, Xinfa Zhang, Ximin Zang and Xin Deng

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300041

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      In this work, electroslag casting process with liquid metal (ESC LM) using current conductive ring has been developed. Liquid metal after refining is introduced into the mold directly. Simulation has been carried out for understanding the process. Results of industrial trial indicate that Ingot quality manufactured by ESC LM process is equivalent to the conventional electroslag ingot. The production efficiency of ESC LM process is obvious higher than conventional electroslag remelting operation.

    9. Particle Flow and Behavior at Bell-Less Charging of the Blast Furnace (pages 1018–1033)

      Yaowei Yu and Henrik Saxén

      Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300028

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      The formation of pellet and coke dumps in the blast furnace is studied in small-scale experiments and by discrete element modeling (DEM). The experimental setup is reproduced in the simulations, which makes it possible to compare and verify the DEM results. The distribution of the burden layers, the behavior of single particles on the burden surface and the size segregation of pellets are investigated. It is demonstrated that the modeling technique can capture the general behavior of the charging process as particles flow on and from the rotating chute to form rings on the burden surface.

    10. Effects of Cold Deformation and Aging Process on Precipitation Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Fe–18Cr–18Mn–0.63N High-Nitrogen Austenitic Stainless Steel (pages 1034–1039)

      Shi Feng, Li XiaoWu, Qi Yang and Liu ChunMing

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300086

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      The effects of different treatments (solid solution + cold deformation + aging condition) on the microstructure of Fe–18Cr–18Mn–0.63N high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel and consequently on its mechanical properties are investigated. The results show that precipitation of the second phase particles, the strain recovery, and recrystallization under different treatment conditions bring about different mechanical properties in the experimental steel.

    11. Work Hardening Response of Transformation-Induced Plasticity and Dual-Phase Steels to Prestrain (pages 1040–1045)

      Hai-Yan Yu and Chen-Chen Ai

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200343

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      The work hardening behavior of TRIP780 and DP590 steels were discussed. Results showed that DP steel had higher work hardening rate than TRIP steel at small prestrain and the trend was reverse when prestrain was larger than 2.5%. The max elastic modulus degradation could reach 18 and 10% for TRIP780 and DP590 steels, respectively.

    12. A Calorimetric Study of Recovery and Recrystallization in Fe–14.4 Cr–15.4 Ni–2.4 Mo–2.36 Mn–0.25 Ti–0.04 C–0.05 P (mass %) Austenitic Stainless Steel (pages 1046–1059)

      Haraprasanna Tripathy, Subramaniam Raju, Arun Kumar Rai and Tamanna Jayakumar

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300002

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      Thermally activated dissipation of stored energy and resulting microstructural reorganization of a Ti-added steel have been monitored by dynamic calorimetry. The studies revealed that the kinetics of stored energy release and resulting structure formation is basically a dispersive one, involving more than one relaxation time. However, it is possible to isolate the energy barriers for recovery and recrystallization stages by modeling the rate of energy dissipation through isokinetic formalism of thermally activated rate processes.

    13. Influence of Co and Al on Bainitic Transformation in Super Bainitic Steels (pages 1060–1065)

      Feng Hu, Kai-Ming Wu and Hua Zheng

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200334

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      The mixed microstructures of nano-sized bainitic ferrite plate (≈33 nm) and retained austenite is obtained by isothermal transformation at low temperatures. The thickness of bainitic ferrite is reduced and the volume fraction of bainitic microstructure is increased in the Co and Al containing steel compared with the parent steel.

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