steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 84 Issue 2

February 2013

Volume 84, Issue 2

Pages 107–197

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      steel research int. 2/2013

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201390002

      Cover Photo: The Cover shows single Snorkel Refining Furnace at No. 2 Steelmaking Shop in TISCO. More details can be found in the manuscript Jiang et.al.

  2. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    1. steel research int. 2/2013 (pages 107–110)

      Article first published online: 1 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201390003

  3. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Contents
    4. Full Papers
    1. Effect of Coating MgO on Sticking Behavior during Reduction of Iron Ore Concentrate Fines in Fluidized Bed (pages 111–118)

      Jianhua Shao, Zhancheng Guo and Huiqing Tang

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      If being coated with MgO, magnetite particles will not sticking each other when they are reduced to the same metallization rate in fluidized bed with CO–H2 mixtures as that of sticking particles without coating. Because coating MgO can not only decrease the chance of touch between metallic iron on the surface of different particles, but also provides the action time for carbon deposition and the production of Fe3C with low viscosity.

    2. High-Interstitial Stainless Austenitic Steel Castings (pages 119–128)

      Hans Berns, Nilofar Nabiran and Laís Mujica

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100332

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      Sand castings produced of steel GX25CrMnN18-18 with ∼0.6 mass% N reached a proof strength Rp0.2 = 457 MPa and a reduction of area Z = 60%. The resistance to pitting corrosion was better than that of steel X5CrNi18-10 and the resistance to impact wear equal to that of Hadfield manganese steel. An amorphous and nanocrystalline layer is formed in the wear surface.

    3. Controlling Nozzle Clogging by Secondary Steelmaking Without Reheating (pages 129–135)

      Bela Harcsik and Gyula Karoly

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200084

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      Ever since continuous casting was introduced, nozzle clogging has been a common casting disorder. If we want to reduce the rate of nozzle clogging we have to know the deposits on nozzles. In this article the authors analyzes the deposits and investigates their origin. The authors studies metallurgical solutions to reduce the deposits in nozzles without calcium treatment and reheating.

    4. Oxygen Activity Calculations of Molten Steel: Comparison With Measured Results (pages 136–145)

      Kamrooz Riyahimalayeri, Patrik Ölund and Malin Selleby

      Article first published online: 14 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200114

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      This study sets out to find some model/s that could calculate the closest oxygen activity of molten steel to the measured oxygen activity in an ASEA-SKF ladle furnace. It was concluded that increasing the wt% Al from 0 up to 0.05 in molten steel, increasing CaO/Al2O3 ratio in top slag, and reducing equilibrium temperature of slag-steel could contribute to reduction of oxygen activity of molten steel. The SEM observations revealed that the main types of observed non-metallic inclusions in these samples were spinels and calcium aluminates and by increasing the CaO content of the inclusions their equivalent circle diameters grew.

    5. Experimental Methodology for Obtaining the Flow Curve of Sheet Materials in a Wide Range of Strains (pages 146–154)

      Xincun Zhuang, Zhen Zhao, Hongye Li and Hua Xiang

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200104

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      An experimental methodology, by applying different degrees of cold working on the sheet material before tensile test, was proposed to obtain flow curve over large strain range, which was verified by compression test combined with inverse modeling. In addition, five commonly used extrapolation equations were estimated based on the results from above-mentioned methodology.

    6. In Situ Observation of Surface Electrochemical Activities of Lean Duplex Stainless Steel LDX 2101 (pages 155–162)

      Xuyan Li, Lifang Guo, Dong Han, Jin Li and Yiming Jiang

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200131

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      It is well known that the pitting corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steels (DSS) is determined by the weaker phase. In our present work, it can be controlled for pits to initiate in the weaker phase of the economic lean DSS LDX2101 using a potentiostatic pulse technique. Meanwhile, the detailed in situ pitting initiation information can be observed with a long working distance microscope.

    7. Surface Wave Based Ultrasonic Technique for Finding the Optimal Grinding Condition of High Speed Steel (HSS) Work Rolls (pages 163–168)

      Sarmishtha Palit Sagar, G. V. S. Murthy, Tarun Kumar Das, Amit Prakash, Uday Shankar Goel and T. Venugopalan

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200133

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      The high speed steel rolls have high hardness and good wear resistance at high temperature. This type of roll is used in finishing applications for increased campaign times and better surface finish. This paper describes the application of surface wave ultrasonic technique to detect fine surface cracks and to establish the optimal grinding condition for obtaining crack free roll surface. Implementation of this technique at the Hot Strip Mill of Tata Steel, India reduces the rate of roll failures drastically.

    8. Investigating the Effect of Slag on Decarburization in an AOD Converter Using a Fundamental Model (pages 169–177)

      Nils Å. I. Andersson, Anders Tilliander, Lage T. I. Jonsson and Pär G. Jönsson

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200143

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      The figure illustrates our distinction between different types of slags that exist in an AOD. The first stage of injection was simulated for different amounts of a rigid top slag (Figure 3b). Also, the separation of solid chromium oxide in steel to the liquid slag (Figure 3c) was included. It was found that a higher CRE value is theoretically achievable if the amount of top slag can be reduced. Also, the CRE maximum is delayed by the degree of chromium oxide separation to liquid slag.

    9. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 2.25Cr–1Mo Steel (pages 178–183)

      Wei Wang, Wengui Zhao and Jinbo Qu

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200130

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      After the normalizing and tempering, simulated post-welding heat treatment and step cooling, the carbide precipitates of the ferritic heat-resistant steel 2.25Cr–1Mo evolve from M3C to M7C3 and M23C6. The coarsening of carbides deteriorates impact toughness, and the morphology, crystal structure, and chemical composition of carbides are also important influencing factors.

    10. Isochronal Phase Transformations of Low-Carbon High Strength Low Alloy Steel upon Continuous Cooling (pages 184–191)

      Jie Huo, Yongchang Liu, Dantian Zhang, Zesheng Yan and Zhiming Gao

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201100277

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      Effects of cooling rates on transformation kinetics and microstructures of the low-carbon HSLA steels were investigated. Polygonal ferrite + pearlite, acicular ferrite, and bainitic ferrite transformed due to the cooling rates increasing from 5 to 3000°C min−1. Acicular ferrite was marked by high dislocation density and M/A islands embedment. Increasing cooling rate accelerates acicular ferrite transformation and refines the steel's matrix.

    11. Effect of Elliptical Snorkel on the Decarburization Rate in Single Snorkel Refining Furnace (pages 192–197)

      Qixuan Rui, Fang Jiang, Zhuang Ma, Zhimin You, Guoguang Cheng and Jian Zhang

      Article first published online: 9 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200182

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      For both the round and elliptical snorkels, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient kA/V first rises with the increase of L/R, and reaches the largest value when L/R is 0.5. After that, it decreases with the increase of L/R. These phenomena may be attributed to changes of mixing characteristics in the ladle.

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