steel research international

Cover image for Vol. 85 Issue 2

February 2014

Volume 85, Issue 2

Pages 125–281

  1. Cover Picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
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      Cover Picture: steel research int. 2/2014 (page 125)

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201470021

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Cover Caption: A mathematical model of a top blown converter, which was based on a physical model of a 30 t vessel, has been developed in this study as described by Xiaobin Zhou and co-workers on page 273. The cover shows the top view of the impinging jet from the simulation results.

  2. Masthead

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    1. Masthead: steel research int. 2/2014 (page 126)

      Version of Record online: 4 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201470022

  3. Contents

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
  4. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Masthead
    4. Contents
    5. Full Papers
    1. Kinetics of the Austenite-to-Ferrite Phase Transformation – Simulations and Experiments (pages 131–142)

      Ernst Gamsjäger, Robert E. Werner, Wolfgang Schiller and Bruno Buchmayr

      Version of Record online: 28 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200281

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      Sharp as well as thick interface models have been developed to describe austenite-to-ferrite transformation kinetics. This work confirms that diffusion processes in the interface (solute drag) and diffusion of interstitial components like carbon control the kinetics of the austenite-to-ferrite transformation in low-alloyed steels. The models are compared with and verified by the results of experimental investigations.

    2. Effect of Ni on the Stability of Retained Austenite and Mechanical Properties for TRIP Steels Containing Vanadium (pages 143–154)

      Naqiong Zhu, Qihao Wu, Yanlin He, Xiaogang Lu, Lin Li and Pengfei Hu

      Version of Record online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300098

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      Addition of Ni content inhibits the carbon diffusion during bainitic isothermal holding resulting in the bainite morphology consisting of laths of bainitc ferrite and film-type retained austenite with nearly equal width which increases the strength of TRIP steels. More volume fraction of film-type retained austenite greatly increases the stability of retained austenite without contribution to the total elongation.

    3. Control of Stringer Shaped Non-Metallic Inclusions of CaO–Al2O3 System in API X80 Linepipe Steel Plates (pages 155–163)

      Xinhua Wang, Xiugang Li, Qiang Li, Fuxiang Huang, Haibo Li and Jian Yang

      Version of Record online: 19 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300044

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      The characteristics, origin, and controlling method of stringer shaped B type non-metallic inclusions in pipeline steel are studied, their composition are mainly of CaO–Al2O3 system with lower melting temperatures. A new strategy for control of B type inclusions in linepipe steel plates is adopted, than the inclusions in steel plates were all of high melting temperature CaO–CaS system and the severities of B-type inclusions have been lowered from “≤2.0” to “0.”

    4. Determination of Activity Coefficients of Elements and Related Thermodynamic Properties of Fe[BOND]Si Binary Melts Based on the Atom–Molecule Coexistence Theory (pages 164–206)

      Xue-min Yang, Jin-yan Li, Peng-cheng Li, Meng Zhang and Jian Zhang

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200215

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      The Raoultian activity coefficient inline image of Si and inline image of Fe in the infinitely dilute solution of Fe–Si binary melts at temperatures of 1693, 1773, 1873, and 1973 K have been determined from the calculated mass action concentrations Ni of structural units in Fe–Si binary melts based on the atom and molecule coexistence theory (AMCT). The figure shows the accurate agreement between the calculated mass action concentration NSi of Si and the calculated activity inline image of Si referred to 1 mass percentage of Si as standard state in the full composition range of Fe–Si binary melts at temperatures of 1693, 1773, 1873, and 1973 K, respectively.

    5. Heat Transfer, Solidification, and Microstructural Evolution in Al[BOND]33Cu Alloy During the Starting of Twin Roll Strip Casting (pages 207–218)

      Seshadev Sahoo and Sudipto Ghosh

      Version of Record online: 10 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200262

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      Numerical simulations for high speed twin roll strip casting is carried out to estimate the time which is required for steady state condition to set in and solidification front speed during the transient stage. By using this model it is possible to determine the transient length of the cast strip which needs to be rejected during the starting process.

    6. Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithms and Genetic Programming Models for Minimizing Input Carbon Rates in a Blast Furnace Compared with a Conventional Analytic Approach (pages 219–232)

      Rajesh Jha, Prodip Kumar Sen and Nirupam Chakraborti

      Version of Record online: 3 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300074

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      Novel nature inspired strategies are used to construct models of Productivity, CO2 emission, and Si content of an operational Blast furnace and the optimum tradeoffs between the level of CO2 emission and productivity at different Si levels are computed and analyzed in detail. Also, comparisons are made with the results of a thermodynamic model and those from some commercial software.

    7. New Evaluation Methods Discussion of Softening–Melting and Dropping Characteristic of BF Iron Bearing Burden (pages 233–242)

      Shengli Wu, Biyang Tuo, Lihua Zhang, Kaiping Du and Ying Sun

      Version of Record online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300061

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      A high temperature characteristic evaluation method of BF iron bearing burden (IBD) has been put forward. It provides more information under the same experiment conditions. It evaluates high temperature behavior of IBD accurately through dividing into three temperature ranges. The permeability of charge column can be analyzed by pressure drop and characteristic value of cohesive zone and dropping zone.

    8. In Situ Observations of the Formation of Fine-Grained Mixed Microstructures of Acicular Ferrite and Bainite in the Simulated Coarse-Grained Heated-Affected Zone (pages 243–250)

      Xiangliang Wan, Kaiming Wu, Gang Huang and Ran Wei

      Version of Record online: 1 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200313

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      Single, multiple, and sympathetic nucleation of acicular ferrite are observed. Acicular ferrite laths or plates effectively partitioned austenite grains into many smaller and separated regions. The later formed bainite at lower temperature is confined in those smaller regions, thus resulting in the fine-grained mixed microstructures of acicular ferrite and fine bainite plate packets.

    9. Signal Processing of Virtual-Neutral to Ground Voltage for Power Control in Electric Arc Furnaces (pages 251–260)

      Fernando Martell, Klaus Krüger, Armando Llamas and Osvaldo Micheloud

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201200217

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      The time and frequency domain analysis of the voltage difference between a virtual-neutral, from the delta connected transformer, to the furnace shell ground voltage, showed relevant information of the heat process like arc stability, arc slag coverage, and electrical circuit imbalance. The proposed arc indexes can be considered as process variables to improve the power control of Electric Arc Furnaces.

    10. The Influence of Gangue and Additives on the Divalent Iron Content of Magnetite Pellets (pages 261–272)

      Serafín Ferreira, Alejandro Cores, J. Ignacio Robla, Luis Felipe Verdeja, Iñigo Ruiz-Bustinza, Fernando García-Carcedo and Javier Mochon

      Version of Record online: 18 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300370

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      During the pyroconsolidation of magnetite pellets in an aerobic atmosphere, the mineral practically oxidizes in the beginning stages of the process. However, as the temperature increases, the hematite dissociates into magnetite. The temperature at which this phenomenon occurs depends on the additives present and is significantly lower than that corresponding to pure magnetite. In this paper a series of magnetite pellets were formed, varying the alkalinity, and pyroconsolidated at temperatures ranging from 1050 to 1350°C.

    11. Mathematical and Physical Simulation of a Top Blown Converter (pages 273–281)

      Xiaobin Zhou, Mikael Ersson, Liangcai Zhong, Jingkun Yu and Pär Jönsson

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/srin.201300310

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      A simplified model consisting of the converter has been used in the mathematical simulation. The comparison between the physical model and the mathematical model shows that the simplified top blown model can successfully be used to calculate long-time simulations, and the mixing time calculations in frozen field can save a large amount of time compared to the simulation time using a transient flow field.

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