• hepatocellular carcinoma;
  • hepatic resection;
  • prognostic factor;
  • operative indication;
  • vascular occlusion;
  • perioperative care


During the last 16 years, we have resected small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) measuring 5 cm or less from 362 patients, 266 of whom also had liver cirrhosis. The operative and hospital mortality rate were 1.7% and 1.9%, respectively. These showed a gradual decrease year by year in parallel with reduction of intraoperative blood loss achieved by the selective vascular occlusion technique and Pringle method. In 1989, 87% of hepatectomy patients were discharged without the need for whole blood transfusion, and 5-year survival was 43.7%. Tumor size, number of tumors, intrahepatic metastasis, vascular invasion, and capsular invasion were significant prognostic factors. Edmondson grade and the operative procedure employed were significantly related to outcome. Our standard policy for selection of operative procedures and perioperative care is described, and the selection of treatment modalities is discussed.