Chemical and Physical Properties of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) Starch

Authors

  • David G. Stevenson,

    Corresponding author
    1. Cereal Products & Food Science Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA, ARS, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
    • Cereal Products & Food Science Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA, ARS, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA. Phone: +1–309 681–6447, Fax: +1–309–681–6685
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  • Scott R. Johnson,

    1. Department of Pomology, University of California Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA 93648, USA
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  • Jay-lin Jane,

    1. Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
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  • George E. Inglett

    1. Cereal Products & Food Science Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA, ARS, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
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  • Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use of the name by the USDA implies no approval of the product to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable.

Abstract

Chemical and physical properties of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. ‘Hayward’) starch were studied. Kiwifruit starch granules were compound, irregular or dome-shaped with diameters predominantly 4–5 µm or 7–9 µm. Kiwifruit starch exhibited B-type X-ray diffraction pattern, an apparent amylose content of 43.1% and absolute amylose content of 18.8%. Kiwifruit amylopectins, relative to other starches, had low weight-average molecular weight (7.4×107), and gyration radius (200 nm). Average amylopectin branch chain-length was long (DP 28.6). Onset and peak gelatinization temperatures were 68.9°C and 73.0°C, respectively, and gelatinization enthalpy was high (18.5 J/g). Amylose-lipid thermal transition was observed. Starch retrograded for 7 d at 4°C had a very high peak melting temperature (60.7°C). Peak (250 RVU), final (238 RVU) and setback (94 RVU) viscosity of 8% kiwifruit starch paste was high relative to other starches and pasting temperature (69.7°C) was marginally higher than onset gelatinization temperature. High paste viscosities and low pasting temperature could give kiwifruit starch some advantages over many cereal starches.

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