The Relationship Between Wheat Flour and Starch Pasting Properties and Starch Hydrolysis: Effect of Non-starch Polysaccharides in a Starch Gel System



Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) and celite (used as inert filler) were incorporated into wheat flour and wheat starch paste preparations at levels of 1, 2.5, and 5% in both addition and replacement modes. Pasting properties of gums were compared using a Rapid Visco Analyser. Use of guar gum and locust bean gum elevated the peak and final viscosities of the resulting pastes (when used in either addition or replacement modes), whereas arabic gum significantly reduced the peak and final viscosity properties of the pastes. Samples which comprised wheat starch yielded higher peak and final viscosity characteristics compared to wheat flour containing samples, however higher breakdown and setback values were observed for samples using wheat flour as a base compared to wheat starch. The firmness of the gels (as determined using a texture analyser) increased with the use of wheat starch compared to wheat flour. Little significant difference was observed between NSP used and mode of application (replacement or addition). In vitro starch degradation was conducted on the wheat flour gels. Guar gum and locust bean gum reduced the amount of starch degradation in these gels, whereas arabic gum and celite increased the amount of starch hydrolysis (or were similar to the control). The rate of starch hydrolysis appears to be related to the viscosity altering behaviour of the NSPs in a starch-rich system. The results indicate that selection of NSPs is important as gum arabic has the potential to increase starch hydrolysis compared to the control.