Get access

Thermoplastic starches: Properties, challenges, and prospects

Authors

  • Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Food Science and Technology Department, Food Biopolymer Research Group, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Semanan, Iran
    • Food Science and Technology Department, Food Biopolymer Research Group, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Semanan 36716, Iran Fax: +98-232-524-2133
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Mahdiyeh Moradpour,

    1. Food Science and Technology Department, Food Biopolymer Research Group, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Semanan, Iran
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Maliheh Saeidi,

    1. Food Science and Technology Department, Food Biopolymer Research Group, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Semanan, Iran
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Abd Karim Alias

    1. Food Biopolymer Research Group, Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, Penang, Malaysia
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) polymers were reviewed in this article. This review was categorized into the following studies: the role of starch as a thermoplastic polymer, transformation and melting mechanisms, plasticization and plasticizers, reactive extrusion (REX) and modifications, retrogradation, biodegradability, filler and blenders, and nano-particle incorporation in thermoplastic starch. This categorization allows us to understand the developments in this field in recent years and shows that the major challenges in the future are reducing sensitivity to moisture and retarding retrogradation of the thermoplastic matrix. Moreover, nano-particles such as clay can be used in TPS matrices to overcome these disadvantages.

Ancillary