Concise Review: Adipose-Derived Stem Cells as a Novel Tool for Future Regenerative Medicine§

Authors

  • Hiroshi Mizuno,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
    • Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Juntendo University School of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1138421, Japan
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    • Telephone: 81-3-5802-1107; Fax: 81-3-5689-7813

  • Morikuni Tobita,

    1. Department of Dentistry, Japan Self Defense Force Hospital Yokosuka, Yokosuka, Japan
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  • A. Cagri Uysal

    1. Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Baskent University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
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  • Author contributions: H.M.: conception and design, financial support, provision of study materials, manuscript writing, and final approval of manuscript; M.T.: administrative support and correction and/or assembly of data; A.C.U.: correction and/or assembly of data and data analysis and interpretation.

  • Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  • §

    First published online in STEM CELLSEXPRESS March 13, 2012; available online without subscription thorugh the open access option.

Abstract

The potential use of stem cell-based therapies for the repair and regeneration of various tissues and organs offers a paradigm shift that may provide alternative therapeutic solutions for a number of diseases. The use of either embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells in clinical situations is limited due to cell regulations and to technical and ethical considerations involved in the genetic manipulation of human ESCs, even though these cells are, theoretically, highly beneficial. Mesenchymal stem cells seem to be an ideal population of stem cells for practical regenerative medicine, because they are not subjected to the same restrictions. In particular, large number of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be easily harvested from adipose tissue. Furthermore, recent basic research and preclinical studies have revealed that the use of ASCs in regenerative medicine is not limited to mesodermal tissue but extends to both ectodermal and endodermal tissues and organs, although ASCs originate from mesodermal lineages. Based on this background knowledge, the primary purpose of this concise review is to summarize and describe the underlying biology of ASCs and their proliferation and differentiation capacities, together with current preclinical and clinical data from a variety of medical fields regarding the use of ASCs in regenerative medicine. In addition, future directions for ASCs in terms of cell-based therapies and regenerative medicine are discussed. STEM CELLS 2012;30:804–810

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